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► 



■ III 




ESQUIRE WITHO 



UPON 



EVERYTHING. 



" Whether you wish to model a flower in wax ; to ornament a vase 

BY the art op POTICHOMANIE ; TO SERVE UP A RELISH FOR BREAKFAST OR FOR 
supper ; TO SUPPLY A DELICIOUS ENTREE FOR THE DINNER TABLE ; TO PLAN A 
DINNER FOR A LARGE PARTY OR A SMALL ONE; TO CURE A flEAD-ACHE; TO GET 
MARRIED; TO BURY A RELATIVE; TO ESTABLISH ACQUAINTANCES ACCORDING TO 
THE RULES OF ETIQUETTE ; WHATEVER YOU MAY WISH TO DO, MAKE, OR TO ENJOY, 
PROVIDED YOUR DESIRE HAS RELATION TO TEE NECESSITIES OF DOMESTIC LIFE, 
I SHALL BE HAPPY TO ASSIST YOU, AND THEREFORE, UPON ALL SUCH OCCASIONS, I 

HOPE YOU WILL NOT FAIL TO 'ENQUIRE WITHIN.' " — Extract from the First Adver- 
tisement of the Work. 



I 



ENQUIBERS AEE REFERRED TO THE INDEX. 




HOULSTON AND STONEStMT 65, PATERNOSTER ROW ; 

AND ALL BOOKSELLERS. 



1856. ^ 

26,8. y. /^^r. 



IiOHdoh: 
puntkl) bt tatitor ako orebniko, 4 and 5, a&atstoki flacbi fkttbr lane. 



PREFACE. 



If thbbe be any among my readers, who, having turned over the 
pa^s of *' En()uiae Within/* have hastily pronounced them to be con- 
fused and ill-arranged, let them at once refer to The Index, or for eyer 
hold their peace. 

The Indbx is, to the vast congregation of useful hints and receipts 
that fill the boundary of this volume, like the Dibeotory to the great 
aggregation of houses and people in London. 

No one, being a stranger to London^ would run about asking for 
" Mr. Smith." But, remembering the Christian name, and the profes- 
sion of the individual wanted, would turn to the Dibectoby, and trace 
him out. 

Like a house, every paragraph in " Enquibe Within,'' has its num- 
ber, — and the Index is the Dibectoby which will explain what Facts, 
Hints, and Instructions irihahU that number. 

For, if it be not a misnomer, we are prompted to say, that '' Enquibs 
Within" is peopled with thousands of ladies and gentlemen, who have 
approved of the plan of the work, and contributed something to its st<»e 
of useful information. There they are, waiting to be questioned, and 
ready to reply. Only a short time ago, the facts and information, now 
assuming the conventional forms of printing types, were active thoughts 
in the minds of many people. Their fingers traced those thoughts upon 
the page, for the benefit of whomsoever might need information. We 
must not separate the thought from the mind which gave it birth ; we 
must not look upon these writings as we should upon the traces left by 
the snail upon the green leaf^ having neither form nor meaning. Behind 
each page some one lives to answer for the correctness of the information 
imparted, just as certainly as where, in the window of a dwelling, you 



IV 



see a paper directing you to " Enquire Within," some one is there to 
answer you. 

Old Dr. Kitchener lives at Xo. 41 ; Mrs. Hitching lives at 161 ; 
Mrs. Child lives at 203 ; Dr. Brewer lives at 291 ; Dr. Stenhouse at 
320 ; Dr. Burgess at 324 ; Dr. Erasmus Wilson at 399 ; Dr. South- 
wood Smith at 401 ; Dr. Blair at 446 ; M. Soyer at 765 ; Dr. 
Babington at 1287 ; Dr. Clarke at 1291 ; Dr. Scott, at 1296 ; the 
gentleman who lives at 343, has requested us (because of the delicacy of 
the communication), not to publish his name ; a Doctor lives at 906 ; 
a Gardener at 1021 ; a Schoolmaster at 1323 ; a Dancing Master 
at 1678 j an Artist at 1851 ; a Naturalist at 1925 ; a Modeller at 
1931 ; a Cook at 1972; a Philanthropist at 2006; a Lawyer at 
2047 ; A Surgeon at 2186; a Qhess Player at 2354 ; a Chemist at 
2387 ; a Brewer at 2559 ; and so on. 

Well I there they live — always at home — knock at their doors — 
Enquire Within, no fees to pay ! ! 

We have taken so much care in selecting our information, and have 
been aided by so many kind friends in the production of our volume, 
that we cannot turn to any page without at once being reminded of the 
Generous Friend who abides there. 

To some extent, though in a far less degree, we have been indebted to 
the authors of the following useful books. In the first place we must 
express our chief obligations to " Dr. Kitchener's Cook's Oracle," to 
" The Cook," in " Houlston and StonemarCs Induslrial Lihrary /* to 
" The Shopkeeper's Guide," to " Mrs. Rundell's Cookery," to *' Home 
Truths, for Home Peace," and also to " The Family Friend," " Trea- 
sures IN Needlework," "The Practical Housewife," and to "The 
Family Treasury." We now invite the thousands who may '* Enquire 
Within" to our future monthly Interview, wherein we will endeavour 
to supply whatever Enquirers may not find by Enquiring Within. 
Our Interviews will be varied, genial, and entirely original in their 
arrangement. " The 'pleasure of your company is earnestly solicited*^ 



AFTER 



ENQUIRE WITHIN, 



THE 



INTERVIEW. 



[INDEX.] 



ENQUIRIES UPOlSr 



Aboot, or With IfifiS 

Aocidento in Carriages 2617 
Acddents, Treatment of 3288 
Accidenta, Cautions on 2006 
Aooonnta, Fay Regnlariy 787 
Acetate of Ammonia, 

Usesof ;. 2752 

Acetate of Lead, nvifh 

<>piam Lotion 978 

Acetate of Potaasa 2747 

Acetate of Zinc Eye-waah 912 

Adds^Poisoninffby 2278 

AcidaJatod Gargle 964 

ActedCiiaradeBBxplained 2440 
Addr o wc D of ^Wfile of 

Bank 2845 

AddreM or Direct? 1675 

AdlieriTe Haeler 2196 

AdyeetiTeSfTheUaeof... 1411 
Adnlterationa, Practical 

Hints upon 2429 

Adulterations, Plan for 

Eeaq^g'them 3887 

Adviee to Yoong Ladies 796 

JBiher, Uses of 3692 

.Xthereal Tincture of 

Fern 1015 

AffiBctation Condemned 1779 
AfRecfcatlon of Learning 878 
Agent of the Landlord, 

Laws respecting 

Ago or Back? 

A great large Hoose, &c. 
Agreement for talung 

Furnished House or 

Apartments 

Agreement for taUng a 

House (annual) 2858 

Agreement for taking a 

House (three years)... 2861 
Agreements, Stamped... 2908 

Agreements, Verbal 2884 

Ague, Treatment of 1245 

Aitch4>one, Economy of 238 

Alabaster, Cleaning 2519 

Alabaster, Staining 859 

Alcohol, Uses of 2690 

Ale, Adulterated 2420 

Ale, Ainber, Brewing ... 2561 

Ale, Brewing 2560 

ATkaHea, Poisoning by... 2278 

All-Pours, Knles of 2118 

AIl-FonrSfTtennsusedin 2115 



2865 
1400 
1879 



2892 



ABspice, Tincture of ... 2781 

Almonds, Blandied 2791 

Almond Paste 2792 

Almond Idng, for "Wed- 

dingCakes 2981 

Almonds, Pounding 2792 

Almond Confection 918 

Almond Custuds 2528 

Almond Flavour 240 

Almond Pudding 252 

AlmondSpongeCake ... 2525 
Aloes, Best Way to take. 2688 

Aloea, EflTects of 2788 

AlnmGargie.. 958 

Alum Confection 919 

Alum Eye-wash 908 

Alum, To Discover in 

Bread 2899 

Alum Whey 3536 

A]nba8Bador8,To Address 2850 
American Tooth Powder 178 
Ammoniated Embroca- 



tion, Strong 986 

Ammonia, Poisoxdng by . 2278 

Ammonia, Uses of 2698 

Ammoniacnm, Usesof... 2757 
Anagrams, Specimens of 2486 

Anohorvles, British 892 

Anchovy Sauce 286 

Anchovy and Lobster 

Butter 2795 

Anchovy Butter 2793 

Anchovy Sandwiches .... 2794 



Anchovy Toast 2796 

Anglo- Japanese Work... 2587 
Angostura Bark, Uses of 2714 
Angry Words, Effect of . 793 
Ankle-joints, Affections 

of the 987 

Annato, Adulterated ... 2894 
Anodyne and Discutient 

Embrocation 985 

Antadds, Uses of 2768 

Antalkalies, Uses of 2770 

Anthehnintica, Effbcts of 2778 
Anti-Diarrhceal Powder. 1009 

Antidotes to Poisons 2261 

Anti - Hooping Cough 

Powder 1011 

Antimony, Poisoning by 2269 
Antimonial Powder, Uses 

of 2754 

Antimony, Usesof 2758 



Paragraph 

Anti-Spasmodics 2697 

Anti-Spasmodic Elec- 
tuary 927 

Anti-Spasmodic Mixture 998 

Anti-^Spasmodio Powder 1010 

Ants, To Destroy 2046 

Apartments, Furnished, 

Lawvof 2882 

Aperient Medicines 151 

Aperient PiUs 153 

Aphides, To KiU 2034 

Apoidezy, Treatment ... 1214 
Apoplexy, Another Treat- 
ment 2258 

Apostrophe, The 1657 

Apparel, Changes of .... 879 
Apparatns, Simple Sur- 
gical 2228 

Appetite, How Loet 2538 

AppleBread 137 

Apple Cake for Children 218 

Apple Dumplings 2508 

Apple Fritters 2513 

Apple Marmalade 894 

Apple Puddings 2453 

Apple Pudding, BoBtQn<». 2526 

Apple Pie 2511 

Apples, Dried 2509 

Apples in Syrup 352 

Apples in Syrup 2454 

Apples, Keeping 2433 

Apples, Served with Cus- 
tard 2527 

Apples and Bice for 

Children 217 

Apple Sauce 2155 

Apples should not be 

Cowd 782 

Apple Tart, Warmed. ... 550 

Apple Water 2514 

Apprenticeship Inden- 
tures, Stamps 8030 

Apricots, Dry 2798 

Apricot, Jelly 2799 

Apricoto Stewed in Syrup 2797 

Apricot Jam 2446 

April, Things in Season. 51 

April, Gardening for ... 1029 

Aquafortis, Poisoning by 2273 

Are, or Is? 1375 

Are, or Is? 1558 

Arnica for Bites 2295 

Aromatio Mixture » 993 



VUl 



AN INDEX IS A KEY TO A TREASURY. 



Arrack, Imitative 2448 

An-owroot Jelly 2616 

Arrowroot, To Discover 

Adulterated 2393 

Arrowroot, Uses of 2788 

Arsenic, Poisoning by... 2266 

Arsenic, To Detect 2528 

Artichokes, To Pickle... 2836 
Artichokes, Cooking ... 2450 
Art of being Agreeable . 250 
Ascends up, or Ascends ? 1570 

AsorSo? 1408 

Asparagus, Cooking 2462 

Asparagus Soup 2481 

Assafcetida Guano 961 

Assafcetida, Uses of 2700 

Assignment of Leases ... 2849 

Asthma, To Relieve 2073 

Asterisk, or Star « 1662 

Astringents, Effects of... 2715 

Astringent Gargle 956 

Astringent Fills 990 

AtorOn? 1560 

August, Gardening for... 1036 
August — Things in Sea- 
son 55 

Awakening Children ... 1090 

Ayn't, Arn't, &c 1393 

Bacon for a Dozen People 2483 
Bacon and Vegetables ... 233 
Bacon, Hint on Curing. 2172 

Bacon, how to Boil 2482 

Bacon, how to Freshen . 2482 
Bacon, Rashers of Cold 2146 

Bacon Slices 2484 

Bacon, to Choose Good . 1 7 
Bad Writing, to Improve 782 
Baking, an Experienced 

Baker's Instructions 2542 
Baking, Dialogue on ... 1972 
Baking, Remarks upon ... 289 
Baking, Revolving Ovens 2159 

Baked Pears 354 

Baldness, Boxwood for .2046 
Baldness, Liquid to Pre- 
vent 169 

Baldness, Pomade for . . . 148 
Baldness, Wilson's Lotion 149 

Balls, Etiquette of 474 

Banbiu^ Cakes 88 

Bandages, Surgical 2200 

Bankruptcy, Rent affected 

by 2901 

Banns of Marriage 2913 

Bandoline for the Hair . 150 

Bandages, To Apply 2203 

Baptismal Names, Regis- 
tration of. 2986 



Bane Berries, Poisoning 

by 2281 

Bark, Uses of 2703 

Barley Broth 2456 

Barley Water 2512 

Barley Pudding 2989 

Barometer, Chemical ... 847 

Barometer, Leech 2180 

Baryta, Poisoning by ... 2279 
Basil, When to Gather .2458 
Bastings, All Kinds of... 2540 

Batter Pudding 470 

Batter Puddhig, Baked. 2507 
Batter Pudding, Boiled . 2507 

Bath Buns 2543 

Bath, Boiler for 653 

Bathing, Cramp in 824 

Bathing in Hot Water, 

Precautions 2812 

Bathing Feet and Hands 900 
Bathing, Hints upon ... 650 

Bath, Place for a 651 

Bean Flour, to Discover 

in Bread 2400 

Beach Leaves for Beds . 2445 
Bed Clothes, the Best ... 44 
Bed Curtains are Bad ... 736 

Beds for the Poor 2445 

Bed Furniture, Washing 2533 
Bed, Quick Mode of Heat- 
ing 570 

Bed Rooms, Ventilating 2041 
Bed, To Ascertain if Aired 571 
Bed Rooms, Windows of 1095 
Bed Rooms, Scouring ... 2535 

Beds, Position of. 1096 

Beef Alamode 2157 

Beef, Cold, Boiled with 

Poached Eggs 2978 

Beef, Plain Boiled 771 

Beef Stewed 766 

Beef Baked 2552 

Beef Bones, Roast 2546 

Beef Broth 2648 

Beef Bubble and Squeak 32 8 

Beef, Extract oi 2479 

Beef Glaze 2549 

Beef Gravy Sauce 2156 

BeefLobscous 329 

Beef Rissoles 330 

Beef Sausages, Prime ... 101 

Beef Soup, French 769 

Beef Steak Pie 2147 

Beef Stewed, Fresh 770 

Beef, To Choose Good ... 12 

Beef Tea 2480 

Beef, Warming Cold 
Boiled 3558 



Beef with Mashed Pota- 
toes 82G 

Beer, Bottling 2505 

Bees, Chloroform for.... 2294 
Bees, Cure for their Sting 169 
Beetles, To Exterminate 1319 
Beetles, To keep from 

Clothes 1307 

Beetroots,To Pickle 2335 

Best or Better? 1587 

Best or Very Best? 1519 

Bellows, How to Use Pro- 
perly 1189 

Belvedere Cakes 366 

B^y, Bandaging the ... 2210 
Bicarbonate of Ammonia^ 

Uses of. 2669 

Bile, Treatment of 1 2 1.5 

Biles, or Boils, Poulticing 2503 

Bilious Complaints 1215 

Bills of Fares at Dinner 

Parties 2587 

Bills of Exchange, Stamps 3023 

Birdlime 2029 

Bird's Eggs for Cabinets 789 
Birds, Keeping Insects 

from... 2497 

Birds, Paste for 817 

Birds, Stuffing 2494 

Bhrths, Registration of . 2935 

Biscuits, Excellent 466 

Biscuits, Sugar 473 

Bishop, Mulled Wine ... 2520 

Bishops, to Address 2353 

Bismuth, Poisoning by... 2272 

Bites, Arnica for 2295 

Bites of Insects 2076 

Bites of Mad Animals... 2286 

Bitesof Reptiles 2286 

Biting the Nails 786 

Bitter Apple,Poisoning by 2282 
Blackberry-leaf Tea ... 2489 
Blackberries, Healthful 2489 
Blackberry Jam, Chil- 
dren's 221 

Blackberry Wine 2490 

Blackbirds, Food for ... 823 
Blackbirds, Management 

of 2342 

Black Cloth Reviver... 185 

Black Draught 164 

Blacking, Finest Quality 184 
Blacking for Leather 
Seats 2491 



, Blacking for Stoves 561 

Blacking, Liquid 183 

Blacking, Paste 141 

Blacking, Paste 188 



BYEBT REOBIFF IB THB BA£IS OF MANY OTHEBS. 



IX 



Blacking, Various Re- 
ceipts 181 

Blackink 83 

Black Paper Patterns... 2486 
Black Pepper Confection 931 

Black Silk ReYiver 3488 

Blackwash Lotion 973 

Black Viper, Bite of ... 3386 
Bladder,Infl8mmation of 1286 
Blancmange, Arrowroot 3499 

Blanched Almonds 3791 

Blister, After Removal 2763 
Blister, Period Required 2763 

Blue Stone, Uses of. 3774 

Bine Stone, Poisoning by 3267 
Blue Vitrei, Poisoning l^ 3267 
Bleaching Faded Dresses 515 
Bleaching Straw Bonnets 2492 
BleedingattheNose ... 1886 
Bleeding from the Nose 2249 

Bleeding, Surgical 2236 

Bleeding, To Stop 3236 

Blistered Feet, Remedy 

for 1278 

Blight,to Keep from Rose 

Trees 1808 

Blond Lace, Reviving ... 2501 
Blood and the Weather 2135 
Bloodshot Eye, Cure for 2696 
Blood, Thinning the ... 2188 
BIotched'Face, Wash for 1280 
Blower Fish, Poisoning by 2385 
Blows, Hot Water for . . 3301 
Boards, Take Ink out of 1 76 

Boards, To Scour 2502 

Bobbinet, to Starch... 91 
Body inFlames, What to 

do 2240 

Boiled Beef, Sauce f or . . . 2545 
Boiling, Care of the 

Liquor 595 

Boiling, Dialogue on... 1972 

Boiling Fresh Meat 592 

Boiling; Hints and Cau- 
tions 590 

Boiling, Loss by 239 

Bcnling, Proper Time of 591 
Boiling, Time Required 239 
Boiling, to BoilEquaUy 594 
Boiling Vegetables. ... 682 

Bologna Sausages 449 

Bonnet, Dust afterWalking 780 
Bonnets, Cleaning Straw 2498 
Bonnet8,BleachingStraw 2492 

Bonnets, Dyeing 2504 

Bone, Staining Black... 860 
Bone, Staining Blue ... 361 
Bone^ Staining Green... 863 



Bone, Staining Bed. 868 

Bone, Staining Scarlet... 864 
Bone, Staining Tellow... 866 
Book, Grease Spots from 815 

Books, Stains from 2058 

Boots, Cleaning 3498 

Boots, French Polish for 818 
Boots, To Get on Tight 556 
Boot Tops, Cleaning ... 3499 

Boot-top Liquid 185 

Boston Apple Pudding... 3536 
Botanical Specimens, To 

Dry 1936 

Bottles, Clean with Coals 3500 

Bottling Beer 3505 

Bottling Fruits, Direc- 
tions 889 

Bottling Porter 3505 

Bottling Wine 

Bottling Teast 

Bowels, Inflammation of 1286 
Bowels, Looseness of ... 1248 
Bran Bread, Economy of 587 

Brandy Peaches 2589 

Brain, Inflammation of 1287 
Brain, Water on the ... 1270 
Brain, Compres^on of 2252 
Brandy, Adulterated ... 2396 

Bran-water Bread 114 

Brasses of Furniture 

Cleaning 552 

Brasses, Cleaning 3565 

Brass Kettle, To Clean 734 
Brass Ornaments,Cleaning 692 
Brass ditto. To Clean 1843 
Brasswork,RockAlumfor 694 
Breach of Promise of 

Marriage 2047 

Bread, Adulterations of 2898 
Bread, Adulterated with 
Alum, To Discover ... 1817 

Bread, Apple 137 

Bread, French 1155 

Bread, Home Made 2183 

Bread, Home Made, the 

Proportions 2823 

Bread, Hurtful to Child 

renifNew 1062 

Bread made with Bran- 
water 114 

Bread, made of Rice ... 113 

Bread Pudding 472 

Bread Pudding. Elegant 443 
Bread Slices at Dinner 2589 
Bread suited forChildren 1062 
Bread, To Obtain Pure 2897 
Bread, Unfermented ... 2077 
Bread, waste Pieces...... 717 



Bread with Potatoes 2956 

Bread, with Indian Com 

Flour 3015 

Bread with Rye andWheat 

Flour 8016 

Breast of Mutton, Roast 607 
Breast of Veal, Carving 2627 

Breath, Offensive 1311 

Breath Tainted by Onions 2566 
Brewing, Remarks on... 2559 

Brewis, to Make 718 

Brill, Carving 260j| 

Brisket of Beef, Baked 2 J IS J 
Brisket of Beef, Stewed 255& 
Brisket of Beef, Uses of 288 
Britannia Metals, Clean- 
ing 2565 

Brocoli, To Pickle 2S94 

Brogues, To Correct ... 1614 
Broiling, Remarks upon 239 

Brokers BiU 2904 

Brokers, Powers of 2876 

Bronchitis. Mixture for 996 
Bronse Goods, Cleaning 549 

Broth for Children 207 

Broth, if too Salt 597 

Brown Gravy 2477 

Brown Paper Unfit to 

Cover Meat 2552 

Brown Sauce 2156 

Brown Stock 2475 

Bruises, Lotion for 966 

Bruises, Mixture for ... 286 

Bruises, Remedy for 2076 

Bruises, Treated by 

Opium 2696 

Brunswick Black for 

Grates S7 

Brutes, Cleanliness of . . . 903 
Bubble and Squeak, Beef, 338 

Buckthorn, Uses of. 2737 

Bugs, Camphor Bags for 343 
Bugs Destroyed by Lime 1293 
Bugs, Kill by Naphtha... 2178 

Bug Poison 272 

Buildings, Modelling... 1953 
Bullfinches, Management 

of 2311 

Bunions, Treatment of 25G7 
Burgundy Pitch, Uses of 2763 
Bums, Cure by Alum ... 164 
Bums, Cure by Wheat 

Flour 266 

Bums, Ointment for...:.. 979 
Bums, Preparation for 938 
Bums, Sweet-oil for... 508 
Bums, Treatment of... 3238 
Burrett, When to Gather 2459 



A GOOD' SUOGBBKION IS OFTBK INYALUABLS. 



BnrtoD Ale, Brewing... 3662 

Business HabitB 1837 

Busts in Plaster, Making 1962 

ButorThan? 1498 

But or That? 1886 

Butter, Adulterated...... 3403 

Butterflies to Kill 2087 

Butter, Freshening Salt 2571 
Butter, Improving Bad 2569 
Butter of Antimony, Pol- 

soningby 2269 

Butter of Tin, Poisoning 

by 2270 

Butter, Rancid 1377 

By or Of? 1663 

By or With? 1460 

Byron's Enigma H 279 

Carrot Soup 3971 

Cabbage Water 3572 

Cabinet-work Polishing . 686 
Cages, Keeping Insects 

from... 2497 

Cakes for Breakfast or 

Tea 866 

Cake of Fruits 339 

Cakes, Unfermented ... 459 
Caledonian Quadrilles... 1691 

Calves' Feet Jelly 2573 

Calves' Heads, Carving 2630 

CalTs Head Pie 440 

CaUco Bad for Shirts ... 208 
Calomel, Caution upon 

Taking 2708 

Calomel, Poisoning by... 2266 

Calomel, Uses of 2708 

Cambridgeshire Dialect . 1330 
Camomile Flowers, 

Gathering 2680 

Camomile Tea 2681 

Camomile, Uses of 2712 

Camp Cookery 766 

Camphor, an Anti-Spas- 

mo(Hc 2706 

Camphor-balls for Chaps 29 
Camphorated Liniment. 939 
Camphorated Ointment. 978 
Camphor, Poisoning by.. 2281 
Camphor, Powdering ... 2666 
Camphorated Tooth 

Powder 14ft 

Camphor, Uses of 2691 

Canaries, Management of 287 
Canaries, Management of 2808 
Candles, Discoloured Wax 531 
Candles, Improved by 

Keeping 631 

Candles, Proper Way to 

Light 683 



CaAe^bottomCiudrs, Clean 390 
Cantharides, Uses of ... 2762 

Cabinet Pudding 2999 

Capitalists, Hints to 

Large 2823 

Capitalists, EOntstoSmall 2822 
CarbonateofSoda,Usesof 2769 

Carrot Pudding 2991 

Cards at Parties 489 

CardE^ Games at 2082 

Carded Cotton 2193 

Cardinal, Mulled Wine .. 2521 
Carriages, Accidents in.. 2517 
Carrots, Cold, Use for ... 2067 

Carpets, Beating 3576 

Carpets, Care of 44>1 

Carpets, Cleaning 2677 

Carpets, Colours of 673 

Carpet, Colours Beoom- 

mended 680 

Carpets, Selecting 673 

Carpets, Sweeping with 

Grass 2143 

Carpets, ThemostChaste 677 

Carpets, To Buy 672 

Carver, GiveRoom to the 2692 
Carving, General Rules.. 2684 
Cash and Credit Con- 

tiasted 268 

Casks, Sweetening 3578 

Casino, Card Game 3136 

Casting in Plaster 

Casting in Wax 1901 

Cast>iron Work 690 

Castor-Oil and Senna 

Confection.. 924 

Castor-Oil, Best Way to 

Take 2882 

Castor-Oil Pomade 80 

Castor-Oil Enema 948 

Castor-Oil, Uses of 2730 

Catechu Ointment ...... 983 

Cateohu, Uses of 3716 

Caterpillars, To Kill .... 2084 

Cathartics, Effects of.... 2727 

Cathartic Mixture ...... 994 

Cathedrals, ModelUng... 1953 
Cauliflowers, To Pickle . 2833 
Caustic, Poisoning by ... 2278 
Cautions in Visiting the 

Sick 2579 

Caves, Modelling 1989 

Cayenne Pepper, To Ob* 

tain Pore 2404 

Cayenne Pepper 2166 

Celebrated or Notorious? 1474 

Celery, Essence of 2055 

Celeiy Vinegar ........... 2164 



Cellarius Walts 1703 

Cements, Excellent Re- 
ceipts 226 

CementforDecayedTeeth 142 
Cement, How to Use it .. 1130 

Ceremonies, Social 456 

Chairs, Clean Can&> 

bottom 390 

Chalk, To Discover in 

Bread 2401 

Chalk Ointment 979 

Chalk, Usesof 2721 

Champagne, Summer ... 2137 
Chapped Hands, Oatmeal 

for 1282 

Chapped EEands, Oint- 
ment for 3176 

Chi^s, Prevent by Cam* 

phor 39 

Character, Elements of.. 1776 

Charades, Acted 2440 

Charades, Explanation of 2438 
Charades, List of Words 

for 2441 

Charcoal 357 

Charcoal, Cautions on... 678 

Charcoal, Caution 2010 

Charcoal, Clean Knives. 729 
CharcoalasaDisinfectaat 320 

Charcoal as a Filter 320 

Charooal Fumes,Remedy 623 
Charcoal for Bad Breath. 320 
Charcoal, Meat Restored 

by 588 

Charcoal Pillows 820 

Chaarcoal Respirators ... 320 
Charcoal takes Bad Smdls 

from Knives 729 

CbarcoiU to Sweeten 

Drains 320 

Charcoal Ventilators .... 220 

Charts, Varnishing 2297 

Cheap Fuel, Good 395 

Cheese-Cake, Potatoe ... 126 

Chelsea Pensioner 2173 

Chemical Barometer .... 847 

Chemical Remedies 2764 

Cheshire Dialect 1 330 

Chess at Parties 490 

Chess, Laws of 2354 

Chestnuts for Dessert... 2583 
Chest, Bandaging the... 2209 
Chest, Formation of 

ChUd's 1073 

Chicken andHam Patties 100 

Chicory, Uses of 2406 

Chicken Pox 1216 

Chilbhiins, before Broken 2076 



BOOEB AID TBQUQBT, — TKBY SHDXJZJ). NOT SUPEBSEDB IT. 



dUfldains^Oinlaieiitfor 2176 
ChilblainA, Treatment of 1217 
ChUd, Daily Diet for ... 1060 

Cllild^ Six Months 1064 

Child, a Year Old 1065 

Child, Two Tears Old... 1088 
Children, Awakening... 1090 
Children and Cutleij ... 2291 
Children Bom at Sea, 

Begistration of 2988 

ChildnBn,Choose Namesfor 140 
Children and Fire, Oaa>- 

tion 2017 

Children's Bedroom 1091 

Children, Cookery for... 206 
Children, Discipline of 208 
Children, Discipline of 738 
Chfidren*8 Food, Time for 1068 
Children's Meals shoold 

beBeguIar 1069 

Children Over-indulged 1078 
Children should not he 
Kept too Much, at the 

Breast ^ 1064 

Children, Treatment of 1062 
ChimaphilaDecootion... 930 
Chimney on Fire, Keep 

.Windows Shut 624 

Chimney on Fire, to Ex- 
tinguish by Powdered 

Sulphur 398 

China, Cement for 139 

China Tea-pots Best ... 646 
China Ware, Care of ... 1121 
Chine of Mutton, Boast 604 
Chinese Lanterns ...... 1861 

Chinese Porcelain 1124 

Chintsea, Washing ...... 667 

Chloride of Gold, Poi- 

soningby 2272 

Chloride of lime. Uses of 2776 
Chloride of Zinc, Pol- 

soningby 2271 

Chlorine Gas, Poisoning 

by 2274 

Chocolate, Adulterated 2406 
Chocolate, Iceland Moss 1848 
Choking, Treatment of 2263 
Cholera, Cold Stage...... 998 

Cholera, Pills for 990 

Cholera, Rules £or the 

PrBventlonof 1188 

Chops, Relish for ^. 2149 

Christenings, Manage- 
ment of 2984 

Chnrohee, Modelling ... 1962 

Chuteey, Excellent 2171 

Cinders, Grottoes of. ....« 1987 



CSroasdan Circle, Daaoe- 1706 

Cities^ ModeUing 1949 

Citno Acid, Usesof 2771 

Civility in- Shopkeepers 2829 
Cleaidiness Agreeable ... 894 
Cleanliness, Etiquette of 278 
Cleanliness MocallyCon- 

sidered........ 401 

Cleanliness, Reasons for 878 
Cleanlinesa Refreshing 904 
Cleanliness Sanitary ... 836 
Cleaning Straw Bonnets 2493 
Clergy, To Address the 2368 
Climate, Influence of ... 2678 

Clocks, Care of 669 

Clothes, Bslls forCleaning2630 
Clothes Closets, Keep 

Moths from ^ 620 

Cloth, Cement for- 2298 

Cloth, Dyeing Blaek ... 414 

Cloth, Dyeing Red 416 

Cloth, Dyeing Scarlet ... 416 
Clothe Dyeing YeUow ... 417 

Cloth, Grease from 1286 

Clolii, Patterns on 2487 

Clothes, to Clean Black 27 
Cloth, take Wax tram 604 
Clouds^ thehr Indications 2071 
Coals, to Obtahi: Good... 1142 
Cockney Cabl>y Dialogue 1611 
Cockney Domestic Dia- 
logue 1611 

Cockney Flunkey Dia- 
logue 1611 

Cockney Hairdresser ... 1611 
CockneySpeakara,Hint8to 1611 
Codmey Sweep, Dialogue 1611 
Cookney Writer, Dia- 
logue 1611 

Cockney Yachtsmen ... 1611 
Cockroaches, to Kill ... 1832 

Cocoa, Adulterated 2406 

Cod Fish, Baked 2662 

Cod Fish, to Know Fresh 4 
Cod's Head and Shoul- 
ders, Carving 2608 

Cod Liver Oil, How to 

Get Cheap and Good 388 
Cod Oil, Best Way to Take 2682 

Coffee, Adulterated 2407 

Coffee as a Disinfectant 844 
Coffee, Hint on Coffee- 

» pot 676 

Coffee Milk for the Sick 2292 
Coffee, Turkish Mode ... 832 
Coins, Impressions from 1304 
Col. Birch's Remedy for 
Rheumatic Gout ...... 2173 



Cold, Caution 2012 

Cold Cream 34 

Cold Evaporating Lotion 969 
Cold Meat^ Garnish for 2642 
Cold Meats, Cooking ... 326 
Cold, Mixture for a Bad 167 
Cold Sweet Dishes, 

Warming 348 

Cold, to Avoid Catching 464 

Colic, Essenoe for 949 

Collyria, or Eye Washes 907 

Colooynth, Uses of 2736 

Colombian Hair Dye ... 271 
Colour, Restoring to Silk 2618 
Comma, Misplacing a ... 1664 

Common Enema 947 

Common Eye Wash 909 

Common Purgative Pills 987 
Complexion, to Improve 60 
Composition, Writing ... 774 
Compound Alum Eye 

Wash 910 

Compound Ammoniated 

Ointoient 987 

Compound Sod» Powder 1006 
tiompound Zino Eye Wash 916 
Compresses, Surgical ... 2197 
Concussion, Treatment of 2261 
Conduct, Consistent ... 1774 

Conduct, Rules of. 822 

Confections, Adulterated 2408 
Confectiona and Elector 

aries 916 

Connexions, Card Game 2123 
Connexions of Shop- 
keepers 2836 

Constipation, Treatmoit 

of. 1220 

Consamption,Treatment 

of. 1221 

Contusions, Lotion for 969 
Contusions, Treatment of 2247 
Conundrums, Specimens 

of 2437 

Conversation, Etiquette of 864 
Convulsions, Chlorofmnn 

for 2316 

Convulsions flromTeetiiing 961 
ConvulsifMiB in Children 1222 
Cookery for Children... 204 

Cookery, Camp 766 

Cooking, Leadinglnstmc- 

tions 239 

Cooking, Time Required 

for 239 

Coppers, Cleaning 2666 

Copper in Green Tea, to 

Detect 1810 



zu 



TB7 ALL THINGS^ HOLD FAST THAT WHICH IB GOOD. 



Copper in Pickles to De- 
tect 1810 

Copper, Poisoning by . . . 2267 

Copper, to Detect 2629 

Copyholders and Leases 2855 

Cork, Cavesof 1941 

Cork, Modelling in 19S1 

Cornish Dialect, Exam- 
ples 1882 

Corns, Cause, and Cure 2844 
Corns, Cared by Pota- 
toes 2317 

Corns, Cure by Acetic 

Acid 178 

Corns, Mixture for 1297 

Corns, Soft, Treatment 

of 2568 

Cornwall School-boy, the 

Example of Dialect ... 1387 
Correspondence with Fa- 
milies in Mourning ... 2954 
Correspondence, Postal 775 
Corrosive Sublimate, 

Poisoning by 2258 

Cossack's Plum Pudding 772 
Costermonger Dialogue 1611 
Cough, Cure for a Dry 2306 
Cough, Hooping, Treat- 
ment 1282 

Cough Mixture 996 

Cough, Mixture for Bad 167 
CoughMixture for Child- 
ren 997 

Coughs, Peculiar Remedy 828 

Cough Pills 989 

Cough, Pills for a Bad 180 

Cough, Syrup for 2177 

Cough, Treatment of... 1219 

Country Dances 1710 

Countries, Modelling... 1955 

CoupleorTwo? 1437 

Covenants betweenLand- 

. lord and Tenant 2847 

Cowhage 922 

Cowhage, Uses of 2779 

Crab, Mock 444 

Crab, To Choose Fresh 9 

Cramp in the I.iegs 2080 

Cramp in the Stomach 1010 
Cramp while Bathing... 824 
Cramp while Bathing... 2811 
Crape, to Kenovate Black 1299 
Crape, to Wash China. . 795 
Crape, Water Stains from 834 
Cray-fish, Choose Fresh 9 
Cream of Tartar Confec- 
tion 926 

Cream of Tartai-, Uses of 2729 



Cream, Substitute for... 2057 

Cream Pancakes 2994 

Cress Vinegar 2165 

Cribbage, Eight Card 2111 
Cribbage, Five Card... 2107 

Cribbage, Odds of 2112 

Cribbage, Rules of 2104 

Cribbage, Three or Four 

Hand 2109 

Cribbage, Terms Used in 2105 
Cries of Children Bene- 
ficial 1075 

Cries of Infants 1067 

Crimean Night-cap, The 2143 
Cross Writing is Bad ... 780 
Croup, Treatment of ... 1223 
Cucumbers, To Pickle ... 2332 
Cucumbers, To Preserve 353 
Cumberland Dialect ... 1331 
Cup in a Pie-dish, Use of 276 

Cupping 2227 

Curling Rashers of Bacon 2484 
Currants for Children. . . 220 
Currant C«&e, Economical 75 
Currant Jelly (Black)... 112 
Currant Jelly (Red)... 89 
Currant JeUy (White) 120 
Currant Wine, To Make 2315 
Curried Beef,Madra8 Way 445 

Curried Eggs 2966 

Curried Oysters 2967 

Curry, Any Kind of. 2983 

Curry Powders 284 

Curry Powder 2167 

Curry Powder, Indian... 168 
Curtains, Correspond 

with Carpet 678 

Custard, Baked 2431 

Custard, Boiled 2990 

Custard Powders, Adul- 
terated. 2410 

Custard Served with 

Apples 2527 

Cutaneous Eruptions ... 1833 
Cutlery and Children ... 2291 
Cutlery, Wrap in Zinc ... 2515 

Cuts, Treatment of 2245 

Cuts, Treatment of 2651 

Dahlias, to Protect fh>m 

Earwigs 1813 

Damp Linen, Dangers of 203 
Damp Walls, Improved 

by Lead 819 

Damsons, Preserved 160 

Dances, Terms Used to 

Describe 1718 

Dancing, Figures De- 
scribed 1678 



Dandelion Decoction .... 982 
Daughters, The Care of 109 
Deadly Nightshade, Poi- 
soning by 2281 

Deafness from Deficient 

Wax 1298 

Deafness, Remedy for... 2141 
Death, Certificates of ... 2944r 
Deaths, Registration of 2942" 
Deaths at Sea, Registra- 
tion of 2943 

Deaths, Communicating 
Information of to Fa- 
milies 2945^ 

Debt, Don't Run into ... 2081 

Debt, Going into 281 

Decayed Tooth, Gutta 

Percha for Filling ... 787 
December, Gardeningfor 1044 
December, TMiat for 

Dinner? 5^ 

Decoctions, Medical 929 

Decoction, Process of ... 2672 
Defective Enimciation ... 1328 
Demulcents, Efl'ects of ... 2782- 
Depilatory Ointment .... 1839 
Deposits in Kettles, Pre- 
venting 573. 

Dessert, Serving the 2602 

Devonshire Dialect 1332 

Devonshire Juncket 1842 

Devils, Cooked Relishes 29G4 

Dew, its Indications 2070 

Dialects, Various 1329 

Diamond Cement 7 S 

Diaphanie, Instructions 

in .. 1851 

Diaphoretics, Effects of . 2751 

Diarrhoea, Pills for 990 

Digestion of Substances.. 2670 
Diet, Daily, for a ChUd . lOCO 

Diluents, Uses cf 278i> 

Dining Tables, Polishing 542 
Dinners, Arrangement of 2584 

Dinners for a Week 41 

Dinner, What Can we 

Have? 48to6& 

Dioramic Pictures 1851 

Directions for Icing .... 249 

Direct or Address ? 1675 

Diseases, Causes of 878 

Diseases, Treatment of . 1212 

Disinfecting Fluid 40(^ 

Disinfecting Fluid, Sir 

W.Burnett's 2776 

Disinfecting Fumigation. 188a 
Disputation, Opinion on. 1800 
Dissenters, Marriages of 2933 



WE hEAXX BOMBTHING, EVEN BT OUS TtAXLVBMa, 



••• 

ZUl 



Distzaiidiig for Bent, 

Ezpenaes 3903 

Distress for Rent 3895 

Bistreas for Bent, Second 2896 

Blnretlca, Effects of 3746 

Diuretic Mixture 995 

Dogs, Treatment of 3650 

Domestic PhumacopOBia 906 

Domestic Rules 846 

Domestic Surgery 3186 

Domino, Card Game .... 3117 
Jloors, Cleaning, Var- 
nished 457 

Door, Way to keep Open 584 

Drank or Drunic 1466 

Draughts, Rules of Game 789 
Drawers, Keeping In- 

aectsfirom 2497 

Dr. Babington's Uizture 

for Indigestion 1287 

Dr. Birt Davies's Gout 

ICixture 1384 

Dr. Brewer's Guide to 

Science 391 

Dr. Clarke's Pills for 

Nenrous Headache.... 1391 
Dr. Franklin's Advice to 

Swimmers 3801 

Dr. Ure's Ink Writing... 83 
Dr. . Scott's Wash to 

Whiten the NailB 1396 

Dredgings, AU Kinds of . 2541 

Dress, Female 380 

Dress, Hints Upon 1833 

Dresirings, Surgical 3187 

Dreases,To Clean Woollen 43 
Dresses, To Fresenre 

Colour of 451 

Dried Apples 3509 

Drinking, Childron,when 

Best 1066 

Drink for Children 1063 

Drinks for the Sick, 1001 

Drop Cakes, Excellent... 74 
Dropfly, Decoction for . . . 930 
Drops for Removing 

Grease 115 

Dropsies, Mixture for ... 995 

Dropsy of the Belly 939 

Dropsy, Treatment of . . . 11^ 4 
Drowning, Treatment of 3355 
Drugs, Properties of ... 3686 
Drunkenness Condemned 1821 
Drunkenness, Treatment 3257 

Drying Herbs 3467 

Duck, Baked ...3652 

Ducks, Carving 2644 

Duck, Stuffing 3153 



Duek8,Hadied 8968 

Duck, Ragout of 8000 

Dumplings, Boil in a Net 203 

Dutch Oven, The 1986 

DwarfPlants 1929 

Dyeing Bonnets 2504 

Dyeing, General Directions 403 

I^ntery, Pills for 990 

£, the Letter, in Spelling 1669 

Each, Either, Every 1869 

Early Rising, HealthAil 842 
Early Rising, Time Saved 

by 773 

Earwigs, To Kill 3088 

Earwigs, To Protect 

Dahlias from. 1313 

Economical Dish 238 

Economy of Fuel 1181 

Economy, Hints upon ... 710 
Edinburgh Ale, Brewing 2663 
Education of Children 1079 

Eels, Baked 2552 

Eels, Carving 2612 

£ffervesoingDrinks,Cau- 

tion 2025 

Egg and Ham Patties ... 96 
Egg and Wine Cement . 231 
Egg Powders, Adulterated 2410 

Eggs, Curried 2966 

Eggs and Minced Ham. . . 103 
Eggs Pickled, Excellent . 119 

Eggs, Preserved 497 

Eggs, Preserving Bird's . 789 

Eggs, to Keep Long 790 

Eggs, Preserving 2831 

Either and Each 1373 

Either or Each 1585 

Either, Neither 1871 

Elderberry Wine 2306 

Elder Flower Lotion ... 964 
Elder Flowers, When to 

Gather 3461 

Electuaries and Confec- 
tions 916 

Embrocations and Lini- 
ments 933 

Emetics, Effects of 3724 

Eminent and Imminent? 1595 

Emollient Lotion 963 

Emollients, Uses of 2790 

Enamelled Leather, to 

Polish 1841 

Enemaa, Medicated 943 

En^sfa and French Eco- 
nomy 580 

Enigma, Byron's, H. ... 279 
Enigma, Cockney H. ... 279 
Enigma, Cockney y 279 



Enigmas, Explanation of 3443 
Enteiing Parties, E^- 

quette 476 

Enunciation, Defective 1838 

EnvyCondemned 1799 

Epilepsy, Treatment of . 1335 

Epispastics, Uses of 3761 

Epsom Salts, Uses of. 3741 

Erasmus Wilson's Lotion 

for the Hair 1395 

Er, As Used in Spelling 1671 

Errors in Speaking 1823 

Eruptions, Cutaneous ... 1833 
Eruptions on the Face... 1226 

Eschalots, to Piokle 3881 

Escharotics, Effects of... 3773 

Essex Dialect 1383 

Etiquette 378 

Etiquette, Opinion Upon 

Books on 1769 

Etiquette,Newly Married 1311 
Evening Amusement ..« 3435 
Evening Parties, Eti- 
quette 474 

Exemption from Arrears 

of Rent by Landlord . 3860 
Exemption Arom Rates 

and Taxes by Landlord 38JJ9 
Expenses, To Calculate... 8024 
Excessive Menstruation 1350 
Exclamations and Oaths 1600 

Exercise, Bodily 1179 

Exerdse, Duration of . . . 663 
Exercise for Females ... 303 

Exerdse, Mental 1179 

Exercise, Remarks on. . . 659 

Exercise, Time for 662 

Exercises, Various 660 

Expectorants, Effects of 3 756 
Extracts of Substances . 3673 

Eye, Dirt in the 2341 

Eye» Lime in the 3343 

Eye Washes, Several ... 907 
Eye, Iron or Steel in ... 3348 
Eyelashes, To Make them 

Grow 893 

Eyes, Cure for Sore 165 

Eyes, Cure for Weak ... 165 
Eyes Iqjured by Sewing . 303 
Eyes, Treatment of In- 
flamed 1343 

Face, Eruptions on the . 1327 
Face, Lotion for Pain in 33 
Face, Wash for Blotched 1280 
Faded Dressea, Bleaching 515 
Failures of Shopkeepers. 3836 
Failures of Large Shop- 
keepers ......«• 3880 



aay 



WHUr <WB:]!HIHK^VB fail, WB ASB OJnjJJM SUlB suocess. 



Falnteeu, Trestmentiof 1328 

Falseliood, Avoid 1775 

Xtenily Circle, UU) 340 

VamUy Cindes, Sugges- 

donsforFairndiig 3891 

Enmily Connexions 9840 

Family Podding ^.. 355 

Family Tool Chests 1097 

Farina ImitatlTe 1918 

Farther or Furlher? ... 1492 
FWigDe, Hot Water for . 3801 
Feather Beds, toUaaege 308 
lather Beds nnilt ibr 

SYuESeries 1094 

Feathers, Cleansing 8318 

BeatherFlowen 1908 

Jtethers, Dyeing Black 418 
Feathers, Dyeing Btee... 419 
FeathtES, Dyeing Bine... 1916 
FeatherstDyeing CrinHon 420 
VnOun, Dyeing Green 1918 
FMithera, Dyeing Graen 3068 
Feathem, Dyeing Lilac 1931 
IPeathers, Dyeing Fink... 431 
Feal3wn,Dyeing£ink... 1919 
Feathers, DyeingdeepSed 423 
FeaKhera, Dyeing Bed ... 1919 
Feathers, Dyeing Bose 

Colour 421 

Feathers, Dyeing YeUow 433 
Feathers, I>yeing Yellow 1917 
FeatherSiPrepareforDye 1938 
Feathers, toCkanOstrioh 3048 
feebmaiy. Gardening <ft>r 1035 
Febniazy-What for Din- 

ner? 49 

Feet, Bemedy for BUi- 

tered 1278 

Female Dress 380 

FtauJe Temper 383 

Fennel, "When to Gather 3462 
Fevers Arise ftrom Dirt . 881 
Fever,Common Continued 1318 
Fevers,Oonvalesoenoe after 999 
Fever, Intermittent ... 1245 
Fever, Scarlet, Treatment 1261 
Fever,Tn>^u*t Treatment 1369 

Fig Pudding 2830 

Fillet of Veal, Carving... 2626 
FlUot of Veal, Boasting 611 

FUUrlng Fluids 2668 

Finger-Basses at Dinnor 2601 

FinlngWine 2505 

FIro Buckets Becom- 

mended 707 

Fire in Chimney, Sulphur 

for 898 

Fire, Escaping from 526 



Fire, Pwwanftinns inQase of 695 
Fire in Chimn^, Wet 

Blanket 659 

Fire Screens, Buisiflhing 628 
Fire, Solution to Eztin- 

guiah 706 

Fire, Teach Children 

Bespeoting .526 

Bires, Msnngipntftiit of 

Family 1187 

Fires, Preoantions Against 658 
Fires Prevented by Almn 88 
FhrstSetofQnadrillea... 1679 

First Watch Stew 886 

Fishes, FnservingCurioas 3496 
Fish Fried with Potatoes 124 

Fish, Garnish Cor ..^ 3643 

Flshliake „ 104 

Hsh Saoee, Anchovies, Me. 366 
Fish -Sanoe .^v.^. ....... 3166 

Fish, to Choose Fresh 

Water 7 

Fish, .to Choose Good ... 2 

Fits, Treatment of 9558 

Fixature for the Hair ... 150 
Flannels, Caution in 

Washing 660 

Flannels, Washing 616 

Flat Fish, Carving ...... 3607 

Flatulent Colic 993 

Files, Destroyed by Pepper 666 
Flies, Green Tea Destroys 619 
Flies, Mlxtare to De- 
stroy 1294 

Bloors, To .Take Gsease 

From 388 

Flour, To Test Suspectad 686 
Flour Unlit for Childien 1068 

Flowers, Feather 1808 

Flowers, Keep finm Bed- 
rooms 672 

Flowera,Leaves of Feather 192 4 
Flowers, Modelling Wax 1876 
Flowers of Bismuth, Poi- 
soning by 3273 

Flower of Brimstone ... 157 
Flower of Silver, Poison- 

ingby 2373 

Flowers of Zinc, Poison- 

ingby 3371 

Food in Season 48 

Food, To Choose Good 1 
Food, Unfit for Childi«n 1056 
FooFs Parsley, Poisoning 

by 3881 

Foot, Bandaging the ... 3214 

Foot or Feet? 1462 

For or Of? 1561 



FororTo? UB9 

Forcemeat Balls 2161 

Fore^quarter Lamb^ 

Bossting 621 

Fowls, Carving 2687 

Fowl, DresshigCold ,... 2961 

Fowls, Grilled 2965 

Fowl, Serving-np Cidd 2166 
Fowls, To Fatten QuioUy 1816 
Fowls, To Choose Good Sa 
Ananklin's, Dr., Bules... 848 
Freesing Preparation ... 341 
Freesing without loe or 

Aeids .241 

Freckles, Lotion Ibr ... 172 
FreoUes, Bemedy flv... 2293 
Freckles, To Bemove... 886 
French Batter ..........2533 

Frenoh Beans ......... 2644 

Fnench Bread 1155 

French Polishes 168 

Fienoh Bolls 1155 

Friar^sChnelette ......... 2265 

Fried Fish, Carving 2595 

Fried Oyatevs 8003 

Friendly Pastiae ........ 840 

Friends, Choice of Them 446 
Fritters, Batter for ...... 3532 

Fritters, Bemarks Upon 8987 
Fritters, To Make ....... 2996 

FromorOf 1514 

Fnst^bite, Treatment of 1229 
FrocenLimbs,TKeatBiBnt 1239 

FenitCake 882 

Fruit for Children........ 216 

Fmit-Fritteis, Batter finr 2582 
Fndt,HeatthAi]ne8Sof.. 168 
F^ruits, Healthy for Ctall- 

dren 31» 

Fruit, 'ModelUng Wax ... 1876 

Fruit, Preserving.. 642 

Fruit Stains from Linen 460 

Fruits, to Bottie 889 

Frugality, Franklin's Bules 848 

Frying, Dialogue on 1972 

Frying-pan, The 1984 

Fxylng, Bemarks Upon... 389 
Flying Vegetables, New 

Plan 3682 

Fuel, Cheap and Good. . 395 

Fuel, Economy of 1181 

Foneralsof Young People 2952 
Funerals, Management of 2989 
Funerals, Order of Going 2951 
Funerals, Order of Be- 

tuming 2951 

Funerals, Walking 2952 

Fomigation, Disinfecting 1638 



CBBBE IB KO BALM VOB SVEKT WOUKD. 



Fungi, To PreMiTe 1830 

Fnmiahed Lodgix^, 

Laws of. S889 

Fnmkure, Care of Rose- 

irood 641 

Famishing; Cantiona ... 581 
.Famitnre, Cleansing of . 684 

Fnndtare Polish 667 

.Fvmiture, When Liable 

toCcaek ^. ...««. 540 

Fnn, Liquid to FKaenre 187 

Furs, To Clean ....^ 2081 

Gad-fly Sting 2288 

4lalbanum, Uses of 2701 

Oailing hi Invalids 3065- 

Galls Lotion....^ ....^.. -975 
Galopade Danoe ...•.^•.. 1698 
Galopade Quadrilles ... 1699 
Gamboge, FoisoniDg hy . 2982 

Gamboge, Uses of 2781 

Game, Garnishes iknr ... 2642 

Game, Hashed 2982 

Game, Rsgout of ......... 2000 

.GameSaoee 2166 

Game, Time Required to 

Cook 389 

Game, To Choose Good.. 26 
Gardening Operations... 1021 
Garden Stands, Paint £ar 600 

Gargles, Various 962 

Garlic, Juice of, as a 

Cement 1188 

Garlic, to Pickle 2831 

Garnishes, All Kinds of.. 2542 
Geese, To Choose Good .. 21 

Geese, Hashed ^. 2968 

Geese, Legs of. Broiled 2969 
Genteel Cockney Dialogue 1611 

Gentian, Uses of 2711 

Gentleman, The True... 1798 
German Paste, for Birds 817 
German Sausage, with 

Poultiy 2488 

German Yeast, Bread 

Blade With 2324 

German Yeast Consi- 
dered 263 

Gherkins,To Pickle 1831 

GibletPie 3006 

Gilt Frames, Protecting 

from Flies and Dust .. 2570 
Gilt Frames. To Clean .. 457 

Gin, Adulterated 2411 

Ginger- b€er,Dr. Pereira's 79 

Ginger-beer Powders 136 

Ginger- beer, Superior... 1289 
Gingerbread Aperient... 2434 
Gingerbread Cake 162 



^ngerbread Snaps 73 

Ginger Biscuits 3474 

Ginger Cakes 386 

Ginger Cakes 3474 

Ginger, Powdering 3665 

Ginger, Uses of 3760 

Glandular Enlazgements 936 
Glandular Enlargements, 

Embrocation for 986 

^fess, Cement for 139 

Glass, Sardening 1127 

Glass andMetals, Cement 382 
Glasses Puxifled l^'Char* 

coal 557 

Glass Stoppers, Looemlqr 

OU 264 

Glass, To Break to any 

Figure 1833 

Glass Ware, Care of. 1121 

Gk»s,Wash in Cold Water 618 
Glauber's Salt, Uses of... 3743 

Glaze, Beef »......• 3649 

Glazing for Hams 448 

Glazing for Meats 448 

Glazing for Tongues ... 448 
Glenny'sQardening quoted2089 
Gloves, Cleaning Kid ... 2064 
Gloves, Dyeing Nankeen 426 
Gloves, Dyeing Purple. . . 427 
Gloves, Dyeing Purple . . 42 7 
Gloves, To take Care of 303 
Gnat Sting, Remedy for .2388 
Gold Fish, The Treat- 

mentof 374 

Gold, Poisoning by 2372 

Goods Removed to Evade 

Rent 3897 

Goose, Dressing Cold ... 2981 

Goose, Baked 2662 

Goose, Carving 2643 

Goose, Marbled 105 

Goose, Mock 2144 

Goose, Roast 2168 

Goose Stuffing 2162 

Goose Stuffing Sauce ... 2164 
Gooseberry Wine, To 

Make 2816 

Gorlitza,The 1708 

Gossiping Condemned. . . 791 
Gout Mixture, Dr. Birt 

Davies's 1284 

Gout, Pills for 167 

Gout, Treatment of 1230 

Governors, To Address... 2350 
Grape Wine, To Make ... 2315 

Grass, Lamb 617 

Gravel, Treatment of ... 1231 
Gravies, Flavouring for . 2531 



Gravy, Bnnoi ^^ 3477 

Gravy Sauce 3160 

Gravy Soup, Clear 2478 

Orease tram Books 816 

Grease from Fopor 816 

QreasefromSiflc 2043 

Grease, Seonidng I>roi» 

for 116 

Grease Spots on Hearth . 660 

Green-gage Jam 2446 

Green Gages, Pveserwed . 160 
<Green Tea, to Detect 

Copperin 1310 

Gridiron, The 1983 

Grill Bauoe 2647 

Grilled Beef Bones 2646 

GrilledFowl 296& 

Ground Glass, Imitative 1839 

Grottoes of Cinders 1987 

Grubs, To KiU 2036 

Guinea Pigs, Manage- 
ment of 3.01O 

Gum Arabio Starch 91 

<vum Arabic Starch 2383 

Gutta Percha for Bad 

Teeth 787 

Gutta Peecha, Modelling 

in 1931 

Qutta Percha Soles — 

How to put them on; . . 887 
Habits, Constitutional... 367ft 

^Oaddock, Baked 2552 

Had or Would? 1386 

Ebemorrhoids, Ointment 

for 2174 

Hair Brushes, to Clean . 1820 

Hair Dye, To Make 270 

Hair, I^eing Black 424 

Hair, Dyeing Green 2068 

Hair, Erasmus Wilson's 

Lotion 1296 

Hair, Methods of Dyeing 324 

Hair, Oil of Roses 1281 

Hah: Oils, Various 268 

Hidr, Opinions on Dye- 
ing 324 

Hair Restored by Onions 788 

Hair, Superfluous 399 

EUbr, ToPromoteGrowth 

of 147 

Hair Wash, Borax, &c. . 2054 

Hare, Jugged 3004 

Half-pay Pudding 40 

Haliwell's Dictionary, 

Quotations from 1337 

Ham and Chicken Patties 100 
Ham and Egg Patties ... 96 
Ham and Veal Patties ... 97 



TLVl 



SECOND THOUQHTS ABB OFTEN BEST. 



Ham, Baked 3653 

Hazn, Carving 2685 

Ham, SUces 2484 

Hams, Hint on Curing. .2172 
Hand, Bandaging the .. 2211 
Hand Floor Ifill, Cost of 2890 
Handkerchief as a Ban- 

d^ige 2215 

Handkerchief^ to Carry 

Neatly 278 

Handkerchief as a Might 

Cap 2143 

Hands, Take Stains from 508 

Hands, To Whiten 87 

Hanging, Treatment of... 2256 

Hare, Baked 2552 

Hares, Carving 2645 

Hares, To Choose Good . 24 
Hamet and Bittle, Ex- 
ample of Wiltshire 

Dialect 1389 

Has Been, or Was ? 1547 

Has Got, or Has? 1487 

Hashed Mutton 334 

Hats, Brushing 517 

Hats, To Take Care of . . . 265 
Haunch of Mutton,Carv- 

ing 2616 

Haunch of Mutton, Roast 603 
Haunch of Mutton, Sauce 608 
Haimch of Venison,Carv- 

ing 2616 

H.-BoneofBeef 2556 

Headache Cured by Sul- 
phuric ^ther 2692 

Headache, Nervous, Dr. 

Clarke's Pills for 1291 

Head, Bandaging the ... 2202 
Head, Lotion for Fain in 33 

Health, General 2679 

Health in Youth 1149 

Health, Rules for the 

Preservation of 1156 

Healthy PersonsLiable to 

Sickness 902 

Heart-bum, Drink for... 2140 
Hearths, Keeping Clean 523 
Hearth, Grease Spots on 530 
Hearth-rug should Con- 
trast with Carpet 681 

H£emorrhage,Treatment 

of 2248 

He or Him, Him or Theml407 
Hence, Whence, and 

Thence 1381 

Herbs, Drying 2457 

Herb Powders, to Make *2473 
Hereford Dialect 1334 



Herrings, Baked 2552 

Herrings, to Know Fresh 6 

Here, There, and Where 1380 

Hiccough, Relief for ... 2056 

Highland Reel, The ... 1712 

Him or He? 1368 

Hind Quarter Lamh, 

Roasting 620 

Hither, Thither, and 

Whither 1382 

H, Misuse of the Letter 161 

Hog Pudding, Black 2960 

Home Comforts, Re- 
marks on 203 

Home-made Bread 2828 

Home Truths for Home 

Peace 281 

Home Truths on Money 

Matters 2885 

Honesty Commended ... 1794 

Honey Soap, To Make... 845 

Honey Water 163 

Hooping Cough Mixture . 4 7 
Hooping Cough, Roche's 

Embrocation 224 

Hooping Cough, Treat- 
ment 1232 

Hop, Medical Uses of ... 2695 

Hops, PiUowof 2695 

Horn Staining 367 

Horses, Caution 2015 

Horseradish Powder ... 2185 

Horseradish Vinegar ... 2163 

Hornet Sting 2288 

HotWater for Bruises, &C.2301 

House Duty, Table of ... 3029 

House, Taking, Cautions 2816 

Household Economy ... 579 
Household Management, 

Hints on 1849 

'* How Long will it Take 

to Cook?" 239 

"How Shan we Get Rid 

of that Smell?'' 220 

House on Fire, What to Do 696 

House Lark 618 

Houses, Modelling 1951 

Housewife Should Ob- 
serve 731 

Husbands* Attentions ... 197 

Husbands' Honour 199 

Husbands, and Home 

Conversations 195 

Husbands, and Their Rule 202 
Husbands and Wives, 

Hints to 191 

Husbands and Wives' 

Pleasures 193 



Hydrochlorate of Am- 
monia Lotion 979 

Hydrophobia, Symptoms, 

in Dogs 2650 

Hydrophobia, Treatment 

of 2287 

Hyphen, The 1658 

Hysterics, Treatment of 1333 
Iceland Moss Chocolate . 1848 

Ices, for the Table 241 

Icingfor Wedding Cakes 2933 
Idiosyncrasy, Treatment 

of 2680 

Idleness Condemned ... 1796 
I don't Think, or I Think?1594 
HI- temper Condemned... 1777 
Income, Table to Calcu- 
late 3024 

Indian Com FIour,Bread 3015 
Indian Pickle, To Make 2340 

Indian Syrup 3170 

Indigestion, Dr. Babing- 

ton's Mixture for 1287 

Indigestion, How Caused 303 
Indigestion, Treatment of 1334 
Indolent Tumours, Oint- 
ment for 978 

Infant's Aperient 156 

Infant, Food for an 305 

Infant's Food, Age Six 

Months 206 

Infants, Cries of ,.. 1067 

Infants Should Sleep by 

Night 1087 

Infant's Sleep 1083 

Infectious Diseases 890 

Inflamed Eyes, Treatmentl343 
Inflammation of the 

Bladder, Treatment . 1335 
Inflammation of the 

Bowels, Treatment ... 1236 
Inflammation of the 

Brain, Treatment of . 1287 
Inflammation of the Kid- 
neys, Treatment 1238 

Inflammation of the Liver 1239 
Inflammation of the 

Lungs, Treatment ... 1240 
Inflammation of the 

Stomach 1241 

Inflammatory SoreTbroat 1343 
Influenza, Treatment of 1244 

Infusions, Making 2671 

Ing, Where added 1669 

Ink, Black 82 

Ink, Red 84 

Ink, Always Use Good... 783 
Ink from Mahogany. 503 



aoovD TBiAiiS omv suooemd. 



xm 



Ink firom TaUe Coven . 607 

Ink for Zinc Labels 86 

Ink Powder 88 

Ink Stains firom Maho- 
gany 1292 

Ink StainSfComplete Re- 
moval 2044 

Ink, To Take Out of Linen 175 
Ink, To Take Out of Paper 177 
Ink Stains from Silver... 277 
Inks, Various Receipts. . . 81 

In, or Into? 1486 

In, or Within? 1689 

Insects, Bites of 2076 

Insects, Keeping from 

Drawers 2497 

Insects, Preserving Cu- 
rious 2496 

Insect Stings 2288 

Insects, To Clear Vege- 
tables of 1887 

Insects, To Keep from 

Birds 2497 

Insurance Duties 3031 

Integrity of Shopkeepers 2839 
Interest Tables (very use- 

ftil) 8026 

Intermeddling Con- 

denmed 1773 

Interments, Intra Mural 2940 

Intermittent Fever 1245 

Interruptions are Rude . 872 
Interview^ Recommended 2186 
Introductions,Etiquette of 278 

Invalids, Galling in 2065 

Investments, Table to 

Calculate 8025 

Invitations to Balls, Eti- 
quette 475 

Invitations to Funerals . 2946 
Ipecacuanha, Uses of ... 2725 
Irish Brogue, To Correct 1614 

IrishStew 3005 

Iron from Rust 2515 

Iron, Gradually Heat New 723 

Iron Guns Staining 369 

Iron Stains frum Marble 543 
Iron Work, Polished ... 689 

Iron Wipers 514 

Isinglass, Adulterated... 2412 
Italian Furniture Polish 686 

Itch, Ointment for 980 

Itch, Treated by Sir W. 
Burnett's Disinfecting 

Fluid 2776 

Itch, Treatment of. 1246 

It, Ghrammatical Use of 1349 
Ivory, Staining Black ... 860 



Ivory, Staining Blue ... 861 
Ivory, Staining Green ... 862 

IV017, Staining Red 863 

Ivory, Staining Scarlet. . . 864 
Ivory, Staining Yellow... 866 

Jalap, Usesof 2735 

January, Gardening for 1023 
January, What for Din- 
ner? 48 

JapannedGood8,Gleaning 455 

Japanese Work 2537 

Jaundice, Remedy for... 2079 
Jaundice, Treatment of 1247 
Jeffrey's Marine Glue ... 231 

Jelly for the Sick 1303 

Jelly of Currants and 

Raspberries 89 

Jewellery, Excess of. 1825 

Jersey Wonders 76 

Jaques' Egg Presei-vative 790 

John Dory, Carving 2 6 06 

Joints, Economy of the 238 
Joints, Garnishes for ... 2542 
Joints, Set on Large 

Dishes 2591 

Joints, Their Names, &c 286 
Joints, Time Required to 

Cook 289 

Judges, To Address 2351 

Jugged Hare 8004 

July, Gardening for 1035 

July, What for Dinner? 54 
June, Gardening for ... 1033 
June, What for Dinner ? 53 

Juniper, Uses of 2749 

Kennes Mineral, Poison- 

ingby 2269 

Kettle, To Prevent "Fur- 
ring" 678 

Kid Gloves, To Clean ... 1321 
Kid Gloves, To Wash ... 328 
Kidneys,Inflammation of 1238 

Kidneys, Cooking 2970 

Kidneys, Broiling 2970 

Kidneys, Frying 2970 

Kindness Commended... 1801 
Khid Words, Effect of... 792 

Kino, Usesof 2717 

Kitchen Floor, Covering 

for 653 

Kitchen Garden 1046 

Kite-flying, While Swim- 
ming 2814 

Knees, Affections of the 937 
Knives and Forks, Clean- 
ing 660 

Knives, Cleaned with 
Charcoal 729 



ELnives, Keep in Condi- 
tion ,... 2690 

Knives Never Dip in Hot 

Water 727 

Knives, to Take Care of 203- 
Knuckle of Veal, Carving 2631 

Kreosote Lotion 974 

Labourers, The Worth of 105a 
Lace, Reviving Blond ... 2601 
Lamb, Fried in Slices ... 336- 
Lamb, Remarks on Roast- 
ing 616 

Lamb Stew 2974 

Lamb, To Choose Good 16- 

Lancers, Quadrilles 1685- 

Ladies, Advice to Young 796 
Lady's Dress on Fire ... 104 

Lamp Oil, The Best 629 

Lamp Shades, Diaphanie 1861 
Lamp, To Prevent Smok- 
ing 496 

Lamp, To Prevent Smok- 
ing 128» 

Lamp Wicks from Old 

Stockings 2673 

Lancashire Dialect 1335 

Landlord and Tenant, 

Laws of 2845^ 

Landlord's Right to En- 
ter Premises 3852i 

Lard, Adulterated 2413 

Larder, Airing the 582 

Lavender Scent Bag ... 347 

Lavender Water 171 

Lawns, To Improve 91 

Laxative Emena 944^ 

Laxative Emulsion 1016 

Lays or Lies? 1431 

Lead for Damp Walls ... 819- 

Lead, Poisoning by 227& 

Leaf Lice, To Free Plants 

from 1314- 

Leaf Impressions, To 

Take 838 

Leaf Printing 839 

Learns or Te^hes? 1424 

Leases, Assignment of... 2849 
Leases Held by Married 

Women 2854 

Leases, Precautions Re- 
specting 2846 

Leases, Termination of 2858 
Leather, Cement for ... 2298 
Leather, Dyeing Black ... 425 
Leather, Modelling in ... 1981 
Leather Seat,Blackingfor 2491 
Leather Straps for Par- 
cels 203 



xTiH 



BEAD tBaq/SmCSLT- TEM MBXCAE HIBT8 



Leather Work, Onia- 

mental «.^^,»^^. 2068 

Leaves, Fas^imflea in 

Copper 378 

Leaves, ImpresBions of... 1818 
Leaves, To Make Skeleton 1927 

Leaving Parties 487 

Leeches, Appl^g 2229 

Leech Barometer, The... 2180 
Leech Bites, To Stagr 

BleedMg 22S4 

Leeches, Changing their 

Water 1884 

Leeches, Restoring ....^ 223 A 
Leg and Foot, Bandaging 2214 
L^ Broken, Treatment 2224 

Leg of Beef Baked 2«ff2 

Leg of Beef, Economy of 288 
Leg of Lamh, Roasting 633 
Leg of Matton, Carving 2622 
Legof Mutton, Roast ... 603 
Leg of Pork, Carving ... 2682 

Legs, Cramp in the 2080 

Leicestershire Dialect... 1885 

Lemonade 1288 

Lemonade, Superfine ... 2186 

Lemon Biscuits 36 

Lemon Buns 464 

Lemon Kali, Receipt for 69 

Lemon Peel Syrup 2162 

Lemon Peel, Tinctore of 2145 
Lemon Rice with Syrop 62 

Lemon Sponge 821 

Lemon Thyme, When to 

Gather 2464 

Lemon Water Ice 247 

Lemons for Dessert 143 

Lemons, Uses of 2767 

Less or Fewer? 1405 

Letter GL, Memorandum 

on Use of 279 

Letters, Properly Ad- 
dressing 208 

Licences, Marriage 2912 

Liebig's Beef Extract ... 2479 
Life Belts for Learning 

Swimming 2815 

Life Belts, to Make 2181 

Life, Duration of 1048 

life, Modelling from ... 1962 
Light Essential to Health 208 

Lightning, Caution 2008 

Lime and Egg Cement.. . 231 
Lime and Egg Cement. . . 577 
Lime and Oil Liniment .. 988 
Lime to Destroy Bugs... 1293 
Lincolnshire Dialect ... 1385 
Lime Water for Burns... 527 



L&ne Water, Use of to 

Making Bread 1187 

Linen, Damp, should not 

be Hung in- Bedrooms 1092 
linen, Fmtt Stains from 450 
Linen Bags should be 

Sawed 725 

Linen, Sooiiring Drops 

for .., 1300 

Linen, Sweet Bags for... 452 
Lineni Taking Care of . . . 267 
Linen, Take Ink ont of 175 
Linen, To Bestere Mil- 
dewed 506 

Linen, Wine Stains from 1290 
liniments and Bmbro- 

cationa 983 

Linnets, Management of 2813 

Linseed, Uses of 2784 

Lint, To Apply 2192 

Lint, To Make 2191 

Lip Salve, To Make 67 

Liquid Glue, To Make... 66 
Liquid Ghie, To Blake... 230 

Liquorioe, Uses of 2787 

liver ComplaintB 1215 

Liver, Inflammation of... 1239 
Liver Sauce, for Fish ... 3008 
Living, Advantages of 

Regular 1051 

Ixibster and Anehory 

Butter 2795 

Lobster Butter 2795 

Lobster Fatties 95 

Lobsters, To Chooee Fresh 8 
Localities, Choioe of for 

Shops 2S24 

Local Stimulants, Effects 

of 2723 

Lodgings and Lodgers, 

Lawsftf. 2875 

Lodgings, Furnished ... 2882 
Lodgings, Yearly, Lawsof 2881 

Logwood Decoction 931 

Logwood, Uses of. 2719 

Loin of Lamb, Roasting 626 
Loin of Mutton, Carving 2623 
Loin of Mutton, Roast... 606 
Loin of Pork, Carving... 2638 
Loin of Veal, Carving... 2625 
Loin of Veal, Roasting. . . 612 
Looking-glasseSfTo Clean 457 

London Dialect 1888 

Loo, Card Game 2118 

Looseness of the Bowels 1248 
Loosestrife, Powdering... 2665 

Lotions, Various 961 

Lotion for the Face.... .. 38 



Laden for the HeaA. 88 

Love Apple Sauce. 2610 

Love's Telegraph 2032 

LowCookney 1611 

Low Cockney (Juvenile) 1611 
L, the letter, in SpelUng 1664 
Lnnar Caustic, Poisoning 

by 2272 

Lunar Canstks, Uses of . 2775 
Lumbago, Remedy for... 2076 

Luncheon Cakes 4#3 

Luncheon for a Child . . . 208 
Lungs, Inflammation of 194^ 
Lungs, To Leani the 

State of 829 

Ly, as Used in Spelling . . 1670 

Mace, Powdering 2665 

Maceration^ Process of . 2669 

Mackerel, Baked 2652 

Mackerel, Carving 2610 

Mackerel,' Marinated ... 65 
Mackerel, Preserved ... 66 
Maekarel,To Know Fresh 2 
BiadAnimals, Bites of ... 2286 
Madder, Dyeing Red ... 431 
Madder, I^dng Yellow 483 
Magistrates, To Addreae 2861 

Magnesia, Uses of 2782 

MahoganyF^iuaiea,Clean- 

ing 547 

Mahegany,Ink Stains frtmil 292 
Mahogany, Stains frem . 1846 

Malefem Root 2780 

Mallow, Uses of 2786 

Man of Business Habits 1827 
Man and Wife, Deed of 

Separation 3 90 

Mangoes, To Pickle ... 2882 

Manna, Uses of 2728 

Manners, Artificial 2299 

Manners, Hints upon Per* 

sonal 1769 

Maps, Varnishing 2297 

Marble Chimney Pieces 688 

Marble, Cleaning 600 

Marble, Cleaning 1301 

MarbledGooee 105 

Marble Mortars, Cartoon 2666 

Marble Staining 359 

March, Gardening for... 1027 
March, What for Dinner ? 50 
Maijoram, M^en to Ga- 
ther 2463 

Marketing, Rules for... 41 
Marking Ink, Permanent 85 
Marking Ink, To Take out 176 
Marking Ink, Without 

Preparation 86 



JOSTA EOtmT.AiLL' THE TWBCMTJTlOVSi 



XIZ 



Mhrrlage, What CoAstl- 
tdtSB a Breach of Pvo« 

niw? 2047 

HiarnbgebyBflgistratioii 2914 
ItfiarriageB; Ammge^ 

mentsof 2911 

MJurriages of Diasenten 2983 
Mtarrled 'Vfooiieii, a9 Lea- 
sees 2864 

Marmalade, Adulterated 2414 

Mamtttlade, Apple 394 

Manow Bones Cookb]^ 2977 
ManhMfdloWfUsesof... 2785 
Matohes, Keep £1*0111 

Children 203 

Matches,Lucxfer,Caatioiii 2028 
Miatvlmony, Card Gaaoae 2124 
Maxbnafor AJl-Foaro... 2116 
Maxims for Cribbage.., 2108 

Maxims for Whist 2098 

Maxims, Poor Riehard's 865 

May, Gardening for 1091 

May — ^What for Dinner ? 62 

Masnrka Dance 1700 

Meehanical Remedies... 2777 

Meorl? 1389 

Medicine Stains 610 

Medicine, Weights and 

Measures 2668 

Medicines, Aperient ... 161 
Medicines, Best Forms of 2681 
Medicines, Precautions 

Respecting 2674 

Medicines^ Preparation- 

of them 2863 

Medicines, Pseventing 

Taste of 2682 

Medicines, Proper Doses 

of 2686 

Medicines, Terms Used 
to Express their Jftro- 

perties ^. 1714 

Meal Unfit for Children. 1053 
Measles, Treatment of . 1249 
Meat, Do not Leave in 

Water 693 

Meat Cakes 98 

Bfteat for Children 1066 

Meat, Under-done, for 

Hashes 694 

Mea*, Method of Keeping 664 

Meats forChildven 211 

Meats, Most Economical 238 
Meats Unfit for Children 1066 

Mekms, To Piokle 2882 

Mending; General Hints 2634 
Menstruation, Exeessive 1260 
Menstruation, Painful ... 1262 



Menstruation, Scanty ... 1261 
Mercury, Poisoning by... 3268 
Metals and Glass, Cement 232 
Mezereon, Poisoning by. 2282 
SGoe, Paste to Destroy . 80 
Mice, To Prevent their 

Taking Peas 1840 

Mice, Nux Vomica for . 1279 
lifiddlesex ThimbleBiggerl338 

Bfildew from linen 2074 

Mildew on Trees, Prevent 1309 

Mildewed Linen 606 

Mild Purgative Pills ... 986 

Milk, Adulterated 2416 

Milk for ChUdren 208 

MUk Lemonade 1828 

Bfilk Porridge 210 

Milk, To Preserve 816 

Bfilk, Which is Best 594 

Military Cockney Dia- 

logne 1611 

Mince Moat 442 

Mhieed Beef....... 326 

Minced Ham and Egg^ . 103 
Mint, When to Gather . 2466 

IkOnt Vinegar 619 

Mint Vinegar 2059 

Mirrors, Cleaning , 467 

BdHss Acton's Observa- 
tions upon Omelettes . 2987 

MlBOhief Makers 342 

Mispronunciation 1326 

Mixtures, Medical 991 

Mock Crab 444 

Meek Goose 2144 

Modelling in Cork 1931 

Modelling in Gntta Perchal 93 1 
Modelling in Leather ... 1931 
Modellingin Paper ...... 1931 

Modelling in Plaster of 

Paris 1931 

Modelling in Wax 1931 

ModeUing in Wood 1931 

Modest Demeanour 874 

Money Matters, How to 

Manage 2386 

Monkeys, Management of 8012 
Monk'sHood, Poisoning by 2282 
Monuments, Modelling . 1960 
Moon, its Indicattons ... 2072 

Moral, a Poem 223 

Mortars, How to Use ... 2666 
Mortgager, or Mortgagee? 1582 
Most Straightest, &c. ... 1376 
Mother Eve's Pudding . 288 

Moths from Clothes 676 

Moths, To Keep from 
Clothes 1307 



Mtotha, to Kill 2087 

Moths in Clothes* Closets 620^ 
Motfas in Furs, To Expel 187 
Moths, Preventive of ... 262 
Moths, To Get Bid of ... 33 
Moths, To Destroy Eggs 

of 32 

Moulding Jellies, &c ... 821 
Moidds for Wax Fruits . 1897 
Mourning Dress, Hints 

upon 2950 

Mourning, The Care of . 203 

Mouth Glue Cakes 63 

Mouth Glue^ Uses of ... 227 
Mnoilage of Gum Arabic 1019 

Mucilage of Starch 1020 

Muffins, How to Make ... 77 
Mulled Wine, Flavouring 

for 2631 

Mumps, Treatment of ... 1268 

Mushroom Beds 2161 

Mushroom, Essence of... 2160 
Mushrooms, Signs of 

Poisonous 346 

Mushrooms, Stewed 290 

Mushrooms, To Know 

Real 90 

Mushrooms^. to Pickle... 2338 

Muslin, Patterns on 2 487 

Mudin, To Starch 91 

Muslins, Washing 657 

Mussels, Poisoning by . . 2285 
Mustard, Adulterated ... 2416 

Mustard, Uses of... 2726 

Mutton, Baked 2663 

Mutton, Cold, Broiled 

with Poached Eggs ... 2978 

Mutton, Hashed 384 

Mutton, Lobscous 329 

Mutton Pies 2148 

Mutton Pie, Good 31 

Mutton Sausages 2959 

Mutton Shanks for Stock 735 

Mutton Soup 767 

Mutton, Stewed Fresh ... 770 
Mutton, To Choose Good 14 
Mutton, Venison Fashion 609 

Myrrh Gargle 959 

Myrrh Tooth Powder ... 1 46 

Nails, Biting the 786 

Nails, Dr. Scott's Wash 

toWhiten 1296 

Nails, To Whiten 38 

Names, Meanings of 

Christian ; 140 

Naphtha, Caution 2022 

Napkins, Folding Dinner 2687 
Narcotics, EfESeets of ... 2£8a 



STUDT THE PRECAUTIONS BESPEOTmO KBE. 



Narcotic Poisons 2281 

Necessities or Luxuries, 

Hint to Shopkeepers .2828 
Neck, Bandaging the ... 2204 
Neck of Mutton, Roast . 606 
Neck of Veal, Roasting . 614 
Necropolis Company, 

The 2941 

Need,or Needs? 1591 

Needles, Short, are Best. 203 

Negative Assertions 1384 

Negatives Destroy each 

other 1883 

Neighbourhoods, Cau- 
tions against New ... 2825 
Nervousness, Treatment 

of 1254 

Nettle Stings, Cure for. . . 521 

Never, or Ever ? 1649 

Night Cap, the Crimean 2143 
Night lights, Easily 

Made 85 

Nipples, Ointment for 

Sore 2176 

Nitrate of Bismuth, Poi- 
soning by 2272 

Nitrate of Silver, Uses of 2776 
Nitric Ether, Uses of ... 2693 

Nitre, Poisoning by 2280 

Nitre, Uses of 2746 

No, or Not? 1394 

Nobility, To Address the 2348 
Nose, To Stop Bleeding... 2249 
Note of Exclamation!... 1660 
Note of Interrogation?... 1669 
Notice to Quit, Form ... 2870 
Notices to Quit, Laws of 2873 
Notices Should be in 

Writing 2866 

Notorious, or Noted ? ... 1473 
Nouns and Verbs, List of 1608 
Nourishment in Various 

Things 586 

November, Gardening 

for 1043 

November, What for 

Dinner? 68 

Now, or Then 1666 

Nursing in the Night ... 1077 
Nutmegs, Powdering ... 2666 

Nutritive Enema 946 

Oak Bark, Uses of 2718 

Oatmeal, Adulterated ... 2417 

Obsolete Words 1878 

October, Gardening for . 1041 
October, What for Din- 
ner? 67 

'1. Care of Lamp 668 



Oil-doth, Cleaning 686 

Oil-doth for a Sitting 

Room 208 

Oil of Roses for Hair ... 1281 
Oil of Turpentine, Uses of 2760 
Oil Paintings, Hanging . 688 
Ointments and Cerates . 976 

Old Jenkins 1049 

Old Parr 1049 

Old Towels, Use for 614 

Old Wife, Poisoning by . 2285 

Olive Oil Enema 950 

Omelettes, Various 2986 

Omnibus Driver, Dia- 
logue 1611 

On, or In? 1616 

On, or Of 1566 

Onions and Potatoes 

Mashed 126 

Onions Restore the Hair 788 
Onion Sauce with Steak. 2664 
Only Want, or Want 

only? 1698 

Opium, as Antisi>asmodic 2706 

Opium Enema 949 

Opium Lotion 966 

Opium, Poisoning by ... 2281 

Opium, Uses of 2696 

Orange Confection 920 

Orange Flowers, When 

to Gather 2466 

Orange Marmalade 45 

Orange Peel and Camo- 
mile Flowers 2582 

Orange Peel, Caution ... 2020 

Orange Ped Syrup 2162 

Orange Thyme, WTien to 

Gather 2467 

Orange- Water Tea 248 

Ordinary Lotion 968 

Ostrich Feathers, toClean2043 

Ottomans, Cleaning 539 

Ought, or Aught 1436 

Oven, The Revolving.... 2169 

Over or Across 1530 

Oxalic Add, Poisoning by 2283 

Ox-Cheek, Stewed 2290 

Ox-Cheek, Uses of 288 

Ox -Cheeks, Baked 2552 

Oxford Sausages 2959 

Ox-Hed Jelly 2674 

Oxide of Zinc, Uses of... 2707 

Oyster Fritters 2997 

C^ter Ketchup 2289 

Oyster Patties 94 

OysterPie 106 

Oyster Powders 819 

Casters, Curried 3967 



Oysters, to Choose Fresh 1 1 

Pads, Sui«glcal 2198 

Painftal Menstruation ... 1252 
Pain in the Stomach ... lOlO- 
Paint for Garden Stands 500 
Paint, to Get Rid of the 

Smdl 826 

Paint, Removing Smell of 1302 
Painted Wainscot, Clean- . 

ing 565 

Palpitation of the Heart 1255 
Pancakes for Childr^i . . 215 
Pancakes, Remarks upon 2987 

Pancakes, To Make 2998 

Paper Cement 1957 

Paper, Grease from 815 

Paper Hangings,Choosing 588^ 
Paper Hangings, To Clean 261 

Paper, Modelling in 1931 

Paper, Staining Blue ... 870* 
Paper, Staining Green ... 871 
Paper, Staining Orange.. 872 
Paper, Staining Purple ... 378 

Paper, Staining Red 371 

Paper, Staining Yellow.. 374 
Paper, Take Ink out of.. 177 
Paper, Uses of Waste ... 1120 
Papers, Printed, Unfit for 

Wrapping 1116 

Papier-Mach^ Goods, 

Cleaning 456 

Papier-Mach^, Washing. 511 
Paralytic Numbness ... 986 
Parchment, Staining Blue 870 
Parchment, StainingGreen 371 
Parchment,StainingOrange872 
Parchment, StainingPurple 373 
Parchment, Staining Red 871 
Parchment, Staining Yel- 
low 874 

Parenthesis,The ( ) 1661 

Parliament,toAddressthe 2852 
Parrots, Management of 8018 
Parsley, When to Gather 2468 

Parsnip Wine 256 

Parties, Etiquette of ... 474 

Partridges, Carving 2638 

Partridges, Choose Good 25 

Partridge Pie, Cold 39T 

Paste for Fruit Pies 588 

Paste, Imitative 1912 

Paste, Permanoit Flour 229* 

Paste, Puff 98 

Paste, Savoury....... 9& 

Paste, Wheat-Flour 22£L 

Pastils for Burning 179 

Pastime, Evening 2^35 

Pastry, Care of the Floor 56a 



BEAD THE HINTS TO HUSBANDS Aim 'WIVES. 



XXI 



Pastry for Tarts 471 

Pastry Unfit for Children 1056 

Pasty, Seven Bell 837 

Patterns, Black Paper... 2486 

Patterns on Cloth 2487 

Patterns on Muslin 2487 

Peaches, Preserved 2506 

Pea-Flour, to Discover in 

Bread 2400 

Pearl White, Poisoning by2 2 72 

Pea Soup, Plain 768 

Peas for Children 213 

Peas Pudding 1835 

Pease Powder 2184 

Pepper, Adulterated ... 2416 
^Peppermint, Powdering 2665 

Perfume, a Pleasant 2296 

Fer-Centages, Table to 

Calculate 3027 

Personal Appearance ... 1824 
Pestle and Mortar, How 

to Use 2664 

Petticoat, Turn Hind 

Part Before 203 

Pharmacopoeia, Domestic 906 

Pheasants, Carving 2686 

Phial, Common, for Biag- 

nifying 2395 

Phosphorus Pastefor Rats 80 
Phosphorus, Poisoning by 2277 

Pickles, Adulterated 2418 

Pickles, toDetectCopperin 1310 
Pickles, to Obtain Cheap 

and Good 2418 

Pickling, Hints upon ... 793 
Pickling, Instructions on 2325 

Pic-nic Biscuits 2486 

Pictures, Transparent... 1861 

Fig, Baked Sucking 2552 

Pigeon, Dressing Cold... 2981 

Pigeons, Carving 2640 

Pigeons, Choose Good. . . 23 

Piles, Ointment for 2174 

Files, Treatment of. 1256 

Pills, Various 984 

Plaice, Carving 2607 

Plant Skeletons, to Make 840 

Plants, Dwarf 1929 

Plants, to Diy Specimen 1926 
Plants, to FreefromLeaf- 

Uce 1314 

Plaster of Paris in Bread 2401 
Plaster of Paris, ModelUng 1931 
PlasterofPari8,toHarden 275 
Plated Ware, Washing. . . 544 

Plum Cakes 72 

Plum Cake, Nice 463 

PlmnJam 2446 



Plum Pudding 469 

Plum Pudding, Cossack's 772 
Plum Pudding, Simple... 40 
Plum Pudding Warmed 351 

Plums, Preserved 160 

Points, Direction of 1653 

Points, Importance of... 1655 
Points, Used in Writing 

,;: 1649 

Poisons, Caution 2018 

Poisons, their Antidotes 2261 

Poisonous Fish 2285 

Poisonous Water 2275 

Poisonous Wine 2275 

Poker in theFire,Caution 2033 

Police Dialogue 1611 

Polish for Boots 818 

Polish for Shoes 818 

Politeness Conmiended... 1802 
Political Connexions ... 2482 

Polka, The 1707 

Polka Waltzes 1704 

Pomade of Castor-oil ... 30 

Pomatums, Several 116 

Poor Richard's Maxims 855 
Pope Joan, Card Game 2125 

Pope, Mulled Wine 2522 

Porcelain, Cleaning 1122 

Pork, Spare Rib 2430 

Pork, Stewed 766 

Pork, Stewed Fresh 770 

Pork, Fried in Slices ... 336 

Pork Pies 2148 

Pork Sausage withPoultry 2483 
Pork, To Choose Good 16 

Portable Soup 2549 

Porter, Adulterated 2419 

Porter, Bottling 2505 

Porter, Brewing 2564 

Pot au Feu 769 

Potash, Poisoning by ... 2278 

Potato Balls Ragout 129 

Potato Cheese Cake 126 

Potato Colcanon 127 

Potato Fritters 2998 

Potato Pudding 2982 

Potato Scones 134 

Potato Snow 180 

Potato Puffs 102 

Potato Pie 135 

Potato Pudding 255 

Potato Pudding 2992 

Potatoes in Bread 2956 

Potatoes, Boiled 123 

Potatoes Escolloped 133 

Potatoes for Children ... 213 
Potatoes for Children ... 1057 
Potatoes Fried Whole ... 181 1 



Potatoes Fried, Sliced ... 132 
Potatoes Fried with Fish 124 
PotatoesMashed with Beef 327 
Potatoes Mashed with 

Cabbage 2066 

Potatoes Mashed with 

Onions 125 

Potatoes Mashed with 

Spinach 2066 

Potatoes, Preserving 2302 

Potatoes, Remarks on... 589 
Potatoes under Meat ... 128 
Potatoes, Various Ways 122 
Potichomanie, Instruc- 
tions in 1864 

Potichomanie, Various 

uses of 1876 

Potted Beef 388 

Potted Fish, Adulterated 2419 
Potted Meats, Adultera- 
ted 2418 

Potted Meats, Flavouring 

for 2531 

Potted Meata, Strasburg 447 

Poultices 2199 

Poultry, Carve before 

Bringing to Table 2594 

Poultry Sauce 2156 

Poultry, Time Required 

to Cook 239 

Poultry, Garnish for ;. . . . 2542 
Poultry, Giving them 

Eggs Condemned 2955 

Poultry, Hashed 2982 

Poultry, Ragout of 8 000 

Poultry, To Fatten 3017 

Pounding Almonds 2792 

Powdering Substances... 2664 

Powders, Medical 1004 

Prawns, To Choose Fresh 1 
Prescriptions for Diseases 1278 
Presentations, Etiquette 

of 278 

Preserved Cucumbers... 353 

Preserved Ginger 562 

Preserves, Adulterated... 2418 
Preserves, Covering for 2447 
Preserves, Hinte on Making 6 1 

Preserving Fruit 641 

Preserving Milk 816 

Press, Writing for the . . . 1860 

Preston Salta 2319 

Previous, or Previously ? 1480 

Pride Condemned 1778 

Pride of Riches 858 

Prints, Impressions from 46 
Privy Council, To Ad- 
dress the 2349 



xxu 



BKALL BBQINVIKCIS HAY LSAD TO LABOR ENDS. 



Frofessioiial Titles 1403 

]¥omia80i7 Notes, Stamps 8028 
Frommciation, Rules of 1602 
Fronnnciation, Rules of 1617 
Property, to examine 

Wills 2 8 

Ftoud Flesh, Cure by 

Lunar Caustic 2775 

Provincial Brogues 1614 

ProvinciaJJsm 1820 

Pudding, Mother Ere's... 288 
Puddings for Children.. . 214 

Pudding Sauce 252 

Puff Paste 08 

Pulled Bread 2647 

Pulled Chicken 8228 

Pulled Turkey 2775 

Punctuality Commended 1804 
Punctuation, Rnlea of ... 1647 
PurgatiTB Confection ... 924 

PurgatiTe Emulsion 1017 

PurgatiTe for Children 1007 

PorgatiTe Powder 1012 

Purgative, Senna Con- 
fection 928 

Put — Card Game 2119 

Put, Four-handed 2120 

Put, Rules of 2121 

Put, Two-handed 2119 

Putty Powder, Poisoning 

by 2270 

Puzzles, Practical, &c... 2444 
Quadrille, Card Game . 2180 
Quadrilles. First Set ... 1679 
Qnadrille,Term8 of Cards 2 132 
Quadrupeds, Stuffing ... 2494 
Quarter of Lamb,Carving 2624 

Quassia, Uses of 2710 

Qnestl<ma, Various, An- 
swered 391 

Qninine, Best Way to 

Take 2683 

Quinine Tooth Powder . 174 
Quinsey, Treatment of . 1257 

Quinze, Card Game 2184 

Qidtting Houses, Notice 

Arom Landlord 2872 

Quitting House, Notice 

from Tenant 2871 

Babbit, Dressing Cold... 2981 

SabMt, Hashed 2982 

Babbits, BCanagement of 8009 
Babbits, To Choose Good 24 
Bagout, Any Kind of ... 8000 
BainingHard,orFaBt?. 1490 

Raised Pies 2148 

Bancid Butter 1277 

Barberry Ice Cream ... 244 



Baspbeny Vinegar 2068 

Baspberry-water Ice ... 246 
Bats, Nux Vomica for... 1279 
Bats, Paste to Destrqy... 80 

Bats, To Destroy 351 

RatUesnake, Biteof. 3286 

Beading by Candle-light 208 

ReadinginBed 525 

Ready Money Best 1144 

Rebuses, Explanation of 2448 

Receipt for Rent 2827 

Receipts for Rent, Take 

Care of. v 2869 

Red Cement for Glass 

and Metals 282 

Red Ink, To Make 84 

Red Lead, Poisoning by. 2275 

Redowa Waltz 1701 

Refrigerants, Uses of ... 2765 
Registratkm of Births . 3985 
Registration of Deaths . 2942 
Registration of Marriages 2914 
Relaxed Uvula, Mixture 

for 919 

Relaxed Uvula ......... 965 

Religious Connexions... 2841 
Rent and Taxes, Pay- 
ment of 2848 

Rent, Exemption from 

Arrears of 2860 

Rent, Form of Receipt... 2867 
Rent, How Much can be 
Recovered under Par- 
ticular Tenancies ... 3903 
Rent, Laws Respecting .8868 
Rent, Notice from Land- 
lord to Increase 2874 

Rent, Periods of Payment 8862 
Rent, Remedies to Re- 
cover 3894 

Repairs by landlords ... 3861 
Repairs by Tenants ... 2850 

Reptiles, Bites of 2286 

Reserve, Opinion on 1808 

Resin for Coughs 828 

Reviver for Black Cloth . 186 

Revoking at Whist 2088 

Revolving Oven, The ... 2159 

Rheumatic Gout 2178 

Rheumatic Pains ' 936 

Rheumatic Pains 939 

Rheumatism, Pills for... 166 
Rheumatism, Remedy for 2076 
Rheumatism, Treatment 

of 1858 

Rhubarb and Magnesia 

Powder 1007 

Rhubarb, To Preserve... 89 



Bhubarb, Useeof.. 3734 

Rhubarb Wine, To Make 2315 
Bibs of Beef, Boned and 

BoUed 601 

Ribs of Beef, Carving ... 2618 
Ribsof Beef, Economy of 338 
Ribs of Beef, Boasting. . . 60O 
Ribs of Lamb, Roasting . 62 6 
Bice, a Black Man's Re- 

cipe 225 

Bice Bread 341 

Rice Bread, Excellent. . . 113 

Bice Dumplings 821 

Bice-flour Cement 827 

Bice for Curry 3169 

Bice Pancakes 3995 

Bioe Pud<Ung for Chil- 
dren 214 

Biee Puddhig, Without 

Eggs 733 

Rice Pudding Warmed . 349 

Rice, Yellow. 2060 

Rickets, Treatment of . 1359 

Rings, Jewelled 518 

Ringworm, Cure for ... 2030 
Ringworm, Treatment of 1260 

Rise, or Raise ? 1500 

Boasting Beef 598 

Boasting, Dialogue on ... 1972 
Boasting, Hints and Cau- 
tions 59g 

Boasting, Loea by 289 

Roasting Mutton 602 

Roasting,Time Required 239 
Roche's Bmbrooation ... 224 
Bock Fish, Poisoning by 3285 

Rolls, Breakfast 841 

RoUs, F^nch 1165 

Roots, How to Powder... 2665 

Roots, Powdering 2665 

Rose Leaves, Uses of ... 2720 
Rose Trees, Blight ftrom 1808 
Round of Beef, Carving . 2619 

Round of Beef, Salt 2;S55 

IU)yalFamily,To Address 

the 3846 

Rube Fadents, Uses of .2761 

Ruins, Modelling 1970 

Rules, Domestic 846 

Rules for Biarketing, Dr. 

Kitchener's 41 

Rum, Adulterated 2421 

Rump of Beef, Carving . 2617 
Rump of Beef, Uses of. . . 388 
Rump Steak and Onion 

Sauce 3554 

BumpSteakFie 3147 

Rust from Steel Goods. . . 880 



THERE IS SOMETHING TO BB T.KARTIEP TBOH THE MEBEBT TEIFLE. Tf-riif 



Rust, Afiztiirefor 691 

Bust, To Keep Goods 

from 2515 

Riutic Work, ModeUing 1971 
Bye and Wheat Bread... 2649 
Bye and Wheat Flonr 

Bread 3016 

Saddle of Lamb, Carring 2615 
Saddle of Mutton, Carv- 
ing 2614 

Saddle of Mutton, Roast . 60S 
Saddle of Pork, Carving 2614 
Sage and Onion Sauce... 2154 
Sage, When to Gather. . . 2469 
Salad and Salad Sauce... 107 

Salad, Winter 709 

Salivation, Gargle for ... 956 

Salmon, Carving 2609 

Salmon, To Know Fresh 5 
Salt, Saturated Solution 

of 230 

Sal-volatile Restores Co- 
lours 722 

Samphire, To Pickle ... 2339 
SarsapariUa, Deooction of 2300 
Sanaparilla, Usee of ... 2755 

Sadns, To Clean 42 

Satin, ToClean White ... 337 

Sanoepaxa, The 1987 

Sanaages, Bologna 449 

Sausages, Impure 2422 

Sausage, or Meat Cutting 

Machine 2390 

Sausages, ToObtainGood 2422 
Sausage Skins, Preparing 2957 

Sausages, Various 2958 

Savaloys, To Make 2961 

Sanrings, Table to Calcu- 
late Interest 8025 

Savoury Paste 99 

Says I, or I said 1391 

Scalds, Cure by Alum ... 164 
Scalds, Ointment for ... 979 
Scalds, Preparation for 938 
Scalds, Treatment of ... 2239 

Scammony, Uses of. 2740 

Scandal, Live it Down... Ill 
Scanty Menstruation ... 1251 
Scarfs, Wash ChinaCrape 795 
Scarlet Fever, Treatment 1261 

Scfaottlsche, The 1709 

Scones, To Make 458 

Scoring at Whist 2083 

Scorpion Sting 2288 

Scotch Brogue, to Cor- 
rect 1615 

Scotch Brose 2975 

Scotch Woodcock 3976 



Scottish Dialect 1881 

Scouring Drops for Linen 1300 
Scratches, Treatment of 2304 
Scroftila, Treatment of 1262 
Scrofulous Ulceration, 

Ointment for 981 

Scurf in the Heads of 

Infants 1276 

Scurf in the Head 2078 

Scurvy, Treatment of ... 1263 
Sea Lobster, PoisonlBg 

by 2385 

Sea Pie, Capital 748 

Seasons, Buying at the 

Proper 1147 

Sea- water. Artificial ... 264 
Sea-weeds, Collecting ... 1925 

Sedative Lotion 965 

Seidlitz Powders 92 

Self— His, llieir. Mine, 

&c 1868 

Self-praise Condemned 1798 
Senna and Manna for 

Children 222 

Senna Confection 923 

Senna, Powdexing 2665 

Senna, Savoury, When 

to Gather 2470 

Senna, Uses of 2783 

Separation of Man and 

Wife 190 

September, Gardening for 1039 
September — What for 

Dinner? 66 

Serpents, Bites of 2286 

Servants' Wages 203 

Servants, How to Treat 110 
Servants, To Get Good... 110 
Sesqui - Carbonate of 

Ammonia *2699 

Sesqui -- Carbonate of 

Soda 2769 

Set, or Sit 1488 

Setting, or Sitting 1489 

Seven-bell Pasty 837 

Seville Oranges, Uses of 2766 

Sewing at Home 720 

Sewing by Candle-light 203 
Shell -fish. To Choose 

Fresh 8 

Sherbet, Receipt for ... 69 
Shin of Beef, Economy 

of 238 

Shins of Beef, Baked... 2552 
Shocks, Treatment of ..'. 2250 

Shoes, Cleaning 3498 

Shoes, French P<riish for 818 
Shoes, To Get on Tight , 556 



Shop, Taking,- Cautions . 2821 

Shopkeepers' Duties 2848 

Shopkeepers' Guide Re- 
commended 2844 

Shopkeepers' Precautions 3827 
Shopkeepers, Why They 

Fail 2826 

Shoulder of Mutton, 

Carving 2621 

Shouldorof Lamb, Roast- 
ing 624 

Shoulder of Mutton, 

Roast 605 

Shoulder of Veal, Roast- 
ing 813 

Shrimps, To Choose 

Fresh.. 10 

Sialogogues, Effects of... 2769 
Sick, Cautions in Visit- 
ing 2679 

Side-board, Aid to Din- 
ner Tables 2686 

Sidney Smith (Rev.) and 

Soup 1849 

Sifting Powders, &c ... 2667 
Sig^t, Helps for Weak.. . 203 
Signatures, Write Plain . 779 

SQk, Black, Reviver 2488 

Silk, Dyeing Black 428 

Silk, Dyeing Blue 429 

Silk, Dyeing Carnation . 430 
Silk, Dyeing Crimson ... 2068 

Silk, Dyeing LUac 2652 

Silk, Grease Spots from 2042 
Silk, Restoring Colourto 2518 
Silks, Caution Respecting 

Colour 605 

Silks, To Clean 42 

Silks, To Clean Flowered 337 

Silks, To Renovate 1844 

Silver, Poisoning by 2272 

Silver, Take Ink from ... 277 
Silver Ware, Washing ... 644 

Singing, Utility of 845 

Sirloin of Beef, Carving 2617 
Sirloin of Beef, Economy 

of 288 

Shrloin, Roasting a, Beef 598 
Sir Roger de Coverley, 

Dance 1711 

Skeleton Leaves 1927 

Skin Diseases, Their 

Cause.. 882 

Skin. Soften by Sulphur 60 
Sky-larks, Management 

of 2848 

Sky-lights, Ornamental . 1851 
Sleep, How to Get 881 



3X1V 



THE STEAM ENGI17E IB A MIGHTY AGENT OF GOOD. 



Sleepof Infants 1083 

Sluggish Lirer, Decoc< 

tionfor 932 

Slugs, To Destroy 1306 

Slugs, To KiU 322 

Slugs, To Kill, 2033 

Small-Pox Marks 2040 

Smali-Poz, To Prevent 

Pitting 1018 

Small-Pox, Treatment of 1264 

Smoky Chimneys 567 

Snails, Trap for 1305 

Snails, To Kill 2033 

Snipes, Carving 2641 

Snipes, To Choose Good 26 

Snuff, Adulterated 2423 

So, or As? 1568 

Soda Cake 465 

Soda, Poisoning by 2278 

Soda- Water Powders ... 64 
Soda, Uses of Medical ... 2769 
Soap Liniment with 

Spanish Flies 940 

Soap, To Save C56 

Sofas, Correspond with 

Carpet 678 

Sofas, Cleaning 539 

Soft Water, To Obtain... 726 
Soldering, Neat Mode ... 2061 

Soles, Carving 2608 

Sore Throat 365 

Sore Throat, Malignant 954 
Sore Throat, Treatment 

of 1242 

Soup, Portable 2549 

Soyer, Receipts by 770 

Spanish Dance 1691 

Spanish Flies, Poisoning 

by 2284 

Spare - Rib of Pork, 

Carving 2634 

Spasms, Enema for 949 

Spasms of the Bowels ... 993 

Speaking, Errors in 1323 

Speculation, Card Game 2122 
SpelHng, Hints Upon ... 1663 
Spiced Meats,Flavouring 

for 2531 

Spiritof Salt,PoiBoningby 2273 

Spit, The 1985 

Spoiling, Dialogue on ... 1972 
Spoonsful, or Spoonfuls ? 1590 

Sponge Cake 43 

Sponge Cake 2524 

Sponging the Body 454 

Spongio Piline, for Poul- 
tices 2199 

Spots from Furniture ... 721 



Sprains, Lotion for 969 

Sprains, Mixtxire for ... 285 
Sprains, Mixture for ... 2076 
Sprains, Remedy for ... 2075 

Sprats, Baked 2552 

Spring Aperient 152 

Squills, Uses of 2748 

Squinting, Treatment of 2303 
Squin*els,Managementof 2312 
Stained Glass. Imitative. 1852 

Stains from Books 2058 

Stair-Rods, Caution 2024 

Stairs, Sweeping 535 

Staining, General Direc- 
tions 358 

Staining Stone 359 

Stains from the Hands. . . 503 

Stains from Floors 283 

Stains of Medicines 510 

Stalactite Caves,ToMake 1940 
Stamped Agreements ... 2908 
Stanhope Lens, Use of... 2395 
Starch of Gum Arabic ... 91 

Starch Paste 1948 

Stars, their Indications.. 2072 

Steel from Rust 2515 

Steel Goods fr^m Rust. . . 830 

Stew, First Watch 836 

StewedBeef 766 

Stewed Beef, Saucefor... 2545 

Stewed Oysters 3002 

Stewed Pork 766 

Stewing, Dialogue on ... 1972 

Stimulant Lotion 967 

Stimulants, General 2688 

Stings of Bees, Cure for 159 

SUngs of Nettles 621 

Stings of Wasps, Cure .. 159 

Stock, Brown 2475 

Stock from Mutton Necks 735 

Stockings, Mending 561 

Stomachic Mixture 1000 

Stomachic, Simple 920 

Storaach,Inflammationof 1241 
Stopping for Bad Teeth.. 142 
Strangulation,Treatment 2256 
Strawberry Ice-Cream. . 243 
Strawberry- Water Ice ... 245 
Straw Bonnets, Bleaching2492 
Straw Bonnets, Cleaning 2493 
Straw Matting, Cleaning 537 
Strong Purgative Pills... 985 

Stubborn Breasts 939 

Stuck-up Cockney Dia- 
logue 1611 

Stuffing, Duck or Goose.. 2152 
St Vitus's Dance, Treat- 
ment of 1265 



Succedaneum for HoUow 

Teeth 142 

Sucking Pig, Carving... 2628 

Sudorific Powder 1013 

Suet Pudding, Plain ... 468 
Suffocation by Charcoal 522 
Suffocation,Treatmentof 2259 

Suffolk Dialect 1330 

Sugar, Adulterated 2424: 

Sugar Biscuits 473 

Sugar Iceing for Wed- 
ding Cakes 2932 

Sugar of Lead, Poisoning 

by 2275 

Sulphate of Potash 2743 

Sulphate of Zinc Eye- 

Wash 918 

Sulphur and PotashPow- 

der 1008 

Sulphur Aperient 157 

Sulphur and Senna Con- 
fection : 925 

Sulphur Ointment 980 

Sulphur, Uses of 2731 

Sulphuric Ether Gargle 960 
Sulphuric Ether, Uses of 2694 
Sulphuric Ether, Uses of 2704 

Sunburn, Wash for 288 

Superfluous Hairs 399 

Suppers,Bad for Children 1061 
Suppers — What Shall we 

Have 93 to 107 

Surgery, Domestic 2186 

Swearing Condemned... 1781 
Sweet Bags for Linen . . . 452 
Sweet Dishes, Warming 

Cold 348 

Sweetbreads, Roasting .. 2972 
Sweetbreads, Sauce for.. 2972 
Sweetmeats, Adulterated 2408 
Swimmers, Dr. Frank- 
lin's Advice to 2801 

Swimming, Instructions. 2800 
SwimminginFresh Water 2805 
Table, Ceremonies of the 2584 
Table-Covers, Ink from.. 607 
Tables, Laying Out of... 2585 
Taking a House, Cautions2816 
Taking a Shop, Cautions 2821 
Tales, Idle, Condemned. 1797 

Tamarind Drinks 1002 

Tamarinds, Uses of 2729 

Tape- Worm, Remedy for 2780 
Tape- Worm, Tincture fori 016 

Tartar Emetic 988 

Tartar Emetic, Poison- 
ing by 2269 

Tartaric Add, Uses of... 2772 



TH£ BIBAM FBOM A KETTLE SUGGESTED THE STEAM ENGINE. 



xx\r 



Tea, Adulterated 2426 

Tea-Cakes 460 

Tea, Economy of 576 

Tea-Making, Kitchen- 
er's Plan 820 

Tea-Fartie8,Knick-knacks 

for 71 

Tea— What ShaU we 

Have? 72 to 76 

Teeth Carious, and the 

Breath 1312 

Teeth, Wash for Beauti- 
fying 144 

Teething, General Treat- 
ment 391 

Teething, Indications of 1082 
Teething Powders for 

Children 1006 

Temperaments, Differ- 
ences in 2675 

Temperance 1047 

Temples, Modelling 1961 

Terms Used in Dances... 1713 
Terms Used in All-fours 2115 
Terms Used in Cribbage 2105 
Terms of Quadrille at 

Cards 2132 

Terms Used in Whist ... 2083 
That, Applied to Nouns 1354 

Thatand Which 1353 

Them, or Those ? 1470 

These, or This ? 1497 

These and Those 1352 

This and That 1361 

This, or Thus? 1483 

ThomApple,Poi8oningby2281 

Thou, You, and Ye 1348 

Threading a Needle 203 

Thrush, Treatment of... 1266 
Thrushes,Management of 2314 

Thumb, Dislocated 2244 

Thyme, When to Gather 2472 
Tic Doloreux, Treatment 1267 

Tin, Poisoning by 2270 

Tins, Cleaning 2565 

To, or With? 1451 

To Let, or To Be Let?,.. 1450 
Toads Should be Kept... 2039 
Tobacco, Adulterated ... 2426 
Toilet, E tiquette of the . 278 
Toilet of a Roman Lady . 260 
Toilette, Young Lady's ... 749 

Tolu, Uses of 2758 

Tomata Sauce 2510 

Tongues, Carving 2629 

Tonic and Stimulant 

Mixture 999 

Tonic Aperient 155 



Tonic Fills 988 

Tonic Powder 1006 

Tonic and Stimulant 

Gargle 957 

Tonics, Effects of. 2709 

Took, or Mistook ? 1684 

Tool Chests, Family ... 1097 
Toothache, Oil of Cloves 

for 170 

Toothache, Preventive of 142 
Toothache BeUeved by 

Opium .: 2696 

Toothache, Treatment . 1258 

Tooth Powders 145 

Tooth Powder, American 173 
Tooth Powder, Quinine . 174 
Topographical Models. . . 1956 
Tortoiseshell, Imitation . 368 

Tow, for Surgery 2194 

Towels, Economy of. 203 

TracingPaper 2062 

Tragacanth, Uses of 2783 

Transparencies for Win- 
dows 1851 

Trees, Prevent Mildew on 1309 
Tunny, Poisoning by ... 2285 
Turbeth Mineral, Poison- 

ingby 2268 

Turbot, Carving 2604 

Turbot, To Know Fresh 3 

Turkey, Carving 2642 

Turkey, To Choose Good 19 
Turkey, Dressing Cold. . . 2981 
Turnip, Cold, Use for ... 2067 
Turnip Radishes, Boiled 1846 

Turnip Wine 257 

Turpentine Enema 946 

Turpentine Liniment ... 941 
Two First, or First Two ? 1465 
Typhus Fever, Treatment 1269 
Ulcerated Mouth, Mix- 
ture for 919 

Ulcerations, Indolent, 

Ointment for 982 

Ulcerations, Scrofulous, 

Ointment for 981 

Ulcers, Flabby, Lotion for 967 

Ulcers, Lotion for 966 

Ulcers, -Preparation for . 941 
Ulcers, Treatment by 

Lunar Caustic 2775 

Umbrellas, Usefulness of 203 

Unfermented Bread 2077 

Unfermented Cakes 459 

Urns, &c.. Cleaning 455 

Valerian, Uses of. 2702 

Valse ^ Deux Temps ... 1705 
Vapour Baths 2455 



Varnish for Grates 87 

Varnished Doors, To 

Clean 457 

Vases, Potichomanie ... 1864 

VealAlamode 2157 

Veal and Ham Patties ... 97 

Veal, Baked 2552 

Veal, Nice Way to Serve 

Cold 2166 

Veal Pie 8007 

Veal, Ragout of Cold ... 3001 
Veal, Remarks on Roast- 
ing 610 

Veal Rissoles 333 

Veal Sausages 2963 

Veal, Stewed Fresh 770 

Veal Sweetbread 615 

Veal, To Choose Good... 13 
Veal with White Sauce . 332 

Vegetable Poisons '2283 

Vegetable Soup 1830 

Vegetables, Boil Sepa- 
rately 685 

Vegetables Chopped for 

Soups 2422 

Vegetables for Children 212 
Vegetables for Children .1054 
Vegetables, Indigestible 

Under-boiled ^39 

Vegetables, Preparation 

of 627 

Vegetables, Mode of 

Cleaning 636 

Vegetables, To Boil 632 

Vegetables, To Choose . 630 
Vegetables, To Clear of 

Insects 1837 

Vegetables, To Give Good 

Colourto 640 

Vegetables, To Refresh . 631 
Vegetables, To Wash ... 633 

Vegetables, Unripe 629 

Veil, To Wash a Lace ... 344 
Veils, To Clean White . 2307 
Velvet, Grease from ... 1286 
Velvet, Raising Plush of 555 

Venice Turpentine 2744 

Venison, To Choose Good 1 8 
Ventilation, Hint upon . 203 
Verbs and Nouns, List of 1 608 
Verdigris, Poisoning by.. 2267 
Verditer, Poisoning by. . . 2267 

Vermicelli Soup 2432 

Vermilion, Poisoning by 2268 
Vermin, Cause of, and Use 883 
Vinegar, to Make Good. .3018 
Vingt-un, Card Gane ... 2129 
Viper, Bite of 2286 



XZFl IF NONE ENOBAYOUBED, ZHKBS WOULD BS AN END TO DIBCK)YEBT. 



VialtB, Etiquette of 278 

Visits of Condolence ... 2953 
Vitriol, Poisoning by ... 2273 
Volatile Salt, Uses of ... 2698 
Vulgarity Condenmed... 1780 
Wages, Table to Calculate8024 

Waiters, Cleaning 455 

Waiters, Ihities of 2598 

Walking GraoefUly 68 

Walking, Caution 2019 

Walls, Lead for Damp... 819 

Walnut Ketchup 2158 

Walnuts, to Fickle 2884 

Waltz, Circular 1708 

Walts, Cotillon 1697 

Wanting, or Wanted?... 1555 
Wannth, Apply to the 

Body 2226 

Warts, Cure by Acetic 

Acid 1815 

Warts, Cure by CaustioL. 885 
Warts, Cure by Lunar 

Caustic 2775 

Washing, a New Method 2179 
Washing Bed Furniture. 2533 
Washing, Bemarks npcm 654 
Washing, Beviaion of . . . 208 

Washing the Body 898 

Waddng the Feet 899 

Washing with lime ... 3019 

Was, or Had? 1678 

Was, or Were? 1896 

Was, or Were? 1481 

Wasps, Cure for the 

Sting of 159 

Wasps, to KiH 2036 

Waste Paper, Uses of ... 1120 
WaterprooOng Boots and 

Shoes 70 

Waterproofing Shoes ... 498 

Water for Tea 674 

Water, in Models 1947 

Water on the Brain 1270 

Water, Reason why Hard 665 
Water-Stains from Crape 884 
Water, to Obtidn Soft... 726 
Water Hemlock, Poison^ 

ingby 2281 

Water, to Soften Hard... 664 

Wax outof Cloth 604 

Waac, Modelllngin 1981 

Waxen Flowers and Fmitl876 
Weak Eyes, Wash for... 918 
WeakEyes, Zinc Wash for 915 
Weather and the Blood.. 2185 

Weather, Signs of 2070 

Wedding Bing, Why on 

Fourth Finger 269 



Wedding Bings, Origin of 453 
WeddingBreakfii«t,Hints 

Upon 2928 

Wedding Cakes, to Make 2980 
Wedding Cards, Hints 

Upon 2924 

Wedding Day, Arrange- 
ments of 2811 

Wedding Dress, Hints 

Upon 2916 

Wedding Party— Order 

ofGoingtoChiurch... 2916 
Wedding Party — Order 
of Betundtng from 

Church 2922 

Wedding Receptions ... 2925 
Wedding Tours, Sugges- 
tions for 2926 

Weekly Tenants, Laws of 2880 
White Mice, Manage- 

mentof. 3011 

Wedgware Mortars, Cau- 
tion 2666 

Wedgewood Ware, De- 

fective 646 

Were, or Was? 1557 

What became of hisWffl ? 284 

WhatisBain? 301 

What is the Cause of 

Snow? 298 

What is the Smoke of a 

Candle? 2001 

What is the Use of Cloth- 
ing? 308 

What May Be, orWhatIs?1476 

W1iat,orThat? 1472 

What Makes Baby Cry ? 1067 
What shall we Name our 

Child? 140 

What Weather shall we 

have? 2069 

Wheat and Byo lead... 2649 
Wheat Flour to Know 

Pure 2402 

Wheat, Mills for Grinding2183 
When is a Black Teapot 

Best? 1994 

Which, or That ? 1367 

Which, or Who? 1866 

Whist, Bules of 2082 

Whist, Terms Used in... 2083 
White HeUebore, Poison- 
ing by 2282 

Whiting, Canring 2611 

Whites, Treatment of... 1271 

White Sauce 882 

White Swellings, Emetic 983 
WhiteVitriol,Poisoningby 2271 



White Vitriol, Uses of... 2722 

Whitlows, Hot Water for 2301 

Who? Interrogative ... 1366 

Whom, or Who? 185T 

Who, or Whom? 1346 

Whose and Whom 1853 

Whose? The Use of ... 1847 

Why does a Polished 
Teapot make the Best 
Tea? 19»0 

Why will not a Dull Tea^ 
pot make Good Tea? 1991 

Why do Aged Cottagers 
prefer the Earthen 
Teapot? 1992 

Why will a Black Tea. 
potmaketheBestTea? 1993 

Why does a Laundress 
Moisten an Iron to 
know if it be Hot? ... 293 

Why does Water Roll on 
Hot Iron? 292 

Why is the Iron Hotter 
when the Moisture 
Runs off from it? 294 

Why should not the Bot- 
tom of a Kettle be Po- 
Kshed? 1997 

Why does an Old Sauce- 
pan Boil Quicker than 
aNewOne? 1995 

Why are Dinner Covers 
made of Bright Metal ? 1998 

Why should a Meat 
Cover be made Bright ? 1 999 

Why should Silver Meat 
Covers not be Chased? 2000 

Why should the Front 
and Lid of a Saucepan 
beBright? 1996 

Why do Candles " Spirt ?" 291 

Why do Lamps Smoke . 2003 

Why does a Lamp Smoke 
when the Wick is Cut 
Unevenly? 2004 

Why does a Lamp-Glass 
Dhninishthe Smoke? 2005 

Why are some Pai*ticles 
of Smoke only Con- 
sumed? 2002 

Why are Damp Beds 
Dangerous? 29S 

Why does Wet give us 
Cold? 295 

Why is Health Impaired 
by Cold? 29G 

Why does not Sea Water 
give Cold? 297 



BE BOLD ENOUGH TO EXFEBIMENT. 



XIVU 



Why are "Wools and Furs 
Used in Winter ? 305 

Why do not Wools and 
Furs give Heat ? 306 

Why would the Heat of 
the Body-Esoapeif not 
for Wools and Furs ? . 307 

What is the Use of 
March Winds? 310 

Why are March Winds 
Dry ? 809 

Why is it said that 
*^ March comes in like 
a Lion?" 311 

Why does "March go 
out like a Lamb?"... 312 

Why is it said that 
"March Flowers make 
no Summer Bowers ?** 316 

Why is it said that "A 
Dry March never Imgs 
Bread?" 314 

Why is "A Bushel of 
Dust worth a King's 
Ransom?" 313 

Why does Snow Protect 
Vegetables from Gold? 304 

Why does "God give 
Snow like Wool?"... 303 

Why is it said that 
" April Showers bring 
May Flowers ?" 317 

Why do Rain Drops 
vary in Size? 802 

Why is it said that " A 
Wet March make a 
Sad Autumn?" 315 

Why is there more Rain 
from September to 
Bfarch than ftom 
March to September? 318 

What is Hail? 800 

What is the Cause of 
Sleet? 299 

Wife, How to Treat her 838 

Wife's Power 1151 

Window '. li ds, Artistic 1851 

Windows Beautiful 1851 



Windows of Bedrooms .. 1095 

Wine Biscuits 467 

Wine, Fining 2505 

Wines, Adulterated 2427 

Wines, Directions for 

Making 2315 

Wine Stains from Linen 1290 
Wine, When taken at 

Dinner 2599 

Winter Salad 709 

Winter Savoury, When 

to Gather 2473 

Wives, Advice to 1152 

Wive* and Oheerf^ilness 203 
Wives and Husbands* 

Tempers.. 196 

Wives and Neatness 200 

Wives and Newspapars . 194 

Wives and Shirt-buttons 192 
Wives and the Last Word 1 9 8 

Woodcocks, Carving 2689 

Woodcocks, To Choose 

Good 26 

Wood, Models in 1944 

Wood,Mode]iingin.«..„ 1989 

Wood, Staining Black ... 375 

Wood, Staining Blue ... 376 
Wood, Staining Botany 

Bay 377 

Wood, Staining Green... 378 
Wood, Staining Light 

Bktram 380 

Wood, Staining as Ma- 
hogany 379 

Wood, Staining Purple . 381 

Wood, Staining Red 383 

Wood, Staining Yellow .. 384 
Wood, Staining as Rose- 
wood 383 

Wool, Dyeing Blue 433 

Wool, Dyeing Brown .... 434 

Wool, Dyeing Drab 485 

Wool, Dyeing Green 436 

Wool, Dyeing Orange ... 437 

Wool, Dyeing Red 488 

Wool, Dyeing Yellow ... 489 
Woollen Clothes, Wash- 
ing 711 



Woollen Things, To 

Clean 42 

Womens* Conversation .. 871 
Women, Immoral, as 

Lodgers 2886 

Woraester Sausages 2968 

Words, Effects of 792 

Words for Charades 2441 

Words Usually Mispro- 
nounced, List of 1646 

Words, Use of Erroneous 1328 
Work, do a UttleWell... 728 
WOTms in the Intestines 1272 

Wensi^ Intastfaial 2778 

Worms for Poultry 2965 

Wormwood, Uses of. 2713 

Worser, Lesser 1877 

Wow- Wow Sauce 2644 

Wounds, Treatment of . . . 2245 
Wounds, Flabby, Lotion 

for 968 

Writing, Errors in 1668 

Wrtttng for the Press ... 1850 
Writing, Points Used in . 1647 

Yeast, Home-made 2160 

Yeast, To Make 396 

Yeast, To Make 2648 

Yeast, Receipt of Thirty 

Years' Standing 8014 

Yellow Lotion 971 

Yolk of Egg Beaten 2188 

Yorkshire Dialect 1886 

Yoimg, Counsels for the 1168 
Y and Yes^ in SpeUing .. 1676 
Y, The Letter, in Spelling 1677 

Yorkshire Dialect 1841 

You and I, or You and 

He? 1887 

Youth, Health in 1150 

Yule Cake 794 

Zinc and Lead Eye Wash 911 
Zinc and Camphor Eye 

Wash 914 

Zinc, Poisoning by 2271 

Zinc, Wrapping Cutlery 

in 2515 

Zinc, Ink for Writing 
upon 86 



TABLE, 



Showing the Contents op the Separate Numbers op "Enquire Within." 



t'. 







^' 




I: 

Vs. ; ^ ,' jParagraphs 1 to 161 are contained vn No. I. 



•^^ I ' ■■ ^ ^ Paragraphs 162 to 278 a/re contained in No. II. 

Paragraphs 279 to 473 are contained in No. III. 

Paragraphs 474 to 863 are contained in No. IV. 

Paragraphs 864 to 1322 are contained in No. V. 

Paragraphs 1323 to 1850 are contained in No. VI. 

Paragraphs 1851 to 2100 are contained in No. VII. 

Paragraphs 2101 to 2248 are contained in No. VIII. 

Paragraphs 2249 to 2456 are contained in No. IX. 

Paragraphs 2457 to 2762 are contained in No. X. 

Paragraphs 2762 to 3031 are contained in No. XI. 

The Index and Prefatory Matter occupy No. XII. 

(Nob. 11 and 12 are issued together as a Double Number.) 



t*^"" By the aid of the above Table, persons having the numbers of " Enquire 
Within," unbound, can easily refer to the contents ; or persons wishing to dis- 
seminate special information upon the subjects treated of in those numbers, may 
at all times obtain them separately, if they desire to do so. 



ENQUIRE WITHIN 

EVERYTHING. 



1. CHOICE OF ARTICLES OF 
POOD, — Nothing ia more important 
ia the atbini of housekeeping than the 
choice of whotesome food. We have 
been Mnuesd by n conundrum which is 
ea follows :—" A. aaa went to mnrbet 
and bought luo fish. When he reached 
home he found they were the aame as 
when he had bou^t tbem ; yet there 
were three I " How was Uiis ! lie 
answer is — " He bought two mackarel, 
and one mfltl " Those who envy him 
his bargain need not care aboat the 
ibltowing rules; but to others they 
will be valuable : — 

2. Mackerel must be perfectly 
fresh, or it is a very iodi&Went Bah ; it 
will neither bear carriage, nor being 
kept many hours out of the water. 
The fimmess of -the flesh, and the 
clearness of the eyea, must be the 
criterion of fresh maoterel, as they are 
of all other fisb. (fifee 66.) 

3. TUBBOT/ and all flat white fish, 
are rigid and firm when fresh ; the 
under side should be of a rich cream 
colour. When out of aeaaon, or too 
long kept, this becomes a bluish white, 
and the flesh soft and flaccid. A clear 
bright eye in flsh is also smark of being 
fi'of^ and good. 

4. Cod ia hnovm to be fresh by the 
rigidity of the muscles (or flesh) ; the 
redness of the gilla, and clearness of 
ttie eyes. Crimping much improves 



eellence of this Eah depeui 
freshness, and the shortness of time 
since it was caught ; for no method can 
completely preserve the delicate flavour 
it haa whenjuat taken out of the water. 
A great deal of what is brought to 
London has been packed in ice, and 
cornea from the Scotch and Irish rivers, 
and though quite fr«ah, is not quite 
equal to Thames salmon. 

6. Hebrihos can only be eaten 
when very freah, and, like mackerel, 
will not remun good many houra after 
they are caught. 

7. Fbksh-waibe Fish. — The re- 
marks as to fimmeas and clear fresh 
eyes apply to this variety of fish, of 
which there are carp, tench, pike, po^h, 
&e. 

S. Lobsters, recently caught, have 
always some remains of muscular action 
in the claws, which may be excited bj 
pressing the eyea with the finger ; when 
thia cannot be produced, the lobster 
must have been too long kept. When 
boiled, the tail preserves its elasticity 
if fresh, but loaea it as aoon as it be- 
comes stale. The heaviest lobsters are 
the best ; when light they are wateiy 
and poor. Hen lobstera may generally 
be known by the spawn, or by the 



chosen by observations similar to those 
given above in the choice of lobsters. 
Crabs have an agreeable smell when 



2 BBEATH MAT BLOW OUT A CANDLE, AN EXTINGUISHER FBEYENT A FIRE. 



10. Prawns and Shrimps, when 
fresh, are firm and crisp. 

11. Oysters. — If fi-esh, the shell is 
firmly olosed; when the shells of 
oysters are opened, th^ are dead, and 
unfit for food. The small-shelled 
oysters, the Pyfleet, Colchester, and 
Milford, are the finest in flavour. 
Larger kinds, called rock oysters, are 
generally considered only fit for stew- 
ing and sauces, though some penscms 
prefer them. 

12. Beep. — The grain of ox heef, 
when good, is loose, the meat red, and 
the fat inclining to yellow. Cow beef, 
on the contrary, has a closer grain, a 
whiter fat, but meat scarcely as red as 
that of ox beef. Infeiior beef, which is 
meat obtained fi*om ill-fed animals, or 
from those which had become too old 
for food, may be known by a hard 
skinny fat, a dark red lean, and, in pld 
animals, a line of horay texture running 
through tiie meat of the ribs. When 
meat pressed by the finfi^er rises up 
quickly, it may be considered as that 
of an animal which was in its prime; 
when the dent made by pressure re- 
turns slowly, or remains visible, the 
animal had probably past its prime, 
and the meat eooBequeatly must be of 
inferior quality. 

13. Veal should be delicately white, 
though it is often juicy and well fla- 
voured when rather dark in colour. 
Butchers, it is said, bleed oalves * pur- 
posely before killing them, with a view 
to make the flesh white, but this also 
makes it dry and flavourless. On exa- 
mining the loin, if the fat enveloping 
the kidney be white and firm-looking, 
the meat will probably be prime and 
recently killed. Veal will not keep so 
long as an older meat, especially in hot 
or damp weather; when going, the &i 
becomes soft, and moist, the meat 
flabby and spotted, and somewhat 
porous, like sponge. Lapge oveigrown 
veal is inferior to small, delicate, yet 
£ftt veal. The fillet of a cow-calf is 
known by the udder attached to it, and 
by the softness of the skin ; it is pre- 
ferable to the veal of a bull-oalf. 



14. Mutton. — ^The meat should be 
firm and close in grain, and red in 
colour, the fat white and firm. Mutton 
\b in its inime when the sfaoep is about 
five years old, thau^ it is often killed 
much younger. If too young, the flesh 
feels tender when pinched ; if too old, 
on being pinched, it wrinkles up, and so 
remains. In young mutton, the fat 
readily separates; in old, it is held 
together h^ sliings of kins. In sheep 
diseased of the rot, the flesh is very 
pale-coloured, the fat inclining to yel- 
low, the meat appears loose from the 
bone,*and, if squeezed, drops of water 
ooze out from the grains ; after cooking, 
the meat drops clean away fh>m the 
bones. Wether mutton is preferred to 
that of the ewe ; it may be known by the 
lump of fat on the inside of the thi|^ 

15. Lamb. — This meat will not keep 
long after it is killed. The lai^ vein 
in the neck is bluish in colour when the 
fore-quarter is £resh, green when 
becoming stale. In the hind quarter, 
if not recently killed, the fat of the 
kidney will have a slight smell, and the 
knuckle will have lost its firmness. 

16. Pork. — ^When good, thd rind is 
thin, smooth, and cool to the touch ; 
when changing, from being too long 
killed, it beoomes flaccid and clammy. 
Enlarged glands, called kernels, in the 
fat, are marks of an ill-fed or diseased 

pig- 

17. Bacon should have a thin rind, 

and the* fat should be firm and tinged 
red by tibe curing ; the flesh should be 
of a cleai* red, without intermixture of 
yellow, and it should firmly adhere to 
the bone. To judge the state of a ham, 
plunge a knife into it to the bone; on 
drawing it back, if particles of meat 
adhere to it^ or if the smell is disagree- 
able, the curijig has not been effectual, 
and the ham is not good ; it should, in 
such a state, be immediately cooked. 
In buying a ham, a short thick one is 
to be preferred to one long and ihin. 
Of English hams, Yorkshire, West- 
moreland, and Hampshire, are moat 
esteemed; of foreign, the Westphalia. 

18. VxNXBOib-^WhfliL goody the &t 



A SOOTY CHIMNEY COSTS MANY A BEEP STEAK. 



is clear, bright, and of considerable 
thickness. To know when it is neces- 
sary to cook it, a knife must be plunged 
into the haunch ; and from the smell 
the cook must determine on dressing 
or keeping it. 

19. Turkey. — In choosing poultry, 
the age of the bird is the chief point to 
be attended to. An old turkey has 
rough and reddish legs ; a young one 
smooth and black. Fresh killed, the 
eyes are full and clear, and the feet 
moist. When it has been kept too 
long, the parts about the vent begin to 
wear a greenish discoloured appearance. 

20. Common domestic powus, when 
young, have the legs and combs smooth ; 
when old they are rough, and on the 
breast long hairs are found instead of 
feathers. Fowls and chickens should 
be plump on the breast, fat on the 
back, and white-legged. 

21. Gbese. — The bills and feet are 
red when old, yellow when yotmg. 
Fresh killed, the feet are pliable, stiff 
when too long kept. Geese are called 
green while they are only two or three 
monthJbld. 

22. Ducks. — Choose them with sup- 
ple feet and hard plump breasts. Tame 
ducks have yellow feet, wild ones red. 

23. Pigeons are very indifferent food 
when they are too long kept. Supple- 
ness of the. feet show them to be young; 
the state of the flesh is flaccid when 
they are getting bad ftom keeping. 
Tame pigeons are larger than the wild. 

24. Habes and Babbits, when old, 
have the haunches thick, the ears dry and 
tough, and the claws blimt and ragged. 
A young hare has claws smooth and 
sharp, ears that easily tear, and & narrow 
cleft in the lip. A leveret is dis- 
tinguished from a hare by a knob or 
small bone near the foot. 

25. Pabtbidoes, when young, have 
yellow legs and dark-coloured bills. 
Old partridges are very indifferent 
eating. 

26. WOODOOOKS AOT) SNIPES, when 
old, have the feet thick and hard; when 
these are soft and. tender, t hey are both 
young and fresh killed. When their 



bills become moist, and their throats 
muddy, they have been too long killed. 
(See Food in Season, 48 to 69.) 

2r. TO CLEAN BLACK CLOTH 
CLOTHES.— Clean the garments well; 
then boil four ounces of logwood in a 
boiler or copper containing two or three 
gallons of water for half an hour ; dip 
the clothes in warm water, and squeeze 
dry, then put them into the copper and 
boil for half an hour. Take them out, 
and add three drachms of sulphate of 
iron ; boil for half an hour, then take 
them out, and hang them up for an 
hour or two ; take them down, rinse 
them in three cold waters, dry well, 
and rub with a soft brush which has 
had a few drops of olive oil rubbed 
on its surface. If the clothes are 
thi'eadbare about the elbows, cuffs, &c., 
raise the nap with a teazel or half- 
worn hatter's card, filled with flocks, 
and when sufficiently raised, lay the nap 
the right way with a hard brush. We 
have seen our old coats come out with 
a wonderful dash of respectability. 
after this operation. 

28. PREVENTION" OF FIRES.— 
The following simple suggestions airer 
worthy of observation : — Add one ounce 
of alum to the last water used to rinse 
children's dresses, and they will be 
rendered uninflammable, or so slightly 
combustible that they would take fire 
very slowly, if at all, and would not 
flame. Tins is a sim^^e precaution^ 
which may be adopted in families of 
children. Bed curtains, and linen in 
general, may also be treated in the 
same way. 

29. CAMPHOR BALLS TO PRE- 
VENT CHAPS.— Melt three drachms 
of spermaceti, four drachms of white 
wax, with one ounce of almond oil, and 
stir in three drachms of camphor (pre- 
viously powdered by moistening it with 
a little spirits of wine) ; pour small 
quantities into small gallipots, so as to 
turn out in theform of cakes. Sperma- 
ceti, 2s. per pound ; white wax, 2s. 2d. 
per pound; almond oil, Is. 6d. per 
pound ; camphor, 2s. 8d. per pound. 



A OBACKED PLATE WILL LAST AS LONG AS A SOUND ONE. 



30. CASTOR OIL POMADE. — 
castor oil, four ounces ; prepared lard, 
two ounces ; white wax, two drachms ; 
bergamot, two drachms ; oil of 
lavender, twenty drops. Melt the fat 
together, and on cooling add the scents, 
and stir till cold. Cost of castor oil, 
lOd. per pound ; lard, lid. ; white 
wax, 23. 2d. per pound ; bei^gamot, Is. 
an ounce. 

31. MUTTON PIE.— The following 
is a capital family dish : — Cut mutton 
into pieoes about two inches square, 
and half an inch thick ; mix pepper, 
poimded allspice, and salt together, dip 
the pieces in this ; sprinkle stale bread 
crumbs at the bottom of the dish; 
lay in the pieces, strewing the crumbs 
over each layer ; put a piece of butter 
the size of a hen's egg at the top ; add 
a wineglassful of water, and cover in, 
and bsJce in a moderate oven rather 
better than an hour. Take an onion, 
chop fine ; a faggot of herbs ; half an 
anchovy ; and aidd to it a little beef- 
stock, or gravy ; simmer for a quarter 
of an hour ; raise the crust at one end, 
and pour in the liquor — ^not the thick 
part. {See 135.) 

82. MOTHS (to get rid of them).— 
1. Procure shavings of cedar-wood, and 
enclose in muslin bags, which should 
be distributed freely among the clothes. 
— 2. Procure shavings of camphor-wood, 
and enclose in bags. — 3. Sprinkle pi- 
mento (allspice) berries among the 
clothes.-— 4. Sprinkle the clothes with 
the seeds of the musk plant. — 5. To 
destroy the eggs when deposited in 
woollen cloth, &c., use a solution of 
acetate of potash in spirits of rosemary, 
fifteen grains to the pint. 

83. PAINS IN THE HEAD AND 
FACE. — ^A friend assures us that he 
was cured of a severe attack of tic 
doloreux by the following simple re- 
medy : — Take half a pint of rose water, 
add two teaspoonfuls of white vinegar, 
to form a lotion. Apply it to the part 
affected three or four times a day. It 
requires fresh linen and lotion each 
application ; this will, in two or three 
days, gradually take the pain away. 



The above receipt I feel desirous of 
being made known to the public, as I 
have before mentioned the relief I have 
experienced, and others, whose names 
I could give. The last remark is our 
friend's own. "We doubt the cure of 
real tic doloreux by these means ; but 
in many cases of nervous pains the 
above would be useful, and may easily 
be tried. 

34. COLD CREAM.— No. 1. Oil of 
almonds, one poimd ; white wax, four 
ounces. Melt together gently in an 
earthen vessel, and when nearly cold 
stir in gradually twelve ounces of rose- 
water. — No. 2. White wax and sperma- 
ceti, of each half an ounce ; oil of 
almonds, four oimces ; orange flower 
water, two ounces. Mix as directed 
for No. 1. The wholesale price of 
almond oil is Is. 6d. per pound ; white 
wax, 2s. 2d. per pound; spermaceti, 
2s. per pound ; rose and orange flower 
waters, 6d. to Is. per pint. 

35. NIGHT LIGHTS.— Field's and 
Child's night lights are generally known 
and are easily obtainable. But imder 
circumstances where they caimot be 
procured, the waste of candles may be 
thus applied. Make a fine cotton, and 
wax it with white wax. Then cut 
into the requisite lengths. Melt the 
grease and pour into pill boxes, pre- 
viously either fixing the cotton in the 
centre, or dropping it in just before the 
grease sets. If a little white wax be 
melted with the grease, all the better. 
In this manner, the ends and drippings 
of candles may be used up. When set 
to bum, place in a saucer, with suffi- 
cient water to rise to the extent of the 
16th of an inch around the base of the 
night-light. 

36. GINGER CAKES. — To two 
pounds of flour add three-quarters 
of a pound of good moist sugar, one 
ounce best Jamaica ginger well mixed 
in the flour ; have ready three-quarters 
of a pound of lard, melted, and four 
eggs well beaten ; mix the lard and 
eggs together, and stir into the flour, 
which will form a paste ; roll out 
in thin cakes, and bake in a mo- 



BBTTEK FAY THE COOK THAN THE DOCTOR. 



derately Heated oven. Lemon biscuits 
may be made the same way, by sub- 
stituting essence of lemon instead of 
ginger. 

37. THE HANDS.— Take a wine- 
glassful of eau de ColognOi and anotber 
of lemon-juice : tben sci'ape two cakes 
of bi*own Windsor soap to a powder, 
and mix well in a mould. When hard, 
it will be an excellent soap for whitening 
the hands. 

38. To Whiten the Nails.— Diluted 
sulphuric acid, two drachms; tincture of 
myn'h, one drachm ; spring water, four 
ounces ; mix. First cleanse with white 
soap, and then dip the fingers into the 
mixture. A good hand is one of the 
chief points of beauty ; and these appli- 
cations are really effective. 



39. RHUBARB TO PRESERVE.— 
Peel one pound of the finest rhubarb, 
and cut it into pieces of two inches in 
length, and three-quarters of a pound 
of white sugar, and the rind and 
juice of one lemon — ^the rind to be 
cut into narrow strips. Put all into a 
preserving kettle, and simmer gently 
until the rhubarb is quite soft, take it 
out carefully with a silver spoon, and 
put it into jars : then boil the syrup a 
sufficient time to make it keep well, 
say one hour, and pour it over the 
miit. When cold put a paper soaked 
in brandy over it, and tie the jars 
down with a bladder to exclude the 
air. This is a very good receipt, and 
should be taken advantage of in the 
spring. 

40. HALF-PAY PUDDING. — An 
officer's wife is the contributor of the 
following : — ^Four dunces of each of the 
following ingredients, viz., suet, flour, 
currants, raisins, and bread crumbs; two 
tablespoonfuls of treacle, half a pint 
of milk — all of which must be well 
mixed together, and boiled in a mould, 
for four hours. To be served up with 
wine or brandy sauce, if half-pay per- 
mit. From two to three hours we 
find sufficient; it is an excellent sub- 
stitute for Christmas plum pudding, 
at the small expense of 6d. or 7d. 



41. DR. KITCHENER'S RULES 
FOR MARKETING.— The best rule 
for marketing is to pay ready money 
for every thing, and to deal with the 
most reipectable tradesmen in your 
neighbourhood. If you leave it to their 
integrity to supply you with a good 
ai'ticle, at the fair market price, you 
will be supplied with better provisions, 
and at as reasonable a rate as those 
hargairirhunters, who trot "arotmd, 
around, a/rov/nd aJbofU** a market till 
they are trapped to buy some unchewor 
hie old poultry, tough tup-mutton, 
stringy cow-beef, or stale fish, at a 
very little less than the price of prime 
and proper food. With savings like 
these they toddle home in triumph, 
cackling all the way, like a goose that 
has got ancle-deep into good-luck. All 
the skill of the most accomplished 
cook will avail nothing unless she is 
furnished with prime provisions. The 
best way to procure these is to deal 
with shops of established character : 
you may appear to pay, perhaps, ten 
per cent, more than you would were 
you to deal with those who pretend to 
sell cheap, but you would be much 
more than in that proportion better 
served. Every trade has its tricks and 
deceptions; those who follow them 
can deceive you if they please, and 
they are too apt to do so, if you pro- 
voke the exercise of their over-reaching 
talent. Challenge them to a game at 
" Ca4xh who cam,!* by entirely relying 
on your own judgment^ and you will 
soon find nothing but veiy long ex- 
perience can make you equal to the 
combat of marketing to the utmost 
advantage. If you think a tradesman 
has imposed upon you, never use a 
second word, if the first will not do, 
nor drop the least hint of an imposi- 
tion ; the only method to induce him 
to make an abatement is the hope of 
future favours, pay the demand, and 
deal with the gentleman no more ; but 
do not let him see that you are dis- 
pleased, or as soon as you are out of 
sight your reputatioiv will suffer as 
much as your pocket ha& Before you 



6 



BISEABE IS SOON SHAKEN BT PHTSIO SOON TAKEN. 



go to market; look over your larder, 
and consider well what things are 
wanlnng— especially on a Saturday. No 
well-regulated family can suffer a dis- 
orderly caterer to bo jimiping in and 
out to make purchases on a Sunday 
morning. You will be enabled to ma- 
nage much better if you will make out 
a bill of fare for the week on the Satur- 
day before ; for example, for a femily 
of half a dozen — 

Sunday — Boast beef and pudding. 
Monday — Fowl, wliat was left of pudding 

fried, or wanned in the Dvitc^ oven. 
Tuesday— Calf '8 head, apple pie. 
Wednesday — Leg of mutton. 
Thursday— Do. broiled or hashed, or pan- 
cakes. 
Priday — Fish, padding. 
Saturday — Fish, or eggs and bacon« 

It is an excellent plan to have certain 
things on certain days. When your 
butcher and poulterer knows what you 
will want, he has a better chance of 
doing his best for you ; and never 
think of ordering beef for roasting 
except for Sunday. When you order 
meat, poultry^ or fish, tell the trades- 
man when you intend to dress it : he 
will then have it in his power to serve 
you with provision that will do him 
credit, which, the finest meat, &c, in 
the world wiU never do, unless it has 
been kept a proper time to be ripe and 
tender. — Cook's OrcKle, 

42. CLEANING SIIiKS, SATINS, 
COLOURED WOOLLEN DRESSES, 
Ac. — Four ounces of soft soap, four 
ounces of honey, the white of an 
egg, and a wine-glassful of gin; 
mix well together, and the article 
to be scoured with a i*ather hard 
brush thoroughly, afterwards rinse 
it in cold water, leave to drain, and iron 
whilst quite damp. — ^A friend informs 
us that she believes this receipt has 
never been made public ; she finds it an 
excellent one, having used it for a 
length of time, and recommended it to 
fiiends with perfect success. 

43. SPONGE CAKE.— A lady, or, 
as the newspapers say, '^ a correspon- 
dent upon whom we can confidently 
rely," favours us with the following 



simple receipt, which, she says, gives 
less trouble than any other, and has 
never been known to fail : — Take five 
eggs, and half a pound of loaf-sugar 
sifted ; break the eggs upon the sugsir, 
and beat all together with a steel fork 
for half an hour. Previously take the 
weight of two eggs and a-half in their 
shells, of flour. After you have 
beaten the eggs and sugar the time 
specified, grate in the rind of a lemon 
(the juice may be added at pleasure), 
stir in the flour, and immediately pour 
it into a tin lined with buttered p£4>er, 
and let it be instantly put into rather 
a cool oven. 

44. BED CLOTHES.— The perfec- 
tion of dress, for day or night, where 
warmth is the purpose, is that which 
confines aroimd the body sufficient of 
its own warmth, while it allows escape 
to the exhalations of the skin. Where 
the body is allowed to bathe protractedly 
in its own vapours we must expect an 
unhealthy effect upon the skin. Where 
there is too little ventilating escape, 
insensible perspiration is checked, and 
something analogous to fever super- 
venes; foul tongue, ill taste, and lack of 
morning appetite betray the evU. 

45. ORANGE MARMALADE.— 
Choose the largest Seville oranges, as they 
usually contain the greatest quantity of 
juice, and choose them with clear skins, 
as the skins form the largest part of the 
marmalade. Weigh the oranges, and 
weigh also an eqxial quantity of loaf- 
sugar. Skin the oranges, dividing the 
skins into quarters, and put them into 
a preserving-pan ; cover them well with 
water, and set them on the fire to boil : 
in the meantime prepare your oranges ; 
divide them into gores, then scrape 
with a teaspoon all the pulp from the 
white skin ; or, instead of skinning the 
oranges, cut a hole in the orange and 
scoop out the pulp ; remove carefully 
all the pipsy of which there ai-e innu- 
merable small ones in the Seville orange, 
which will escape observation imless 
they are very minutely examined. 
Have a large basin near you with some 
cold water in i^ to throw the pips and 



EOONOifY IB THK &I07 CPAIB 09 <tfJ» ikfiS* 



skins into— a pint is sufficiQiit for a 
dozen oranges. A great deal of glutinous 
matter adheres to tbem, which, when 
strained through a sieyo, should be 
boiled with the other parts. When the 
skins have boiled till they are sufficiently 
tender to admit of a fork being stuek 
into them, strain them.; some of which 
may be boiled with the other parts ; 
scrape clean all the pith, or, inside, 
from them ; lay them in folds, and cut 
them into thin slices of about an inch 
long. Clarify your sugar; then throw 
your skins and pulp into it, stir it well, 
and let it boil about half an hour. If 
the sugar is broken into small pieces, 
and boiled with the fruit, it will answer 
the purpose of clarifying, but it must 
be well skimmed when it boils. Mar- 
malade should be made at the end of 
March or the beginning of April, as 
Seville oranges are then in their best 
Btete. 

46. IMPBE8SI0NSFR0M PRINTS. 
—The print is soaked first in a solution 
of potash, and then in one of tartaric 
acid. This produces a perfect diffusion 
of crystals in bi-tartrate of potash, 
through the texture of the unprinted 
part of the paper. As this salt repels 
oil, the ink-roller may now be passed 
over the surface, without transferring 
any of its contents to the paper, except 
in those parte to which the ink had 
been originally applied. The ink of 
the print prevents the saline matter 
from pene^ting wherever it is present, 
and wherever there is no saline matter 
present the ink adheres ; so that many 
impressions may be taken, as m litho- 
graphy. 

47. HOOPING-COUGH. — Dissolve 
A scruple of salt of tartar in a quarter 
pint of water ; add to it ten grains of 
cochineal ; sweeten it with sugar. Give 
to an infant a fourth part of a table- 
spoonful four tunes a day ; two years 
old half a spoonful ; from four years 
a table-spoonful. — Great care is required 
ui the administration of medicines to 
infants. We can assure paternal in- 
quirers that the foregoing may be de- 
pended upon. 



FOOD IN SBifiON. 

There is an old maxim, " A place for 

everything, and everything in its place." 

To which we beg to add another^ "A 

season for everythiz^, and evexytluiig 



m season. 



48. January. 



[Those Fish, PoulUy, &o., di«tai«piAhed by 
Italics are to be had m the highest perfection. J 

Fish. — ^Barbel^ brill, carp, cod, crabs, 
cray-feet, dabbs, dace, eels, fioimders, 
haddocks, herrings, lampreys, ling, lob- 
sters, mussels, oysters, perch, pike, 
plaice, prawns, salmon-trout, shrimps, 
skate, smelt, soles, sprats, sturgeon, 
tench, thombaok, turbot, whiting. 

Meat. — Beef, house-lamb, muttoxx- 
port, veal, and doe venison. 

Poultry and Game. — Capons, chick- 
ens, ducks, wild-ducks, fowls, geese, 
grouse, hares, larks, moor-game, par- 
tridges, pheasants, pigeons (tame), 
pullets, rabbits, snipes, turkeys (hen), 
widgeons, woodcocks. 

Vegetables. — Beet, brocoli, (white 
and purple), brussels sprouts, cabbage, 
cardoons, carrots, celeiy, chervil, cole- 
wort, cresses, endive^ garlic, herbs (dry), 
kale (Scotch), leeks, lettuces, mint, 
mustard, onions, parsley, parsnips, pota- 
toes, rape, rosemary, sage, salsify, savoy, 
scorzonera, shalots, skiiTets, sorrel, 
spinach (winter), tarragon, thyme, 
turnips. 

Forced Vegetables. — Aaparagus, 
cucumbers, Jerusalem artichokes, and 
mushrooms. 

Fruit. — ^Almonds. Apples : French 
pippin, golden pippin, golden russet, 
Kentish pippin, nonpai*eil, winter 
pearmain. Pears : Bergamot d'HoUande, 
Bon Chretien, Charmontelle, Colmar, 
winter beurr^. Grapes : English and 
Foreign. Chestnuts, medlers, nuts, 
oranges, walnuts. 

49. February. 
Fish, — Barbel, brill, caip, cockles, 
God, orabs, oray-fish, dabbs, daoe, eels, 
flounders, haddodss, herrings, lampreys, 
ling, lobsters, mussels, oysters, perch, 
pike, plaice, prawns, salmon, shrimps, 
skate, smelts, soles, sturgeon, tench, 
thombaok, turbot, whiting. 



8 



HMK n CHK MOflT PBaOIOUB OF ALL POSSBBBIOaB. 



MxAT. — Beei, lioiue-lamb, mutton, 
porkyVeaL 

PouLTET AHD Gaxe. — Capons, chick- 
ens, dncklmgBy fowl (wild), green 
geese, hares, partridges, pheasants, 
pigeons, (tame and wild), ptdlets with 
egg, raJi>Dits (tame), snipes, turkeys, 
turkey poults, woodcocks. 

Vegetables. — Beet, broooli (white 
and purple), bumet, cabbage, cardoons, 
carrots, celery, chervil, colewort, 
cresses, endive, garlic, dry herbs, leeks, 
lettuces, mint, mustard, muslu*ooms. 
onions, parsnips, parsley, potatoes, 
radish, rape, rosemary, sage, salsify, 
savory, scorzonera, shalots, skirrets, 
sorrel, spmach, sprouts, tarragon, thyme, 
turnips, winter savoury. 

FoBCEO Vegetables. — Asparagus, 
cucumbers, and Jerusalem artichokes. 

Fruit. — Apples : French pippin, 
golden pippin, golden russet, Holland 
pippin, Kentish pippin, nonpareil, 
Wheeler's russet, winter pearmidn. 
Chestnuts, oranges. Pears : Bergamot, 
dTasque, winter Bon Chretien, winter 
Russelet. 

50. March. 

Fish. — ^Biill, carp, cockles, cod, conger 
eels, crabs, dabbs, dory, eels, floxmders, 
ling, lobsters, mackerel, mullets,mu8S6ls, 
oysters, perch, pike, plaice, prawns, 
salmon, salmon-trout, shrimps, skate, 
smelts, soles, sturgeon, turbot, tench, 
and whfting. 

Meat. — Beef, house-lamb, mutton, 
pork, veal. 

Poultry akd Gahe. — Capons, chick- 
ens, ducklings, fowls, green-geese, 
grouse, leverets, inoor-game, pigeons, 
rabbits, snipes, turkeys, woodcocks. 

Vegetables. — Artichokes (Jerusa- 
lem), beet, brocoli (white and purple), 
brussels sprouts, cabbage, ciurdoons, 
carrots, celery, chervil, colewort, 
cresses, endive, garlic, herbs (dry), kale 
(sea and Scotch), lettuces, mint^ 
mushrooms, mustard, onions, parsley, 
parsnips, potatoes, rape, rosemary, sage, 
savoy, shalots, sorrel, spinach, tarragon, 
thyme, turnips, turnip-tops. 

FoROED Vegetables. — Asparagus, 
beans, cucumbers, and rhubarb. 



Fruit. — Apples : French pippins, 
golden russet, Holland pippin, John 
apple, Kentish pippin, nonpareil, 
Norfolk beaufin, Wheeler's russet. 
Chestnuts, oranges. Pears : Bergamot, 
Bugi, Charmontelle^ St. Martial, wintcir 
Bon Chretien. Strawberries (forced). 

M. April. 

FiBH. — ^Brill, carp, chub, cockles, ood, 
conger-eels, axUn, dabbs, dory, eels, 
flounders, halibut,herrings, ling, lobsten, 
mackerel, mullets, mussels, oysters, 
perch, pike, prawng, plaice, salnum, 
shrimps, skate, smelto, soles, sturgeon, 
tench, trout^ turbot^ whitings. 

Meat. — ^Beef, grass-lamb, house-lamb, 
mutton, pork, vecd. 

Poultry and Oaxb. — Chickens, 
ducklings, fowls, green-geese, leverets, 
pigeons, pullets;, rabbits, turkey-poults, 
wood-pigeons. 

Vegetables. — Asparagus, beans, 
brocoli, chervil, coleworts, cucumbers, 
endive^ fennel, herbs of all sorts, lettuce^ 
onions, parsley, parsnips, peas, purslane, 
radishes, sea-kale, sorrel, spinach, small 
salad, tarragon, tumip-radijBhes, turnip* 
tops, and rhubarb. 

Fruit. — ^Apples : Qolden russet, John 
apple, nonpariel, Wheeler's russet 
Nuts, oranges. Pears : Bergamot, Bon 
Chretien, Bugi, Carmelite, francreal, 
St Martial. A few strawberries, walnuts. 
Forced: Apricots, cherries, strawberries. 

52. May. 

Fish. — ^Brill, carp, chub, cod, conger- 
eels, craha, cray-fish, dabbs, dace, dory, 
eels, flounders, gurnets, haddock, 
halibut, herring, ling, lohstert, mackerel, 
mullet, perch, pike, plaice, pravmt, 
salmon, shrimps, shttte, smelts, soles, 
sturgeon, tench, trout, turbots, whi- 
tings. 

Meat. — ^Beef, grass-kmb, house-Lunb, 
mutton, pork, veal. 

Poultry Ain> Game. — Chickens, 
ducklings, fowls, green geese, leverets, 
pigeons, pullets, rabbits, wood-pigeons. 

Vegetables. — ^Angelica, artichokes, 
asparagus, balm, kidney-beans, cabbage, 
carrots, cauliflowers, chervil, cucum- 
bers, fennel, herbs of all sorts, lettuce, 



A CHILD IB THE BRMHTSST RAY IN THE BUNSHmB OT A PARENTIS HEART. 9 



mint^ onions, parsley, peas, new 
potatoes, purslane, radishes, rhubarb, 
salad of all sorts, sea-kale, sorrel, spm- 
ach, thyme, turnips. 

Fbuit. — ^Apples : John apple, golden 
russet, winter russet; May-didce cher- 
ries ; currants ; gooseberries ; melons ; 
Pears : L'Amozette, winter green- 
scarlet strawberries. Forced : Apri- 
cots, nutmeg peaches, and strawberries. 

53. June. 

Fish. — Carp, cod, conger-^els, 
crahSf cray-fish, dabbs, dace, dory, 
eels, flounders, gurnets, haddocks, 
herrings, ling, lobsters, mackerel, mul- 
let, perch, pike, plaice, prcmm, talmonf 
icUmoT^rout, skate, smelts, soles, stur^ 
geon, tench, trou^ turbot^ whitebait, 
whitings. 

Meat. — ^Beef, grcus-lamb, house-lamb, 
mutton, pork, veal, buck-venison. 

Poui/pRT AND Qame. — CMckens, 
ducklings, fowls, green-geese, leverets, 
pigeons, plovers, pullets, rabbits, tur- 
key-poults, wheat-ears, wood-pidgeons. 

Ybqetables. — Angelica, artichoke, 
asparagus, beans (French, kidney, and 
Windsor), white beet, cabbage, carrots, 
cauliflowers, chervil, cucumbers, endive, 
herbs of all sorts, leeks, lettuce, onions, 
pAnley, peas, potatoes, purslane^ ra- 
dishes, salad of all sorts, spinach, tur- 
nips, vegetable marrow. 

For Drying. — ^Bumet> mint, tarra- 
gon, orange-thyme. 

For Pickling. — Qarlic. 

Fruit. — ^Apples: John apple, stone 
pippin, golden russet. Apricots. Cher- 
ries: Duke, bigaroon, black-heart. 
Currants, goosebenies, melons, 
pears: (Winter green), strawberries. 
Forced: grapes, nectarines, peaches, 
pines. 

54. July. 

Fish. — ^Barbel, brill, carp, cod, con- 
ger-eels, crabs, cray-fish, dabbs, dace, 
doiy, eels, flounders, gurnets, haddocks, 
herrings, ling, lobsters, mcbckerd, mullet, 
perch, pike, plaice, pranons, salmon, 
^te, soles, tench, thombaok, trout. 

Heat. — ^Beel^ grass-lamb, mutton, 
veal, buck-venison. 



Poultry and Qake. — (lichens, 
ducks, fowls, green-geese, leverets, 
pigeons, plovers, rabbits, turkey-poults^ 
wheat-e»rs, wUd pigeons, wild rabbits. 

Vegetables. — ^Artichokes, asparagus, 
balm, beans (French, kidney, scarlet, 
and Windsor), carrots, cauliflowers, 
celery, chervil, cucumbers, endive, 
finochi% herbs of all sorts, lettuces, 
mint, mushrooms, peas, potatoes,, pur- 
slane, radishes, rocombole, salads of all 
sorts, salsify, scorzonera, sorrel, spi- 
nach, turnips. 

For Drying. — Knotted marjoram, 
mushrooms, winter-savoury. 

For Pickling. — ^French beans, red- 
cabbage, cauliflowers, garlic, gherkins, 
nasturtiums, onions. 

Fruit. — Apples: Codlin, jennetting; 
Mai'garet, summer pearmain, summer 
pippin. Apricots, cherries, currants, 
damsons, gooseberries, melons, necta- 
rines, peaches. Pears : Catherine, green- 
chisel, jargonelle, musque. Oranges, 
pine-applea, plimis, raspberries, straw- 
berries. 

55. August. 
Fish. — ^Barbel, brill, caip, cod, con- 
ger-eels, crabs, cray-fish, dabbs, da^, 
eels, flounders, gurnets, haddocks, 
herrings, lobsters, meickerel, mullet, 
oysters, perch, pike, plaice, prcvwns, 
salmon, skate, soles, tench, thomback, 
turhot, whitings. 

Meat. — ^Beef, grass-lamb, mutton, 
veal, buck-venison. 

Poultry and Qame. — Chickens, 
ducks, fowls, green-geese, grouse (fi:om 
12th), leverets, moor-game, pigeons, 
plovers, rabbits, turkeys, turkey-poults, 
wheat-ears, wild ducks, wild pigeons, 
wild rabbits. 

Vegetables. — Artichokes, beans, 
(French, kidney, scarlet^ and Windsor), 
white-beet, carrots, cauliflowers, celery, 
cucumbers, endive, finochia, pot-herbs 
of all sorts, leeks, lettuces, mushrooms, 
onions, peas, potatoes, purslane, ra- 
dishes, salad of all sorts, salsify, scor- 
zonera, shalots, spinach, turnips. 
For Drying. — ^Basil, sage, thyme. 
Fob Pickling. — ^Red-cabbage, oapsi- 
cumi, chilies, tomatoes, walnuts. 

B 2 



10 



wujvZf "WMmat kakis woxvul wawf. 



Fauit. — Apples : 0«dlin, sunittier 
pctormain, saimaer pippin, chernta, 
currantSy damBOiui, ^(s, filberts, goose- 
berries, grapes, melona, mialberriei^ 
neotarines, peaches. Pears : Jargonelle, 
summer Bon Ghr^iien, Windsor. 
Plums : Green-gages, Orleaiitf ; raspber- 
ries, Alpine strawberries. 

56. Skptember. 

Fish. — ^Barbel, brill, carp, cockles, 
cod, conger-eels. Crab, daccr eels, flotm- 
defB, gurnets, haddocks, hake, herrings, 
lobsters, mullet, mussels, oysters, perch, 
pike, plaice, prawns, shrimps, soles, 
tench, thomback, turbot, whitings. 

Meat. — Beef, mutton, pork, veal, 
buck-venison. 

Poultry and Game. — Chickens, 
ducks, fowls, gpreen-geese, grouse, hares, 
larks, leverets, moorgame, partridge, 
pigeons, plovers, rabbits, teal, turkey, 
tiurkey-poults, wheat-ears, vjild ducks, 
wild pigeons, wild rabbits. 

Vegetables. — Artichokes, Jerusalem 
artichokes, beans (French aUd scarlet), 
cabbages, carrots, cauliflowers, celery, 
cucumbers, endive, finoohia, herbs of 
all sorts, leeks, lettuces, mushrooms, 
onions, parsnips, p^as, potatoes, ra* 
dishes, salad of all sorts, ahalots, tur- 
nips. 

Fruit. — Apples : White Caville, pear- 
mahi, golden rennet. Cherries, (Mo- 
rella), damsons, figs, filberts, f Grapes : 
Muscadine, Fi'ontignac, red and black 
Hamburg, Mahnsey, Hazel nute, med- 
lars, peaches. Pears : Bergamot, brown 
beurr^. Phieapples, plums, quinces, 
strawberries, walnuts. 

• 67. October. 

Fish. — ^Barbel, brill, tm^ofc^ carp* 
cooklte, ood, coilg^-eel% crabs, dace, 
dory, eds, gudgeon, haddock^ haka, 
halibut, herrings, lobsters, mussels, 
oy«tem, perch, pikCf prawns, salmon- 
trout, shrimps, smelts, Soles, tench, 
ihomback, turbot, whitings* 

Meat. — ^Beef, mutton^ p<Mrk, Veid, 
doe-venison. 

Poui/PRT AND Gamb. ^~ Chiokcns, 
4otterel, ducks, fowls, gfdeD<gCese, 
grouse, hMtos^ lafk% moon^jMne, p«r- 



tridges^ pheaaomts, pigeons, rabbits, 
snipes, teal, tturkey, wheai-ears, wid- 
geon, wild-dueks, wildrpigeons^ wild- 
rabbits, woodcocks. 

y EQETABUis.— Artidiokes, Jerusalem 
artichokes, biocoH, cabbages, cauli- 
flowers, celery, coleworts, endive, herbs 
of all Borts> leeks, onions, parsnips, 
peas, potatoes, radishes, rocombole, 
salad, savoys, scorzonens skirreta, 
shalots, spinach (winter), tomatas, 
truffles, turnips. 

F&uiT. — ^Almonds. Apples : Pearmain, 
golden pippin, golden rennet, royal 
russet. Black and white bullace, dam- 
sons, late figs, filberts, hazel nuts, 
grapes, medlars. Peaches : Old New- 
ington, October. Pears : Bergamot, 
beurr^, Charmontelle, Bon-Chr^tien, 
cresau, swan's-egg. Quinces, services, 
walnuts. 

58. November. 

Fish. — Bttrbel, brill, turbot, carp, 
cockles, cod, crabs, dace, dory, eeb, 
gudgeons, gurnets, haddocks, hake, ha- 
Ubut, herrings, ling, lobsters, mussels, 
oysters, perch,^ pike, plaice, prawns, 
salmon, shrimps, skate, smelts, soles, 
sprats, tench, thomback^ turbot, whi- 
tings. 

Meat. — ^Beef, house-lamb, mutton, 
pork, veal, doe-venison. 

Poultry and Gaace. — Chickens, 
dotterel, ducks, fowls, geese, grovtt, 
hares, larks, moor-game, partridges, 
pheasants, pigeons, rabbits, snipes, fM 
turkey, wheat-ears, widgeon, wild- 
ducks, wood-cocks, 

Yegetables. — Jerusalem artichokes, 
chard beets, borecole, brocoli, <»b" 
btfges, cardoons, carrots, celeiy, cher- 
vil, coleworts, endive, herbs of all sorts, 
leeks, lettuces, onions, parsnips, P^*** 
toes, salad, savoys, scorzonera, skirrets, 
shalots, spinach, tomatas, turnips. 

FRtJrr.—- Almonds. Apples: Ooi^f^ 
pippin, Holland pippin, Kentish pipp^ 
nCnpalreil, winter pearmain. Wheelers 
i^uBSets. Bcdlace, chestnuts, hazel-nut^ 
graphs, medlars. Pears: BergiUQ<^ 
Be^ de Charmontelle, Colmar, cr«*» 
Spatusfa bon Chretien. ServioeB,^' 
nuts. 



DILIGENCE ALONE IS A GOOD PATRDCOKT. 



11 



59. Deoembeb. 

FiBH. — Barbel, brill, tnrbofc, carp, 
cookies, codf crabs, dab, dory, eels, 
gudgeon, gurnets, haddocks, baJce, ha- 
Ubut, herrings, Wwgr, lobsters, mackerel, 
mussels, oysters, perch, pike, plaice, 
rufife, salmon, shrimps, shate, smelts, 
soles, sprats, sturgeon, tench, whitings. 

Meat. — Beef, house-lamb, mutton, 
pork, veal, doe-venison. 

PoxTLTRr AND Game. — Capons, chick- 
ens, dotterel, dttcks, fowls, geese, 
grouse, guinea-fowl, hao^s, larks, moor- 
game, partridges, pea-fowl, pheasants, 
pigeons, rabbits, snipes, teal, turkey, 
wheat-ears, widgeon, wild-ducks, wood- 
cocks. 

Vboetables. — Jerusalem artichokes, 
beets, borecole, white and purple bro- 
coli, cabbages, cardoons, carrots, celery, 
endive, herbs of all sorts, leeks, let- 
tuces, onions, pai'snips, potatoes, salad, 
flavoys, scorzonera, skurets, shalots, 
spinach, truffles, turnips, forced aspa- 
ragus. 

Fruit. — ^Almonds. Apples : Qold«Di 
pippin, nonpareil, winter pearmain, gol- 
den russet. Chestnuts, hazel-nuts, a few 
grapes, medlars, oranges. Pears : Ber- 
gtunot^ Beiin^ d'Hiver, Colmar, Hol- 
land, St Qermain's Walunts. 



60. TO SOFTEN THE SKIN, AND 
IMPROVE THE COMPLEXION.— If 
flowers of sulphur be mixed in a 
little of milk, and after standing an 
hour or two, the milk (without dis- 
turbing the sulphur) be rubbed into 
the skm, it will keep it soft, and make 
the complexion clear. It is to be tised 
before washing. A lady of our ao- 
qusintanoe, being exceedingly anxious 
about her complexion^ adopted the 
above suggestion. In about a fortnight 
ahe wrote to tis to say that the mixture 
)>ecame so disagreeable after it had 
been made a fSsw days, that she could 
act use it. We should have wondered 
if she could — ^the milk became putrid ! 
A little of the mixture should have 
been prepared over night with evening 
'lulk, and used the next morning, but 
not aftenwardUk About a wine-^Uuls- 



ful made for each occasion would 
suffice. 

61. HINTS ABOUT MAKING 
PRESERVES.— It is not generally 
known, that boiling fruit a long time, 
and dcimming ii wM, without the tugar^ 
and voWumt a cover to the preserving- 
pan, is a very economical and excellent 
way — economical, because the bulk of 
the soimx rises from the fruit, and not 
from the augcur, if the latter is good ; 
and boiling it without a cover, allows 
the evaporation of all tiie watery par- 
ticles therefrom; the preserves keep 
firm, and well flavoured. The propor- 
tions are, three-quarters of a poimd of 
sugar to a poimd of fruit. Jam made 
in this way, of currants, strawberries, 
raspberries, or gooseberries, is excellent. 

62. LEMON RICE.— Boil sufficient 
rice in milk, with white siigar to taste, 
till it is soft ; put it into a pint basin 
or an earthenware blancmage mould, 
and leave it till cold. Peel a lemon 
very thick, cut the peel into shreds 
about half or three-quarters of an inch 
in length, put them into a little water, 
boil them up, and throw the water 
away, lest it uionld be bitter, then pour 
about a tea-cup, full of fresh water 
upon them; squeeze and strain the 
juice of the lemon, add it with white 
sugar to the water and shreds, and let 
it stew gently at the fire for two hours. 
(When cold it will be a syrup). Having 
turned out the jellied rice into a cut- 
glass dish, or one of common deli^ 
pour the syrup gradually over the rice, 
taking care the Httle shreds of the peel 
are equally distributed ovei^the whole. 

68. MOUTH GLUE.— Averyuseftil 
preparation is sold by many of the law 
stationers in London xmder this title ; 
it is merely a thin cake of soluble glue 
(four inches by one and a half), which, 
when moistened with the tongue, fur- 
nishes a ready means of fastening papers, 
&o., together. It is made by dissolving 
one pound of fine glue or gelatine in 
wat«r, and addinghsdf a pound of brown 
sugar, boiling the whole until it is suf- 
fidently thick to become solid on cool- 
ing ; it is then pomod into moulds or on 



12 



A CLUMSY FOOT MAY TBEAD THE BIGHT ROAD. 



a slab slightly greased, and cut into the 
required shape when cool. Cost: gela- 
tine Is. 3d. per pound; sugar, 4d. per 
pound. 

64. SODA WATER POWDERS.— 
A pleasant, cooling, summer drink. 
The blue paper contains carbonate of 
soda, thirty grains. The white paper 
tartaric acid, twenty-fire grains. 

Directions. — ^Dissolve the contents of 
the blue paper in half a tumbler of 
water, stir in the other powder, and 
drink during effervescence. 

Soda powders furnish a saline beve- 
rage, which is very slightly laxative, 
and well calculated to allay the thirst 
n hot weather. 

One pound of carbonate of soda, 4d. ; 
and thirteen ounces and a half of tar- 
taric acid, at 2s. per pound, supply the 
materials for 256 powders of each sort 
Usual- retail price. Id. for the two pow- 
ders required for a draught. 

65. METHOD OP PRESERVING 
MACKEREL, SO THAT IT WILL 
KEEP AND BE EXCELLENT FOR 
MONTHS. — ^Mackerel, being at certain 
times exceedingly plentiful (especially 
to those who Uve near the coast), so 
much so indeed as to become almost 
a drug at such seasons, may be pre- 
served to make an excellent and well- 
flavoured dish, weeks or months after 
the season is past, by the following 
means. Having chosen fine fish, cleaned 
them peifectly, and either boiled them 
or lightly fried them in oil, the fish 
s'aould be divided, and the bones, 
headS) and skins being removed, they 
should then be well rubbed over with 
the following seasoning: for every 
dozen good-sized fish it will be requi- 
site to use three table-spoonfuls of salt 
(heaped), one oimce and a-half of com- 
mon black pepper, six or eight cloves, 
and a little mace, finely powdered, and 
as much nutmeg, grated, as the oper- 
ator chooses to afford, not» however, 
exceeding one nutmeg. Let the whole 
surface be well covered with the sea- 
soning; then lay the fish in layers 
packed into a stone jar (not a glazed 



one) ; cover the whole with pretty good 
vinegar, and, if it be intended to be 
long kept, pour salad oil or melted 
suet over the top. N.B. The glazing 
on earthen jars is made from lead or 
arsenic, from which vinegar draws forth 
poison. (See 2.) 

66. LIQUID GLUE.— Dissolve one 
ounce of borax in a pint of boiling water; 
add two ounces of shellac, and boil in a 
covered vessel until the lac is dissolved. 
This forms a very \iseful and cheap ce- 
ment ; it answers well for pasting labels 
on tin, and withstands damp much bet- 
ter than the common glue. Cost : borax. 
Is. 2d. per pound ; shellac, 6d. to 8d. 
per pound. — Note. The liquid glue made 
by dissolving shellac in naptha is 
dearer, soon dries up, and has an un- 
pleasant smell. 

67. ROSE LIP SALVE.— No. 1. 
Oil of almonds, three ounces ; alkanet, 
half an ounce. Let them stand toge- 
ther in a warm place until the oil is 
coloured, then strain. Melt one ounce 
and a-half of white wax, and half an 
ounce of spermaceti with the oil, stir 
till it begins to thicken, and add twelve 
drops of otto of roses. No. 2. White 
wax, one ounce; almond oil, two 
ounces; alkanet, one drachm. Digest 
in awarm place till sufficiently coloui'ed, 
strain, and stir in six drops of otto 
of roses. White wax, 2s. 2d. per 
pound ; almond oil, Is. 6d. per pound ; 
alkanet root, 6d. to 8d. ; otto of roses, 
2s. 6d. per drachm. Lip salve is usu- 
ally put up in small covered pots^ and 
sold at 6d. 

68. WALKING.— To walk grace- 
fully, the body must be erect, but not 
stiff, and the head held up in such a pos- 
ture that the eyes are diluted forward. 
The tendency of untaught walkers is to 
look towards the ground near the feet ; 
and some persons appear always as if 
admiring their shoe-ties. The eyes 
should not thus be cast downwturd, 
neither should the chest bend forward 
to throw out the back, making what 
are termed round shoulders; on the 
contrary, the whole person must hold 
itself up, as if not afraid to look the 



WHAT IB DOHB WELL XKOUOH, IS DOHB QUIOK EHOUOH. 



13 



world in the &oe, and the chest by all 
meana be allowed to expand. At the 
same time, every thing like stratting 
or pomposity must be carefully ayoided. 
An easy, firm, and erect posture, are 
alone desirable. In walking, it is 
necessary to bear in mind that the 
locomotion is to be performed entirely 
by the legs. Awkward persons rock 
£rom side to side^ helping forward each 
leg alternately by advancing the 
haunches. This is not only ungraceful 
but £fttiguing. Let the legs alone 
advance, beanng up the body. 

69. LEMON AND KALI, OR 
SHERBET.— Large quantities of this 
wholesome and refreshing preparation 
are manufactured and consumed every 
summer ; it is sold in bottles, and also 
as a beverage, made by dissolving a 
large teanspoonful in a tumbler two- 
thirds filled with water. Groimd white 
sugar, 7d. to 8d. per pound, half a 
pound ; tartaric add, at 2s. per pound ; 
carbonate of soda, at 4d. per pound ; of 
each a quarter of a pound ; essence of 
lemon, at 8d. per ounce, forty drops. 
All the powders should be well dried ; 
add the essence to the sugar, then the 
otiier powders ; stir all together, and 
mix by passing twice through a hair- 
siev& Must be kept in tightly-corked 
bottles, into which a damp spoon must 
not be inserted. All the materials may 
be obtained at a wholesale druggist's, 
the sugar must be ground, as, if merely 
powdered, the coarser parts remain 
undissolved. 

70. WATERPROOFING FOR 
BOOTS AND SHOES.— Linseed oU, 
one pint, oil of turpentine or camphine, 
a quarter of a pint ; yellow wax, a 
quarter of a pound ; Burgundy pitch, 
a quarter of a pound. To be melted 
together with a gentle heat, and when 
required for use, to be warmed and well 
rubbed into the leather before a fire, 
or in the hot sun. Cost : linseed oil, 
6d. per pint; oil of turpentine, 8d. per 
pint ; wax. Is. lOd. per pound ; Bur- 
gundy pitch, 8d. per pound. Should 
be poured, when melted, into small 
gallipots or tin boxes, for sale. 



71. MY WIFE'S LITTLE TEA 

PARTIES. 
My wife is celebrated for her little 
tea parties ; not tea parties alone— but 
dinner parties, pic-nic parties, music par- 
ties, supper parties, in fact, she is the life 
and soul of all parties, which is Dic>re 
than any leading politician of the day 
can boast. But her great fwtt is her 
little tea parties — ^praised and enjoyed 
by everybody. A constant visitor at 
these little parties is Mrs. Hitchings, 
(spoken of elsewhere, 161), and she re- 
marks that she "never knew any one 
who understood the ftart of bringing so 
many Aelegandes together^' as my wife. 
Nobody makes tea like her, and how 
she miJces it she will impart at a future 
time. But for her little "mck-nacks," as 
she calls them, which give a variety 
and a charm to the tea table, without 
trenching too deeply upon our own 
pocket, she has been kmd enough to 
give a few receipts upon the present 
occasion. 

72. NiOB Plum Oaks. — One pound 
of flour, quarter of a pound of butter, 
quarter of a pound of sugar, quarter of a 
poimd of currants, thx^ eggs,' half a 
pint of mUk, and a small tea-spoonful of 
carbonate of soda. The above is excel- 
lent. The cakes are always baked in 
a common earthen fower-pot saucer, 
which is a very good plan. 

73. GnfOBRBRXAD Skaps. — One 
pound of flour, half a pound of treacle, 
half a pound of sugar, quarter of a 
pound of butter, half an ounce of best 
prepared ginger, sixteen di*ops of 
essence of lemon, potash the size of a 
nut dissolved in a table-spoonful of hot 
water. This has been used in my 
wife's family for thirty years. 

74. Drop Cakbs. — One pint of 
flour, half a pound of butter, quarter 
of a pound of pounded lump sugar, 
half a nutmeg grated, a handfhl of cur- 
rants, two eggs, and a large pinch of 
carbonate of soda, or volatile salts. 
To be baked in a slack oven for ten 
minutes or a quarter of an hour. The 
above quantity will make about thirty 
oikes. The cakes are excellent. 



li KYEBT OSS BA/ntSfIL VSM VAT Hgo, WBIU V9m IMAJi OHM BVBNXTH. 



75» A YBBT SXCaUJRIT AMD CHBAP 

Cake. — ^Two pounds and a-half of floor, 
three-quarfcens of a pound of sugar, 
three-quarters of a pound of bubber, 
half a pound of cnirants, or quarter of 
a pound of raifiiiis, quarter of a pound 
of orange peel, two ounces of carraway 
seeds, half an ounce of ground cinna> 
mon, or ginger, four tea^poonfuls of 
carbonate of soda; mixed well, with 
rather better than a pint of new milk. 
The butter must be well malted pre- 
vious to being mixed with the ingre* 
dients. 

76. ''JsB&BTWoirjUBBi.''— Theoddity 
of these ''wonders'* oonsists aolalyin 
the manner of cooking, and the shape 
consequent. Take twp pounds of flour, 
six ounces of butter, six ounoes of white 
sugar, a little nutmeg, ground ginger, 
and lemon peel ; bcttt eight egg8» and 
knead them all well together ; a taste 
of brandy will be an improvement 
Boll them about the thickness of your 
wrist ; cut off a small slice, and roll it 
into an oval, about i6\a iniihes long 
and three inches -widfi, not too thin ; 
cut two slits in it^ but not throng 
either end ; there will then be three 
bands. Pass the left one through the 
aperture, to the right, and throw it into 
a brass or heU-ni£tal, skillet of BOiusa 
lard, or beef or mutton dripping. You 
may cook three or four at a time. In 
about two minutes turn them with a 
fork, and you will And them browned, 
and swollen or risen in ti»o or three 
minutes more. Bemore them from the 
pan to a dish, when they will diy and 
cool. 

77. yiumjss, — ^Add a pint and srhsjf 
of good ale yeast (from pale malt, if pos- 
sible) to a bushel of the very best white 
flour; let the yeast lie sJl night in 
water, then pour off the water quite 
clear ; make two gallons of water just 
milk-warm, and mix your water, yeasty 
and two oxmces of salt .well together 
for about a quarter of an hour. Strain 
the whole, and mix ujp your dough as 
light as possible, lettmg it lie in the 
trough an hour, to rise ; next roll it 
with your hand, pulling it into little 



pieces aboot the siae of a large walimt. 
These must be roUed out thin with a 
roUing'pon, in a good deal of floor, and 
if coYwed immediately with a pieoe oi 
flannel, they will rise to a proper thick- 
ness; but u too laige or small, doogfa. 
most be added accordingly, or taken 
away; meanwhile^ the dough must be 
also covered with flannel. Next begin 
baking; and when laid on ihB iron 
watch carefully, and when one side 
changes oolour, turn the other, taking 
care that they do not bum or become 
discoloured* Be careful also that the iron 
does not get too hot. In order to bake 
muffins properly, you ought to have a 
plaoe built as if aoopper was to be set ; 
but instead of copper, a pieee of iron 
must be put over the t<^, fixed im form 
like the bottom of an iron pot» under- 
neath which a ooal fire is kindled when 
required. Toast the muffins crisp on 
both sides, with a fork ; poll them open 
vjUh yowr hand, and they will be like a 
honeycomb ; lay in as much butter as 
you intend, then clap them together, 
and set by the fire ; turn them onoe^ 
that botii sides may be buttered alike. 
When quite done^ out them across with 
a knife ; but if you use a knife either 
to spread or divide them, they will be 
as heavy as lead. Some kind of flour 
will soak up nskore water than another ; 
when this occun^ add water ; or if too 
moist, add flour ; for the dough must 
be as U^t as possible. 



78. DIAMOND CEMENT.-fioak 
ismglassin water till it is aoft^ then dis- 
solve it in the smallest possible quantity 
of proof spirit,by tilnaaid of a gmitie heat; 
in two ounces of this mixture dissolve 
ten grains of ammoniacum, and whilst 
still liquid, add half a dram of mastic dis- 
solved in three drams of rectified spirit ; 
stir well together, and put into small boi^ 
ties for sale. Cost : isinglass, Is. per 
ounce ; rectified spirit^ 2s. 6d. per pint ; 
ammoniacum, 3d. per ounce ; mastic, Is. 
per oimoe. This cement is usually sold 
at Is. per two-dram bottle. 

DirecHons for vse. — ^Uqui& the ce- 
ment by standing tibte botUe in hot 



T KUT' n m AMcm^gec mf'sob own FOBfimv. 



IS 



water, and use it'dlreetiy ; the oeraent 
improves tbe ofteosr the bottle is thus 
warmed, and resisle the ae^en of water 
aad moieture perfeotly. 

79. aiNGlMl^BlKB.— The IbU^wiBg 
leoipe for making a veiry euperior gingM^ 
beer is toikeB from the cele)Hti.ted trea- 
tise of Dr. Pereinty on diet. The honey 
gives it a peeuliar softness, and from 
not being fermented wkii yeast, it is 
less vi<dent is its action when opened, 
but reqnkea to be kept a longer time 
than umial before nse. White sugar, 
five pounds ; lemoojnice, one quarter 
of a pint ; honey, one quarter of a 
poond; ginger, bnused, five ounces; 
water, four gallons imd a-h%lf. Boil 
the ginger in three quarts of the watM* 
for ha^ an hour, then add the sugar, 
lemon-juice, and h<xiey, with the re- 
mainder Gi^b^waker, flaidstraiin throngh 
a cloth ; when eold, add a quai^er of 
the white of an egg, and a small te»- 
Bpo<ttfal o# essence of lemon; let the 
whole stand four di^, and bottle ; this 
will keep many months. Thin quan- 
tity will make 100 bottles; the oost 
being, sugap, ftve pounds, 28. ; lenum- 
j^ce, 2d. ; h<mey, 8d. ; best white 
ginger, 2d. ; egg and essenee of lemon, 
2d. ; total, 28. 9d. Gingerxbeer bottles 
may be obtained at the potteries at 10s. 
to 128. per gross, and oorks at 6d. to Is. 
per gross. 

do. PHOSPHORUS PASTE FOR 
DESTROYING RATS AND MICB.-- 
Melt one poond of lard Tvitfa a Tory gen- 
tie heat in a bottle or glass fiask plunged 
into ynna water ; then add half an 
ounce of phosporos^ and one pint of 
proof spirit; cork the bottle seenrely, 
and as itoools lediake it frequently, so 
as to mix the phosphorus unifonnly ; 
when oold pour off the spirit {mhMk 
^^y be ]^:^eM<vedforihe saate purpose), 
a&d thieken the mistuiw -with flour, 
^mall portloBs of this mixture mtfy be 
l^laced near the nt holes, and being 
lomiiious in the dsrk it etttracts them, 
» eatoD grsedlly, and is certainly ftital. 
r*^- Thete is »o -daager of fire fro«i 
^ «B9. Cost : phosphorus, 9A, per 
ounce • hvd, la. per pound. 



81. IKKS. — 9liereare many reeeiptt 
published for making ink ; the f dllowing 
is as useful and eeonomieal a mode <^ 
prodQ<»ng good ink as any of ^em: — 

82. DnUitB^sIicx. — ^Fbr tw^vegaltone 
of ink take twelve pounds of bruised 
ga|ls, fire pounds of gum, five pounds 
of green suij^te of iron, and twehre 
galions of rain water. Boil the galls 
with nme ga^ns of the water for three 
hours, adding fresh wsitei to supply 
that lost in vi^wur ; let l^e decoction 
settle, and draw off the dear liquor. 
Add to it the gum previously dissolved 
in one and arhAlf gallons of water ; dis- 
solve the green vitriol sepanately in one 
and a half gallons ofvirater, and mix i^ 
whole. Cost of prepam^n : gall. 
Is. 4d. per pound ; gum, 8d. per potmd ; 
green «ul;^te of iron, Id. per pound. 

-89. Ins Powdor. — ^Is formed of the 
dry ingredisBts for ink, powdered and 
mhied. Powdered galis, two pounds; 
powdered green vxtriol, one pound ; 
powdered gum, ^ght ounces. T^s 
should be put up in two ounce packets, 
eaeh of whidi w^l make one pi it of ink. 
Oost : galls. Is. 4d. per poun d ; green 
vitriol. Id. per pound ; powd«»d gum. 
Is. 5d. per pound. 

84. Rbd WninifO Ink. — ^Best ground 
Brazilwood, four ounces; diluted acetic 
aoid^ one i^t ; altun, half an ounce. 
BoH them slowly in an enamelled 
vessel for one hour, strain, and add ago. 
oimee of gum. Brazil wood. Is. per 
pound ; cUluted aee^c add, 3d. per 
pint ; alum, 2d. per pound ; ground 
gum, 1b. 6d. per pound. 

85. Marmno Ink without Prbpara- 
•HeN. — ^ITiere are several reeipes for this 
ink, but the following of ICr. kedwood is 
rapidly superseding all the others : — 
Dissolve, separately, one ounce of nitrate 
of silver <4s. 6d. perounee), and one and 
a half ounces of sub-carbonate soda (beat 
washing soda) in dSstiUed or rain water. 
!IOx the solutions, and eoUeet and wash 
the precipitate in a filter; whilst still 
moist rub it up in « mai4)>le or wedge- 
wood m(M*tor with three drachms of tikr- 
tane acid ; add two oiuiees of distilled 
water, raix«x dtachms of White sugar, 



16 



WHEH rORSUVX SMILB 8HB OFTKBT DBUOm ZBB MOST lOBGHIBF. 



and tendzadmiBof powdered gumarabic, 
half an ounce of archil and water to 
make up aix oimces in measure. Cost : 
one ounce of nitrate of silver, 4b« 6d. ; 
•oda» tartaric add, sugar, and gum, 3d. ; 
archil, lOd. per pint. It is usually put up 
in one or two-drachm bottles, labelled, 
and sold at 6d. The above quantity 
would make 24 two-drachm bottles. — 
Bottles from 8d. to lOd. per dozen. 

86. Ink fob znro Qabdkn Labsia. — 
Verdigris, one ounce; sal ammoniac, one 
ounce; lamp black, half an ounce; water, 
half a pint. Mix in an earthenware mor- 
tar, without using a metal spatula. 
Should be put up in small (one ounce) 
bottles for sale. 

JHreetiont, — ^To be shaken before use, 
and used with a dean quill pen, on bright 
freshly deaned zinc. Cost : verdigris 3d. 
per.ounce ; sal ammoniac. 8d. per pound ; 
lamp black 4d. per pound. 

Note. — ^Another kind of ink for zinc is 
also used, made of chloride of platinmn, 
five grains, dissolved in one ounoe of dis- 
tilled or rain water ; but the first, which 
is much less e]q>en8ive, answers per- 
fectly, if used as directed; on clean 

bright zinc. 

87. BRUNSWICK BLACK FOR 
VARNISHING GRATES.— Melt four 
pounds of common asphaltum and add 
two pints of linseed oil, and one gallon 
of oil of turpentine. This is usually 
put up in stoneware bottles for sale, 
and is used with a paint brush. If too 
thick, more turpentine may be added^ 
Cost : asphalts. Is. per pound ; linseed, 
6d. per pint ; turpentine, 8d. per pint. 

88. BANBURT CAKES.— RoU out 
the paste about half an inch thick, and 
cut it into pieces, then roll again till 
each piece becomes twice the size ; put 
some Banbury meat in the middle of 
one side, fold the other over it, and 
pinch it up into a somewhat oval shape, 
flatten it with your hand at the top, 
letting the seam be quite at the bottom, 
rub the tops over with the white of an 
egg, laid on with a brush, and dust 
loaf-sugar over them. Bake in a mode- 
rate oven. The meat for this cake is 
'^'^^e thus :— -Beat up a quarter of a 



pound of butter until it becomes in 
the state of cream, them mix with it 
half a pound of candied orange and 
lemon-peel, cut fine, one pound of cur- 
rantsy quarter of an ounce of grotind 
cinnamon, and a quarter of an ounoe of 
aUspioe; nux all well together, and 
keep in a jar till wanted for use. 

89. RED CURRANT JELLY.— 
With three parts of fine ripe red cur- 
rants mix one of white currants ; put 
them into a clean preserving-pan, and 
stir them gently over a dear fire until 
the juice flows from them freely ; then 
turn them into a fine hair-sieve, and let 
them drain well, but without pressure. 
Pass the juice through a folded muslin, 
or a jelly-bag; weigh it, « and then boil 
it fiut for a quarter of an hour ; add 
for each pound, eight ounces of sugar 
coarsely powdered, stir this to it off the 
fire until it is dissolved, give the jelly 
dght minutes more of quick boUing, 
and pour it out. It will be firm, and 
of excellent colour and flavour. Be sure 
to clear off the scum as it rises, both 
before and after the sugar is put in, or 
the preserve will not be clear. Juioe 
of red currants^ three pounds ; juice of 
of white currants, one pound: fifteen 
minutes. Sugar, two pounds: eight 
minutes. An excellent jelly may be 
made with equal parts of the juioe of 
red and of white currants, and of rasp- 
berries, with the same proportion of 
sugar and degree of boiling as men- 
tioned in the foregoing receipt. 

90. INDICATIONS OF WHOLE- 
SOME MUSHROOMS.— Whenever a 
fungus is pleasant in flavour and odour, 
it may be considered wholesome; if, 
on the contrary, it have an offensive 
smell, a bitter, astringent, or styptic 
taste^ or even if it leave an unpleasant 
flavour in the mouth, it should not be 
considered fit for food. The colour, 
figure^ and texture of these vegetablea 
do not afford any diaraoters on which 
we can safely rely ; yet it may be re- 
marked thai in colour the pure yellow, 
gold colour, bluish pale, diurk or lustre 
browiif wine red, or tiie violet^ belong 
to many that are esculent; wUlst the 



TEST MIT8T HUNOBB IK FBOBV WHO WILL HOT WOBK Dl HEAT. 



17 



pale or sulphur yellow, bright or blood- 
red, and the greenish, belong to few 
but the poiBonouB. The safe kinds 
have most firequently a compact, brittle 
texture ; the flesh is white ; they grow 
more readily in open places, sudb as 
dry pastures and waste laadi, than in 
places humid or shaded by wood. In 
general, those should be suspected 
which grow in caverns and subterranean 
passages, on animal matter imdergoing 
putreCaction, as well as those whose 
flesh is soft or watery. 

91. aUM ARABIC STARCH.— 
Get two ounces of fine white gum 
arable, and pound it to powder. Nekt 
put it into a pitcher, and pour on it a 
pint or more of boiUng water (according 
to the degree of strength you desire), 
and then, having covered it, let it set 
all night. In the morning, pour it 
carefully from the dregs into a clean 
bottle, cork it> and keep it for use. A 
tablespoonfiil of gum water stirred into 
apint of starch that has beenmade in the 
uBual manner, will give to lawns (either 
white or printed) a look of newness 
to which nothing else can restore them 
after washing. It is also good (much 
diluted) for thin white muslin and 
bobbinet. 

92. SEIDUTZ POWDERS.— Seid* 
litz powders are usually put up in two 
papers. The larger blue paper contains 
tartarized soda (also called Rochelle 
salt) two drachms, and carbonate of 
soda two scruples ; in practice it will be 
found more convenient to mix the two 
materials in larger quantity by passing 
them twice through a sieve, and then 
divide the mixture either by weight or 
measure, than to make each powder 
separately. One pound of tartarized 
soda, at Is. 2d. per pound, and five 
ounces and a half of carbonate of soda, 
at 4d. per poimd, will make sixtv pow- 
ders. The smaller powder, usually put 
up in white paper, consists of tartaric 
acid, at 2s. per pound, half a drachm. 

Directions for ttte. — Dissolve the con- 
tents of blue paper in half a tumbler 
of cold water, stir in the other powder, 
and drink during effervescence. 



ICY WIFE'S UTTLE SUPPERS. 
98. Meat Cakbs.-- Take any cold 
meat, game, or poultry (if under-done, 
iJl the better), mince it fine, with a 
little fat bacon or ham, or an anchovy ; 
season it with a Uttle pepper and salt; 
mix well, and make it mto small cakes 
three inches long, half as wide, and hidf 
an inch thick : ^ these a light brown, 
and serve them witiigood gravy, or put 
into a mould, and boil or bake it. N.B 
Bread-crumbs, hard yolks of eggs* 
onions, sweet herbs, savoury spices,* 
zest, or cuzry-powder, or any of the 
forcemeats. 

94. Ototbb Patvibs.— -RoUoutorpuff* 
paste a quarter of an inch thick, cut it 
mto squares with a knife, sheet eight oi' 
ten patty pans, put upon each a bit of 
bread the size of half a walnut ; i-oU out 
another layer of paste of the same 
thickness, cut it as above, wet the edge 
of the bottom paste, and put on tiietop, 
pare them round to the pan, and notch 
them about a dozen times with the back 
of the knife, rub them lightly with yolk 
of egg, bake them in a hot oven about 
a quarter of an hour : when done, take 
a thin slice off the top, then with 
a small knife^ or spoon, take out the 
bread and the inside paste, leaving 
the outside quite entire ; then parboU 
two dozen of large oysters, strain them 
from their liquor, wash, beard, and 
cut them into four, put them into 
a stew-pan with an ounce of butter 
rolled in flour, half a gill of good cream, 
a little grated lemon-peel, the oyster- 
liquor, free from sediment, reduced by 
boilingto onehal^ some cayenne pepper, 
salt, and a tea-spoonfiil of lemon-juice ; 
stir it over a firo five minutes, and fill 
the patties. (See 11.) 

95. LoBSTEB Patties. — Prepare the 
patties as in the last receipt. Take a hen 
lobster already boiled — pick the meat 
from the tail and claws, and chop it fine ; 
put it into a stew-pan with a little of 
the inside spawn pounded in a mortal' 
till quite smooth, an ounce of fresh 
butter, half a gill of cream, and half a 
gill of veal consomm^, cayenne pepper, 
and salt^ a tearspooiiful of essence of 



18 



HX WHO 



AJVAXD 90 ASK HIB WAGBB. 



sauhawy, the waaae of lemon-juioe, aad 
a table«pooiifal of floor umI water : 
stew H fiTe mmiiteab (iSiee 8.) 

M. Eao Aivs Ham PATtnB.— Oat a 
flUce of bread two inobfls ti&idc, from 
the most woJad part of a slale quartern 
loaf; hare ready a tin round catter, 
two inchoi diameter^ cat oat foor or 
ftwe pieoea, then tak;e a cattor two 
sizes amaUer, preaa it aearly tluoogh 
ibe larger jMoces, then remove with a 
amall kuf e the bread from the mne^ 
eircie; have ready a large stew-pan 
fdU of boiling lard ; fiy them of a light 
brown colour, drain tiiem dry with a 
clean cloth, and set them by till wanted ; 
then take half a poond of lean ham, 
minee it small, add to it a gSl of good 
brown sauoe ; stir it ov^er the fire a few 
minutes, and put a small qumtity of 
cayenne pefyper and lemen juice :~~fill 
the shapes with the miztore, and lay 
a poached egg upon each. 

97. Vbal aivd Ham PAmas. — Chop 
abomt aiz ounces of ready-dressed lean 
▼eal, and three otraees of bain 'Very 
small, put it into a stew-pan with an 
ounce of butter rolled » flour, half a 
gill of cream, half a gill of yeal stock, 
a little grated nutmeg and lemon*peel^ 
some cayenne pepper and salt, a spoon- 
ful of essence of ham, and lemon-juiee, 
and stir it over the fire seme time, 
taking care it does not bum. 

98. Puff Paste. — ^To a pound and 
a quarter of sifted flour rvA) gently in 
with the hand half a pound of fresh 
butter; mix up with half a pint of 
spring water ; knead it well, and set it 
by for a quarter of an hour ; then roll 
it out thm, lay on it in small pieces 
three-quarters of a pound more of but- 
ter, throw on it a little flour, double it 
up in folds, and roll it out thin three 
times, and set it by for about an hour 
ia « cold pUtee, Or, ]£ a more substan- 
tial and savomy paste is desired, use 
tiie following : — 

99. Pasve FOit MxAr OB {Satoubt 
Pies. — Sift two pounds of fine flimrto 
one and a-half of good salt butter, 
break it into small pieces, and wash it 
well in cold water; rab gesHy to- 



gether the batter and floor, and mis H 
up with the yolk <^ thtee ^gs, beat 
togetlia* with a spoon, and nearly a 
pint of Bptingwater ; roll it oat, and 
doable it in folds three times, and it 
is ready. 

WO. CRiOKEir ASD Ham PAmsa — 
Use the white meat from the breast of 
the chiekens or fowls, and proceed as 
for Teal and ham patties. 

101. Pbub Bsbf Saobaoes. — Tw^ka 
a pound of lean beef, and half a pound 
of suet, clean from the skin, — dkop it 
fine as for mince ooliop, then beat it 
w^ with a roller, or in a marble mor- 
tar, till H is all well mixed and will 
stick together — season highly with zest, 
if you hB^e H, and salt, or any mixed 
spices you x>lo'se, — make it mto flat 
round cakes, about an inch thick, and 
irfiaped with a cup or saucer, and fify 
them a light brown. "Hiey should be 
served up on boiled rice, as for curry : 
if for company, you mi^ do them with 
eggs and bread erumlM ; but they are 
quite as good without. Or they may 
be roll^ in puff or pie paste, and 
baked. {See 98 and 99.) 

102. Potato Pijffb. — Take oold 
roast meat, either beef or mutton, or 
yeal and ham, clear it from the gristle, 
cut it email, and seea<m «i^er with 
zest, or pepper and salt, and cut pickles 
— boil and mash some potatoes, and 
make them into a paste with ^e or 
two eggs, roll itout^ with a dust of flour, 
cut it round with a fiaueer, put 8<Maie 
of jour seasoned meat on one half, and 
fold it oyer like a pwff ; pinck or nick 
it neatly round, and fry it a light 
brown. This is the most elegant me- 
thod of preparing meat that has been 
dressed before. 

103. Fbibd Egos axi> Mikcsd Ham 
OB Baoon. — Ohoose some yery fine 
bacon streaked with a good deal of 
lean; cut this into yery liiin slicea, and 
afterwards into small square pieces; 
threw them into a stew-pan, and set it 
oyer a gentle fire, IflMit they may lose 
some of ^eir fot. When as much 
as wffl freely come is thus melted 
from them, lay them on a wann dish. 



BVSTBQSPtJM IfJtWa BA^m ▲K^TWIKI' TO DO. 



It 



FUiiniso a 8tew*pan al«cU«ful o£meU^ 
baiaon or lard ; set it on a stove ; put in 
about a dosseu of the tmaU pieces of 
bacon, then stoop the stew"P«n and 
break an in Cjgg. Maofi^e this carefully, 
and the ^gg will presiently be done : 
it will be very round, and the little 
dice of bacon will sticlt to it all over, 
so that it will m^ike a very pretty ap- 
pearance. TaJi:ecaf9 the yolks do not 
harden: when the €(gg is thus done, 
lay it carefully in.a warm dish, and do 
the others. 

lOi. Fjsh Cajps^ — Take the meat 
from the bones of any kind of cold fish, 
which latter put with the head and fins 
into a atew-pan with a pint of water, a 
little salt, pepper, an 4;mion» and a &ig- 
got of sweet herbs to stew for grayy. 
Mince the meat, and mix it well wi£h 
crumbs of bread and co}d potatoes 
equal parte» « Uttle pwrsl^ and season- 
ing. DCak« into a cak% with the white 
ofanegg^ or a little butter or milk; 
egg it over, and cover with bread 
crumbs, th^n fry a light brown. Pour 
the grafy over, aod stew giently for 
fifteen minutes^ stirring it carefully 
twice or thrice. Serve hot, and garnish 
withslicea of lemon, or parsley. 

105. Makbuo^ Goose. — ^The follow- 
ing, though scarcely pertaining to "'i/Ly 
Wife's LUde Suppers," is too ddicious 
a relish to be overlooked. ItisiHiit- 
able for larger supper partiesy or as a 
stock dish for £suBilies where visitors 
are frequent. It is also excellent for 
breakfasts, or for iconics: — ^Take a fine 
mellow ox-tongue out of pickle, cut off 
the root and homy part at the tip, wipe 
dry, and boil till it is quite tender ; 
then peel it, cut a deep slit in its whole 
length, and lay a fair proportion of the 
following mixture withm it: — Mace 
half an ounce, nutmeg half an ounce, 
doves half an ounoe^ salt two table- 
spoonfuls, and twelve Spanish olives. 
The olives should be stoned, and all 
the ingredients well pounded and 
mixed together. Next take a barn- 
door fowl and a good. lai|;e goose, and 
hoQ9 them. It4iy the tongue inside the 
fowl, rub the letter outnde with the 



seanoning, and having ready aofnot 
slices of ham divested of the rind, wvap 
them ti^tly round the fowl; put 
these inside the goose, with the m* 
mainder of the seasoning, aew it up, 
and make all secure and natural shape 
with a piece of new linen and iapeu 
Put it in aa earthen pan or jar just 
large enougili to bold it, with {d^ity of 
clarified Inittec; and. bake it two honra 
a|id a half in a slow oven; then take it 
out, and when cold take out the goose 
and set it in a sieve; take off the 
butter and hftrd &t, which put by the 
fire to melti. adding, if required, mone 
clarified butten. Wash and wipe out 
the pan, put the bird again into it,.«iMl 
take care that it is well covered with 
the wana butter ; th«n tie the jar- down 
with, bladder and leather. It will iaeep 
thus for a long time. When wMited 
for the table, the jar should be placed 
in a tub of hot water so aa to mdli the 
butter, HiB goose tbm can be takan onl^ 
the cloth tal;«ii off it, and soit to table 
cold. 

XOd. 0¥BTjiB PiBr^Slie ioOomng 
directions may be sa&ly relied upon. 
Take a large dish, butter it, and spmad 
a rich paste over the eddes and round 
the edge, but not fit the bottom. The 
oysters ahould be fresh, and ae la^ge 
and fine aa poss^ale. Drain off part 
of the liquor from the oysters. Put 
them into a pan, and season them witti 
pepper, salt, and spice. Stir them well 
with the seasoning. Have ready the 
yolks of eggs, chopped fine, and the 
grated bread. Pour the oysters (with 
as much of their liquor as you please), 
into the dish that has the paste in it. 
Strew over them the chopped egg and 
grated bread. Boll out the lid of the 
pie, «Hi p«t it on, crimpiBg the edges 
handsomely. Take a annil sheet of 
pastes cut it into a square, and roll it 
up. Cut it with a sharp kniie into the 
form of a double tulip. Hake a eiit in 
the centre of the upper crust, and stiek 
the tulip in it. Cut out eight large 
leaves of paste, and lay them on £e 
lid. Bake the pie in a quick oven. 

107. SaIiAD.— This is a point of pro- 



20 



THINK OF BASS, BTJT WOBK ON. 



fidency which it is easy to attain with 
care. The main pomt is, to incorporate 
the seyeral articles required for the 
aance, and to serve up at table as fresh 
as possible. The herbs should be 
« morning gathered," and they will be 
much refreshed by laying an hour or 
two in spring water. Careful pickings 
and washing, and drying in a doth, in 
the kitchen, are also very important, 
and the due proportion of each herb 
requires attention. The sauce may be 
thus prepared : — ^Boil two eggs for ten 
or twelve minutes, and then put them 
in cold water for a few minutes, so that 
the yolks may become quite cold and 
hard. Bub them through a coarse 
sieve with a wooden spoon, and mix 
them with a tablespoonf ul of water or 
cream and then add two tablespoonfuls 
of fine flask oil, or melted butter ; mix, 
and add by degrees, a teaspoonfiil of 
salt, and the same quantity of mustard ; 
mix till smooth, when incoiporate with 
the other ingredients about three table- 
spoonfuls of vinegar ; then pour this 
sauce down the side of the salad-bowl, 
but do not stir up the salad till wanted 
to be eaten. Qarnish the top of the 
sfdad with the white of the eggs, out in 
slices; or these may be arranged in 
such manner as to be ornamental on 
the table. Some persons may fancy 
they are able to prepare a salad without 
previous instruction, but, like every- 
thing else, a little knowledge in this 
case may not be thrown away. 

108. USE OF FRmT.— Instead of 
standing in any fear of a generous con- 
sumption of ripe fruits, we regard them 
as positively conducive to health. The 
very maladies commonly assumed to 
have their origin in the free use of 
apples, peaches, cherries, melons, and 
-mid berries, have been quite as preva- 
lent, if not equally destructive, in 
seasons of scarcity. There are so many 
erroneous notions entertained of the 
bad effects of fruit, that it is quite time 
a counteracting impression should be 
promulgated, having its foundation in 
common sense, and based on the com- 



mon observation of the inteiligent. 
We have no patience in reading the 
endless rules to be observed in this 
partictdar department of physical com- 
fort. No one, we imagine, ever lived 
longer or freer from the paroxysms of 
disease, by discarding the delicious 
fruits of the land in which he finds a 
home. On the contrary, they are 
necessary to the preservation of health, 
and are therefore caused to make their 
appearance at the very time when the 
condition of the body, operated upon 
by the deteriorating causes not always 
understood, requires their grateful, 
renovating influences. 

109. DAUGHTERa— Mothexv, who 
wish not only to discharge well their 
own duties in the domestic circle, but 
to train up their daughters at a later 
day to make happy and comfortable 
firesides for their families, should watch 
well, and guard well, the notions which 
they imbibe and witii which they grow 
up. There will be so many persons ready 
to fill their yoimg heads with false and 
vain fancies, and tiiere is so much always 
afloat in society opposed to duty and 
common sense, that if mothers do .not 
watch well, they may contract idea? 
very fatal to their &ture happiness 
and usefulness, and hold them till they 
grow into habits of thought or feeling. 
A wise mother will have her eyes open, 
and be ready for every case. A few 
words of common, downright, respect- 
able, practical sense, timely uttered by 
her, may be enough to counteract some 
foolish idea or belief put into her 
daughter's head by others, whilst, if it 
be left imchecked, it may take such 
possession of the mind that it cannot 
later be corrected. One main falsity 
abroad in this age is the notion, that 
women, unless compelled to it by abso- 
lute poverty, are out of place when en- 
gaged in domestic affairs. Now, mo- 
thers should have a care lest their 
daughters get hold of this conviction 
as regards themselves — ^there is danger 
of it ; the fashion of the day endangers 
it, and the care that an affectionate 
family take to keep a girl, during the 



BICHES ABB BUT THB BAOOAOE Of lOBTUlTB. 



21 



time of her education, free from other 
occupations than those of her tasks 
or her recreations, also endangers it. 
It is possible that affection may err in 
pushmg this care too far ; for as educa- 
tion means a fitting for life, and as a 
woman's life is much connected with do- 
mestic and family affairs, or ought to 
be so, if the indulgent consideration 
of parents abstains from all demands 
upon the young pupil of the school 
not connected with her books or her 
play, will she not naturally infer that 
the matters with which she is never 
asked to concern herself are, in fact, 
no concern to her, and that any atten- 
tion she ever may bestow on them is 
not a matter of simple duty, but of 
grace, or concession, or stooping, on 
her part? Let mothers avoid such 
danger. If they would do so, they 
must bring up their daughters from 
the first with the idea that in this world 
it is required to give as well as to re- 
ceive, to mimster as well as to enjoy ; 
that every person is bound to be useful, 
practically, literally useful, in his own 
sphere, and that a woman's first sphere 
is the house, and its concerns and de- 
mands. Once reaUy imbued with this 
belief, and taught to see how much the 
comfort and happiness of woman hei^ 
self, as well as of her family, depends 
on this part of her discbarge of duty, 
and a young girl will usually be anxious 
to learn all that her mother is dis- 
posed to teach, and will be proud and 
^.^PPy to aid in any domestic occupa- 
tions assigned to her, which need never 
be made so heavy as to interfere with 
the pHBCuliar duties of her age, or its 
peculiar delights. If a mother wishes 
to see her daughter become a good, 
^^PPy> &nd rational woman, never let 
her admit of contempt for domestic 
occupations, or even suffer them to be 
deeined secondary. They may be varied 
^ character by station, but they can 
never be secondary to a woman. 

110. SERVANTa— There are fre- 
quent complaints that, in these days, 
aerrants are bad, and apprentices are 
nad, and dependents and aiding hands 



generally are bad. It may be so. . But 
if it is so, what is the inference ? In 
the working of the machine of society, 
class moves pretty much with class ; 
that is, one class moves pretty much 
with its equals in the conamunity 
(equals so far as social station is con- 
cerned), and apart from other classes, 
as much those below as those above 
itself; but there is one grand exception 
to this general rule, and that is, in the 
case of domestic servants. The same 
holds, though in less degree, with ap- 
prentices and assistant hands ; and in 
less degree only, because, in this last 
case, the difference of grade is slighter. 
Domestic servants and assistants in 
business and trade, come most closely 
and continually into contact with their 
employers ; they are about them 
from morning to night, see them in 
every phase of character, in every style 
of humour, in every act of life. How 
infiuevhce 'SoiU descend! Conscientious- 
ness is spread, not only by precept but 
by example, and, so to speak, by con- 
tagion, it is spread more widely. Kind- 
ness is communicated in the same way. 
Virtue of every kind acts like an 
electric shook. Those in contact with 
its practisers receive tiie communica- 
tion of it. The same with qualities and 
tempers that do no honour to our nature. 
If servants come to you bad, you may 
at least improve them ; possibly almost 
change their nature. Here follows, 
then, a recipe to that effect : — Recipe 
for obtaining good servants. — Let them 
observe in your conduct to others just 
the qualities and virtues that you 
would desire they should possess and 
practise as respects you. Be uniformly 
kind and gentle. If you reprove, do 
so with reason and with temper. Be 
respectable, and you will be respected 
by him. Be kind, and you will meet 
kindness from them. Consider their 
interests, and they will consider yours. 
A friend in a servant is no contemptible 
thing. Be to every servant a friend ; 
and heartless, indeed, will be the 
servant who does not warm in love to 
you. 



J 



22 



WHO LOOKS NOT BSFOBB FINDS HTMKIBTiy BBHUTD. 



111. SCAKDAL— LIVE IT DOWN. 

Sbodld enTioitt tongnes some maHoe frame, 
To B(rfl and tamiA your good name, 

Live it down ! 

Grow not dishearten'd ; 'tis the lot 
Of all men, whether good or not : 

Live It down I 

Rail not in answer, but be calm ; 
For dlence yields a rapid bahn : 

Live it down ! 

Go not among your friends and say, 
Evil hath iaUen on my way : 

Live it down ! 

Far better thus yourself alone 

To suffer, than with friends bemoan 

The trouble that is all your own : 

Live it down ! 

What though men evQ call your goodt 
So Chbxst himself, misunderttood. 
Was nail'd unto a cross of wood ! 
And now shall you, for lesser pain. 
Your inmost soul for ever stain, 
By rendering evil back again ? 

Live it down! 

Oh! if you look to be forgiven, 

Love your own foes, the bitterest even. 

And love to you shall glide ttom heaven; 

And when shall come the poison'd lie 

Swift from the bow of calumny. 

If you would turn it harmless l^. 

And sake the vcnom'd fUaehood lie. 

Lire it down ! 



112. BLACK CURRANT JELLY. 
— ^To each pound of picked fruit, allow 
one gill of water ; set them on the fire 
in the preserving-pan to scald, but do 
not let them boil; bruise them well 
with a silver fork, or wooden beat^, — 
take l^em off and squeeze them through 
a hair-sieve ; and to every pint of juioe 
allow a pound of loaf or raw sugar : 
boil it ten minutes. 

113. BREAD (CHEAP AND EX- 
CELLENT KIND).— Simmer slowly, 
over a gentle fire, a pound of rice in 
three quarts of water, till the rioe has 
become perfectly soft, and the water is 
either evaporated or imbibed by the 
rioe : let it become cool, but not cold, 
and mix it completely with lour pounds 
of flour ; add to it some salt, and about 
«^,.. ^Able-spoonfuls of yeast. Kaead 



it very thoroughly, for on this depends 
whether or not your good materials 
produce a superior article. Next let 
it rise well before the fire, make it up 
into loaves with a little of the flour — 
which, for that purpose, you must 
reserve from your four pounds^ and 
bake it rather long. This is an ex- 
ceedingly good and cheap bread. 

114. ECONOUIOAL AKD NOURISHING 

BttBAD. — Suffer the miller to remoTO 
from the flour only the coarse flake 
bran. Of this bran, boil five or six 
pounds in four and a-half gallons of 
water ; when the goodness is extracted 
from the bran, during which time the 
liquor wiU waste half or three-quarters 
of a gallon, strain it and let it cool. 
When it has cooled down to the tem- 
perature of new milk, mix it with fifty- 
six pounds of flour, and as much saJt 
and yeast as would be used for other 
bread ; knead it exceedingly well ; let 
it rise before the fire, and bake it in 
small loaves : small loa-ves are prefer- 
able to large ones because they take the 
heat more equally. There are two 
advantages in making bread with bran 
water instead of plain water ; the one 
being that there is considerable nourish- 
ment in bran which is thus extracted 
and added to the bread; the other, 
that flour imbibes much more of braa 
water than it does of plain water ; so 
much more, as to give in the bread pro- 
duced almost a fifth in weight more 
than the quantity of flour made up 
with plain water would have done. 
These are important considerations to 
the poor. Fifty-six pounds of flour, 
made with pkdn water, would produce 
sixty-nine and a-half pounds of bread ; 
made with bran water, it will produce 
eighty-three and a-half pounds. 

116. SCOURING DROPS FOR RE- 
MOVING OREASE.>-There are sevena 
preparations of this name ; one of the 
best is madeas follows : Camphine, orspi- 
tits of tuipent^e, three ounces ; essence 
of lemon, one ounoe ; mix. Cost : oam- 
phine, 8d. per pint ; essence of lemon, 
8d. per oua4e. Seb««ing drops ate 



THBIUfi ABS NOMS VOOR BV7 tfOOB, AA €K)D JDUOWKB. 



as 



usually put up in small half-ounoe phiftls 
for sale ; these may be obtained at from 
9d. to Is. per dozen. 

116. POMATUMS.— For making po- 
matums, the lard, fat^ suet, or marrow 
used| must be carefully prepai'ed by 
being melted with as gentle a heat as 
possible, skimmed, strained, and cleared 
from the dregs which are deposited on 
standing. 

117. CoiCMON Pomatum. — ^Mutton 
suet, prepared as abore, one pound; 
lard, thr^e pounds; oarefuUy melted 
together, and stirred constantly as it 
cools, two ounces of bergamot being 
added. 

118. Habd PdMiifOM. — ^Lard and 
mutton suet carefully prepared, of eatoh 
one pound ; white wax, four ounces ; 
essence of bergamot, one ounce. Cost : 
lard. Is. per pound; suet, 6d. per 
pound ; white wax, 28. 2d. per pound ; 
ebsence of bergamot. Is. per oimoe. 

119. PICKLINO EGGS.— If tho 
following pickle were generally known 
it would be more generally used. We 
constantly ke^ it in our family, 
and find it an excellent pickle to be 
eaten with cold meat, &c. The eggs 
should be boiled hwd (say ten 
minutes) and then divested of their 
shells; when quite cold put them in 
jars, and pour over them vinegar (suffi- 
cient to quite cover them), in which has 
been previously boiled the usual spices 
for pickling ; tie the jars down tight, 
with bladder, and keep them till they 
begin to change colour. 

120. WHITE CURRANT JELLY. 
— ^White currant jelly is made in the 
same way as red currant jelly, only it 
ihould have double-r^ned sugar, and 
not be boiled above ten minutes. White 
currant jelly should be put through a 
lawn sieve. 

121. Another Rbceift fob Wmon 
CuBKAKT JbiiLY. — After the fruit is 
stripped from the stalks, put it into 
the pan, and when it boils run it quickly 
through a sieve : take a pound of sugar 
to each pint of juice, and let it boil 
twenty minutes. 



1^2. POTATOES.— We ara aQ potato 
eaters {for ourselves we esteem pota* 
toes beyond any other vegetable), yet 
few persons know how to cook them* 
Shall we be bold enough to commence 
our hints by presuming to inform our 
" grandmothers'' how 

123. To Boil Potatoib.— Put theoi 
into a saucepan with scarcely sufficient 
water to cover them. Directly the 
skins begin to break, lift them from 
the fire, and as rapidly as possible pour 
off every drop of Uie water. Then place 
a coarse (we need not say clean) towel 
over them, and return them to the fire 
again imtU they are thoroughly done, 
and quite dry. A little salt, to taste, 
should have been added to the water 
before boiHng. 

124. POTAtOBS FBtBD WITH FlBH.— 

Take cold fish and cold potatoes. Pick 
all the bones from the former, and 
mash the fii^ and the potatoes to- 
gether. Form into rolls, and fvy with 
lard until the outaides are brown and 
crisp. For this purpose, the drier kinds 
of fish, such as cod, hake, &c, are pre* 
ferable. Turbot^ soles, eels, &c., ave 
not so good. This is an eoonomioal 
and excellent relish. {See 104.) 

125. Potatoes mashed with Onioits. 
— Prepare some boiled onions, by put- 
ting them through a sieve, and nux 
them with potatoes. B«gulaSbe the pc^ 
tions according to taste. 

126. POTATO Cheesb Cakb& — One 
pound of mashed potatoes, quarter of a 
pound of currants, quarter of a pound 
of sugar and butter, and four eggs, to 
be w6ll mixed together ; bake them in 
patty pans, having first lined them with 
puff paste. 

127. Potato CoLOA»oir.yBoil pota- 
toes and greens, and spinach, separ 
rately ; mash the potatoes ; squeeze the 
greens dry ; chop them quite fine, and 
mix them with the potatoes with a little 
butter, pepper, and salt Put into a 
mould, buttering it well first; let it 
stand in a hot oven for ten minutes. 

128. PoTATOBB AOAfiTSD 17KDS& KbaI^ 

— ^Half boil large potatoes; dtain the 
waiter } pvtthem into an eacthea ' diah^ 



24 



BETTER GO TO BSD BUPFEBUESS THAK BIBE IN DEBT. 



or Bmall tin pan, under meat roasting 
before the fire; baste them with the 
dripping. Turn them to brown on all 
sides ; send up in a separate dish. 

129. Potato balls Ragout. — ^Addto 
a pound of potatoes a quarter of a pound 
of grated ham, or some sweet herbs, or 
chopped parsley, an onion or eschalot, 
salt, pepper, and a little grated nutmeg, 
and other spice, with the yolk of a 
couple of eggs ; then dress as potatoes 
escolloped. 

130. Potato Snow. — Pick out the 
whitest potatoes, put them on in cold 
water ; when ihey begin to crack, 
strain, and put them in a clean stew- 
pan beforo the fire till they are quite 
dry, and fall to pieces; rub them 
through a wire sieve or the dish they 
are to be sent up in, and do not disturb 
them afterwards. 

131. Potatoes fried whole. — ^When 
nearly boiled enough, put them into a 
stew-pan with a bit of batter, or some 
clean beef drippings ; shake them about 
often, to prevent biiming, till they are 
brown and crisp ; drain them from the 
fiit. It will be an improvement if they 
are floured and dipped into the yolk of 
an egg, and then rolled in finely-sifted 
bread crumbs. 

132. Potatoes fried in slices. — ^Peel 
large potatoes, slice them about aquarter 
of an inch thick, or out them into 
shavings, as you would peal a lemon ; 
dry them well in a clean cloth, and fry 
them in Icurd or dripping. Take care 
that the fat and frying-pan are qtdte 
dean ; put it on a quick fire, and as 
soon as the lard boils, and is still, put 
in the slices of potato, and keep mov- 
ing them until they are crisp; take 
ihem up, and lay them to drain on a 
sieve. Send to table with a little salt 
sprinkled over them. 

183. Potatoes Esgollofed. — Mash 
potatoes in the usual way ; then butter 
some nice clean soollopH^ells, patty- 
pans, or tea-oups, or saucers; put in 
your potatoes ; make them smooth at 
the top; cross a knife over them; 
stew a few fine bread orambs on them ; 
sprinkle than with a paste-brush with 



a few drops of melted butter, and set 
them in a Dutch oven. When nicely 
browned on the top, take them care- 
fully out of the shells, and brown on 
the other side. Cold potatoes may be 
warmed up this way. 

134. Potato Scones. — Mash boiled 
potatoes till they are quite smooth, 
adding a little salt ; then knead out the 
flour, or barley-meal to the thickness 
required ; toast on the gridle, pricking 
them with a fork to prevent them 
blistering. When eaten with fresh or 
salt butter they are equal to crumpets 
— even superior, and very nutritious. 

135. Potatoe Pie. — Peel and slice 
your potatoes very thin into a pie-dish; 
between each layer of potatoes put a 
little chopped onion; between each 
layer sprinkle a little pepper and salt : 
put in a little water, and cut about two 
ounces of fr^sh butter into bits, 
and lay them on the top; cover it 
close with paste. The yolks of four 
eggs may be added ; and when baked, 
a table-spoonful of good mushroom 
ketchup poured in through a funnel. 
Another method is to put between the 
layers small bits of mutton, beef, or 
pork. In Cornwall, turnips are added. 
This constitutes (on the Cornish me- 
thod) a cheap and satisfactory dish for 
&milies. (See 31.) 



136. GINGER -BEER POWDERS. 
— Blue paper : Carbonate of soda, 
thirty grains; powdered ginger, five 
grains ; ground white sugar, one 
drachm to one drachm and a-half; 
essence of lemon, one drop. Add 
the essence to the sugar, tiien the 
other ingredients. A quantity should 
be mixed and divided, as recommended 
for seidiitz powders. — White paper : 
Tartaric acid, thirty grains. 

Directions, — ^Dissolve the contents of 
the blue paper in water; stir in the 
contents of Uie white paper, and drink 
during efiervescence. Ginger • beer 
powders do not meet with such gene- 
ral approbation as lemon and kali, the 
powdered ginger rendering the liquid 
slightly turbid. 



WHEX THB TREB IB VALLRS, EVKBT KA.N BU8HB8 TO IT WITH A HATOHXT. 25 



187. APPLE BREAD.— A very li^t 
pleasant bread is made in France by a 
mixture of apples and flour, in the pro- 
portion of one of the former to two of 
the latter. The usual quantity of 
yeast is employed as in making com- 
mon bread, and is beaten with flour and 
warm pulp of the apples after they 
haTC boiled, and the dough is then 
considered as set ; it is then put in a 
proper vessel, and allowed to rise for 
eight or twelve hours, and then baked 
in long loaves. Very little water is 
requisite : none, generally, if the apples 
are very fresh. 

138. TO MAKE ANCHOVIES.— 
Procure a quantity of sprats, as fresh 
as possible ; do not wash or wipe them, 
but just tsdce them as caught, and for 
every peck of the fish, take two pounds 
of common salt, quarter of a pound of 
bay-salt^ four poimds of saltpetre, two 
ounces of sal-prunella, and two penny- 
worth of cochineal. Pound all these 
ingredients in a mortar, mixing them 
well together. Then take stone jai-s or 
small kegs, according to your quantity 
of sprats, and lay a layer of the fish, 
and a layer of Uie mixed ingredients 
alternately, until the pot is full ; then 
press hard down, and cover close for 
six months, they will then befit for use. 
I can vouch for the excellence and 
cheapness of the anchovies made in this 
manner. In fact, most of the fine Gor- 
^ona wnchoviea sold in the oil and 
pickle shops are made in this or a simi- 
lar manner, from British sprats. — ^An 
excellent and useful receipt. 

189. CEMENT FOR BROKEN 
CHINA, GLASS, &c.— The foUowmg 
recipe, from experience, we know to be 
a good one, and, being nearly colourless, 
it possesses advantages which liquid glue 
and other cements do not : — ^Dissolve 
half an ounce of gum acacia in a wine 
glass of boiling water; add plaster of 
Paris sufficient to form a tluck paste, 
and apply it with a brush to the parts 
required to be cemented together. 
Several articles upon our toilette table 
have been repaired most effectually by 
this recipe. 



140. SIGNIFICATIONS OF NAMES. 

Aaron, JTiedmr, a mountain. 

Abel, Hdtrtw^ yanity. 

AbnihuB, Hdfrew^ the ftHier of many. 

Adam, JSTe^mr, red earth. 

Adolphus, 8axon^ happinen and help. 

Albert, Saxoiiy all bright. 

Alexander, GrtA^ a helper of men. 

Alft«d, iScuwn, all peace. 

AmbroM, Greek, immortal. 

Amos, JSTe^mr, a burden. 

Andrew, Oreeky oourageous. 

Anthony, LaHn^ flonriahing. 

Archibald, Qermafit a bold obserrer. 

Arnold, OemuMy a maintainor of honour. 

Arthur, BrUuih^ a strong man. 

ISffi}'**. "»«-*• «~^ 

Baldwin, Qerman^ a bold winner. 
Bardulph, Germcan^ a famous helper. 
Bamaby, HtbrtWy a prophet's son. 
Bartholomew, Hdirew^ the son of him who 

made the waters to rise. 
Beaumont, Frendt^ a invtty mount 
Bede, Soxotty prayer. 

Beqjamin, SeireWy the son of a right hand . 
Bennet, Latin, blessed. 
Bernard, Oernum, bear's heart 
Bertram, Oermany fair, illustrious. 
Bonifoce, LaHn, a well-doer. 
Brian, /VeiuA, haring a thundering voice. 
CadwaUader, BtiiUh, rallant in war. 
Caesar, Zo/tn, adorned with hair. 
Caleb, Hebrew, a dog. 
Cedl, LaUn, dim-sighted. 
Charles, Overman, noUe-spliited. 
Christopher, Greek, bearing Christ 
Clement, LaHa, mild-tempered. 
Conrad, German, able oounseL 
Constantine, Lakn, resolute. 
Crispin, Latin, having curled locks. 
Cuthbert, Sasam, known famously. 
Daniel, Hebrew, God is Judge. 
David, Hebrew, well-beloved. 
Denis, Greek, belonging to the god of wine. 
Dunstan, Saxon, most high. 
Edgar, Sax(m, happy honour. 
Edmund, Saxon, happy peace. 
Edward, Saxon, happy keeper. 
Edwin, Saxon, happy conqueror. 
Egbert, Saxon, ever bright 
Eiyah, Hdtrew, God, the Lord. 
Elisha, Hebrew, the salvation of God. 
Ephraim, Hebrew, ftnitfViL 
Erasmus, Greek, lovely, worthy to be loved. 
Ernest, Greek, earnest, serious. 
Evan or Ivon, BriUth, the same as John. 
Everard, German, weU reported. 



26 THB BKBI WBXBOlAm ARB HJL WB, DB. QUOBS, AID OB. mBBTOAir. 


Ea^eoe, Gkvci; iMibty d^Meadsd. 


Mitbnr, Mitrm, a«iftor pmsent. 


Eustace, (Treei; staodiqg firm. 


Maoriee, ZalM« qvniif of aMoor. 


Ezeldel, Hebnu, the streiHSth of God. 


Meiedith, DuaM, the naring of the see. 


FeUx, Latuit hapiv; 


Michael, HArwm^ who is Ufce God? 


Ferdinaiid, Cfemuuij ]rarepeac«. 


Mocgan, Britiili, a marimr. 


Franda, 6enaaii| free. 


Mosee, HelMrw, drawn oat 


Frederic, German^ rich peace. 


Nathaniel, Hebrew, the gift of God. 


Gabriel, Hebrw, tbe' strength of God. 


Neal, FirtKh, somewhat black. 


Geoffery, German^ joyfuL 


Nicolas, Greek, Tietorioos over the people. 




Noel, Freneh, bdonging to one's nativity. 


Gerard, Saxon, all towardlinesa. 


Nonnaa, JWncA, one bom in NcMnandy. 


Gideon, Hebrae, a breaker. 


Obadiah, Mebnm, the servant of fheLovd. 


GUbert, Saxon, bright as gold. 


Oliver, Za»>tmoli«e. 


Giles, Gred^ s, litUe goat. 


Oriandes /taMn, oooaael for tins land. 


Godard, Oermant a godiy disposition. 


Osmund, Saxon, house peace. 


Godrey, German^ God's peaea 


Oswald, Saxon, ruler of a house. 


Godwin, German, victorions in God. 


Owen, British, well deseended. 




Patrick, Latin, a nobleman. 




Panl, Latin, small, BtU& 


Hannibal, Funie, & gracioas knrd. 


Percival, ^mdt, a place in France. 


Harold, Saxon^ a ohampion. 


Feregrinei Latin, outlanfiah 


Hector, &neei; Astoai defender. 


Peter, Greet, a-roek or stone. 


Henry, German, a rich lord. 


PhiKp, Greek, a lever of hocMB. 


Herbert, German, a bra^^ lord. 


Phioeea. ffdtrew, of bold conntenanee. 


Hercules, Greek, the glory of Hera or Juno. 




Hezekiidi, Hdjrew^ cleaving to the Lord. 


Bandal, or Banu^h, Saxon, pore help. 


HOTatio, JtaUan, worthy to be beheld. 


Baymnnd, German, quiet peace. 


Howel, British, sound or whole. 


Keuben, Hebrew, the son of vision. 


Hubert, German, a bright colour. 


Reynold, German, a lover of purity. 


Hugh, Dutch, high, lofty. 


Richard, Saxon, powerfoL 


Humphrey, Germati^ domestic peace. 


Robert, German, famous in coons^ 




Roger, German, strong counsel. 


James or Jacques, beguiling. 


Rowland, German, counsel for the land. 


Ingram, German, of angelic purity* 


RuAm, Xotn, reddish. 


Joab, Hebrew, fatherhood. 


Solomon, Hebrew, peaceable. 


Job, Hebrew, sorrowinj^ 


Samson, Hebrew, a Ihtleson. 


Joel, H^/rew, aequiescing. 


Samuel, Hebrew, heard by God. 


John, Hdfrew, the grace of the Lord. 


Saul, Hebrew, desired. 


Jonah, Hebrew, a dove. 


Sebastian, Cfreek, to be reverenced. 


Jonathan, Hebrew, the gift of the Lord. 


Simeon, Hebrew, hearing. 


Joscelin, German, jvsL 


Simon, Hebrew, obedient 


Joseph, Hebrew, addition. 


Stephen, Greek, a crown or garland. 


Josias, Hebrew, the fire of the Lord. 


Swithin, Saimn, very high. 


Joshua, Hebrew, a Savioiir. 


Theobald, Saxom, bold over the peoplew 




nieodore, Greek, the gift of God. 


Lambert, Saxon, a fau> lamb. 


Theodosius, Groek, given of God. 


Lancelot, Spanish, a little lance. 


Theophilus, Gretk, a lover of God. 


Laurence, Latin, crowned with laurels. 


Thomas, Hebrew, a twin. 


Lazarus, Htbrew, destitute of help. 


Timothy, Greek, a fearer of God. 


Leonard, German, like a lion. 


Toby or Tobias, Hebrew, the goodness of the 


Leopold, German, defending the people^ 


Lord. 


L^wellin, British, Ube a Uoo. 


Valentine, lAsHn, poweri\iL 


I«wis, French, the defender of the people. 


Vincent, Latin, conquering. 


Lionel, Latin, a Uttle lion 


Vivian, Latin, living. 


Lucius, LaUn, shining. 


Walter, German, a wood-master. 


Luke, Greek, a wood or grove. 


WaJMo, Qemuxn, a conqueror. 


Markj Latin^ a luunmer. 


William^ German, defeadii« naoy. 


Harthi, .£a/^ martiaL 

1 


Zaccheus, Syriac, innocent 



THE MILL CAlfNOT GRIND WITH THE WATEB THAT IB PAST. 



27 



Zachaxy, Hebrew^ remembering'.the Lord. 
Zebedee, Syriac^ having an inheritance. 
Zedekiah, Hebrew^ the justice of the Lord. 



Adeline, Gemum^ a princess. 
Agatha, Greeks good. 
AgneS) Qennan^ chaate. 
Alethea, Greeks the truth. 
Althea, Greeks hunting, 
Alice, Alicia» German, noUa 
Amy, Amelia, French, a beloved. 
Anna, Anne, or Hannah, SebrmOy gracious. 
Arabella, LcUin, a fair altar. 
Aureola, Latin, like gold. 
Barbara, Ltttm, foreign or strange. 
Beatrice, JLcMn, making happy. 
Benedieta, Za«K», blessed. 
Bcmioe, Gr^tk, bringing vietoiy. 
Bertha, Greek, bright or famons. 
Blanche, French, feir. 
Bona, ZcXin, good. 
Bridget, Jrish^ shining bright 
Cassandra, Greek, a reformer of men. 
Catharine, Greek, pure or clean. 
Charity, Greeik, love, bounty. 
Charlotte, French all noble. 
Caroline,/eiiimMi«o/Cbroft«s, the Latin o/Charlu, 
noble-spirited. 

Chloe, Greek, a green herb. 

Christiana, Gre^, belonging toGtarlst. 

Cedlia, Laiin^ from CedL 

Cicely, a corruption <^ GeciUa. 

Clara, Latin, clear or bright 

Constance, Latin, constant 

Deborah, Hebrew, a bee. 

I>»na, Greek, Jupiter's daughter. 

^^oreaa, Greek, a wild roe. 

^><*»thy, Greek, the gift of God. 

£>diti>, Saxon, hwppioMs. 

Bl«unr, Saxon, aU fniitftiL 

Eliza, Elizabeth, BOreia, the oath of God. 

Jn%, corrupted/rom Ameiia. 

Enuna, Germaa, a nurse. 

E«*er, Hesther, Zfe6r«r, secret 

Eve, ffa>rew, causing life. 

Etmice, Greek, fair victory. 

Eudoia, Great, prospering in the way. 

"*o<»8, German, free. 

^^^^rode, German, all truth. 

Grace, ZoMt^favour. 

^•SW, ifii6rei8, a stranger. 

o^iauL, Greek, alluring. 

^^ •oflmedfnm Joan; or, 

Janne, the feminine of John. 

Janet, Jeannette, little Jane. 

%<», Frenth, pleasant 



JsabeUa. Spaniek, fair Elia. 

Judith, ffebrew, praiain£^ 

Julia, JulianaJWmmae of Julius, 

Letitia, Latin, joy or gladness. 

Lois, Gredk, better. 

Lucretia, JkMn, a chaste Boman lady. 

Lucy, Latin, feminine ofLudus. 

Lydia, 6freek, descended from Lud. 

Mabel, Latut, lovely. 

Magdalene, Maudlin, Spriae, magnilloent 

Margaret, German, a pearl. 

Martha, Hebrew, bittemfiss, 

Mary, H^treu, bitter. 

Maud, Matilda, Greek, a lady of honour. 

Mercy, EngJuh, oompaoaion. 

Mildred, Saxon, speaking mOd. 

Nest BriHsh, the same as Agnes. 

Nicola, Gr^k, feminine of Nicolas. 

Olympla, Greek, heavenly. 

Orabilis, Latin, to be entreated. 

Pamell, or PetroniUa, little Peter. 

Patience, Laitin, bearing patiently. 

Paulina, Latin, femMne qfPmlinus. 

Penelope, Greek, a turkey. 

Persis, Greek, destroying. 

Philadelphia, Greek, brotherly love. 

Philippa, Greek, femimne of PkiUp. 

Phoebe, Greek, the light of life. 

Phyllis, Gredc, a green bough. 

PrisciHa, Lalm, somewhat old. - 

Prudence, Latin, discretion. 

Psyche, Qreekj the soul. 

Radiel, Hebrw, a lamh. 

Bebeoca, Mebrea, fat or plump. 

Rhode, Greek, a rose. • 

Bosamund, Saxon, rose of peace. 

Rosa, LcUin, a rose. 

Rosecleer, EngUsh, a £Edr rose. 

Rosabella, Italian, a fair rose. 

Ruth, Hebrete, trembling. 

Sabina, Latin, sprung from the Sabines. 

Salome, M^rew, perfect 

Sapphira, Greek, like a sapphire stone. 

Sarah, Hebrew, a princess. 

Sibylla, Greet, the counsel of God. 

Sophia, GreA, wisdom. 

Sophronia, Greek, of a soiuid mind. 

Susan, Susanna, Hebrew, a lily. 

Tabitha, Syriac, a roe. 

Temperance, 2kUin, moderation. 

Theodosia, Greek, given by God. 

Tryphosa, Greek, delicious. 

Tiypbena, Greek, delicate. 

Vida, Erse, feminine of Banid. 

Urstda, LtOm, % female bear. 

Walbnrg, Saaon, gracious. 

Winifred, Saaam, winning peaee. 

Zenobia, GreOt, the life of Jupiter 



28 



BETTER 00 BOUND THAN FALL INTO THE DITCH. 



Ul. BLACKING (Paste).— Half a 
pound of ivory black, half a pound of 
treacle, half an ounce of powdered 
alum, one drachm of turpentine, one 
ounce of sulphuric acid, and two 
ounces of i-aw linseed oil. The ivory- 
black and treacle must first be mixed 
together until thoroughly incorporated; 
then add the rest of t^e ingredients. It 
keeps best in a bladder. This receipt 
has been used in a friend's family for 
the last seventeen years, and is much 
approved. 

142. SUCCEDANEUM. — Take an 
old silver thimble, an old silver coin, 
or other silver article, and with a very 
fine file, convert it into filings. Sift 
through gauze, to separate the coarse 
from the fine particles. Take the finer 
portion, and mix with sufficient quick- 
silver to form a stiff amalgam, and 
while in this state, fill the cavities of 
decayed teeth. This is precisely the 
same aa the metallic amalgam used by 
all dentists. The filings of a sixpence 
would produce as much as is contained 
in two 2s. 6d. packets sold by the 
advertising makers of Succedaneums. 
Quicksilver may be bought at a trifle 
per half-ounce or ounce, at the ohemist^s. 
We have not the slightest hesitation in 
pronouncing this to be the best thing of 
the kind. Caution : as it turns black 
under the action of the acids of the 
mouth, it should be used sparingly 
for front teeth. A tooth should never 
be filled while it is aching. {See 144.) 

143. LEMONS, WHOLE, FOR 
DESSERT.— Take six fine, fresh, well- 
shaped lemons, cut a hole just round 
the stalk, and with a narrow spoon 
scoop out the pippins, and press out 
the juice, but leave the pulp in the 
lemons. Put them into a bowl with 
two or three quarts of spring water, to 
steep out the bittei^iess. Leave them 
three days, changing the water each 
day ; or only two days if you wish 
them to be very bitter. Strain the 
juice as soon as squeezed out, boil it 
with one pound of loaf-sugar ([setting 
the jar into which it was strained in 
a pan of boiling water fifteen or twenty 



minutes); tie it up, quite hot, with 
bladder, and set by till wanted. Taste 
the water the lemons are lying in at the 
end of the third day ; if not bitter, lift 
the lemons out into a china-lined pan, 
pour the water through a strainer upon 
them, boil gently one or two hours; 
set by in the pan. Boil again next day 
imtil so tender that the head of a large 
needle will easily pierce the rind. Put 
in one poimd of loaf-sugar, make it just 
boil, and leave to cool. Next day boil 
the syrup, and pour it to the lemons ; 
add one pound of sugar, and hot water 
to supply what was boiled away. Lift 
out the lemons, and boil the syrup and 
pour on them again every day for a 
fortnight, then every three or four days, 
adding gradually three pounds of sugar. 
When the lemons look clear and bright, 
boil the syrup pretty hard, add the 
lemon juice which had been set by, just 
boil, skim ; put the lemons into jara, 
pour the syrup upon them, and tie up 
the jars instantly with bladder. 

144. THE TEETH.— Dissolve two oz. 
of borax in three pints of water ; before 
quite cold, add thereto one tea-spoon- 
ful of tincture of myrrh and one 
table-spoonful of spirits of camphor ; 
bottie the mixture for use. One wine- 
glass of the solution, added to half ft 
pint of tepid water, is sufficient for 
each application. This solution, ap- 
plied dally, preserves and beautifies 
the teeth, extirpates tartarous adhesion, 
produces a pearl-like whiteness, arrests 
decay, and induces a healthy action in 
the gums. {See 142.) 

145. Camphorated Dentifrice. — 
Prepared chalk, one pound ; camphor, 
oneor two drams. The camphor must 
be finely powdered by moistening it 
with a little spirits of wine, and then 
intimately mixed with the chalk. Pre- 
pared chalk will cost about 6d., the 
camphor less than Id. The present 
price of camphor is under 3s. per pound. 

146. Mtbbh Dentifrice. — ^Powdered 
cuttle fish, one pound; powdered 
myrrh, two ounces. Cuttle fish is 
Is. 8d. per pound, powdered myrrh, 
3s. 6d. per pound. 



WILLOWS ARK WBAK, YKT THEY BIND OTHEB WOOD. 



29 



147. COMPOUNDS TO PROMOTE 
THE GROWTH OP HAIR.— When 
the hair falls off from diminished action 
of the scalp, preparations of cantha- 
rides often prove useful ; they are sold 
under the names of Dupuytren's 
Pomade, Cazenaze's Pomade, &c. The 
following directions are as good as any 
of the more complicated recipes : — 

148. POICADK AGAINST BALDNESS. — 

Beef marrow, soaked in several waters, 
melted and strained, half a pound; 
tincture of cantharides (made by soak- 
ing for a week one drain of powdered 
cantharides in one ounce of proof spirit), 
one ounce; oil of bergamot, twelve 
drops. Powdered cantharides, 8d. per 
ounce ; bergamot, Is. per ounce. 

149. Erasmus Wilson's Lotion 
A0AIN8T Baldness. — ^Eau de Cologne, 
two ounces ; tincture of cantharides, 
two drachms ; oil of lavender or rose- 
mary, of each ten drops. These appli- 
cations must be used once or twice a 
day for a considerable time ; but if the 
scalp become sore, they must be dis- 
continued for a time, or used at longer 
intervals. 

150; Bandoline or Fixature. — 
Several preparations are used, the fol- 
lowing are the best : — 

No. 1. — ^Mucilage of clean picked 
Irish moss, made by boiling a quarter 
of an ounce of the moss in one quart 
of water until sufficiently thick, recti- 
fied spirit in the proportion of a tea- 
spoonful to each bottle, to prevent its 
being mildewed. The quantity of spirit 
^ries according to the time it requires 
to be kept. Irish moss, 3d. to 4d. per lb. 

No. 2. Gum Tragacanth, one drachm 
and^ a half ; water, half a pint ; proof 
spirit (made by mixing equal paii» of 
rectified spirit and water), three ounces ; 
otto of roses, ten drops; soak for 
twenty-four hours and strain. Cost : 
Tragacanth, 3s. 6d. per lb. ; rectified 
spirit, 28. 6d. per pint ; otto of roses, 
2a. 6d. per drachm. Bergamot, at Is. 
pw oz., may be substituted for the otto 
of roses. 



151. MEDICINES ^APERIENT).— 
In the springtime of the year the judi* 
clous use of aperient medicines is much 
to be commended. 

152. Spring Aperients. — ^For chil- 
dren nothing is better than : — 1. 
Brimstone and treacle; to each tea- 
cupful of this, when mixed, add a tea- 
spoonful of cream of tartar. As this 
sometimes produces sickness, the fol- 
lowing may be used: — 2. Take of tar- 
trate of soda one drachm and a-half, 
powdered jalap and powdered rhubarb 
each fifteen grains, ginger two grains ; 
mix. Dose for a child above five years, 
one amaU tea-spoonful ; above ten 
years, a large tea-spoonful; above 
fifteen, half the whole, or two tea- 
spoonfuls; and for a person above 
twenty, three tea-spooniuls» or the 
whole, as may be required by the 
habit of the person. This medicine 
may be dissolved in warm water, com- 
mon or mint tea. This powder can be 
kept for use in a wide-mouthed bottle, 
and be in readiness for any emergency. 
The druggist may be directed to treble 
or quadruple the quantities as conve- 
nient. 

153. Aperient Pills. — To some 
adults all liquid medicines produce 
such nausea that pills are the only 
form in which laxative medicines can 
be exhibited ; the following is a useful 
formula : — 3. Take of compound rhu- 
barb pill a drachm and one scruple, of 
powdered ipecacuanha six grains, and 
of extract of hyoscyamus one scruple. 
Mix and beat into a mass, and divide 
into twenty-four pills. Take one, or 
two, or if of a very costive habit, three 
at bed time. — 4. For persons requiring 
a more powerful purge the same for- 
mula, with ten grains of compound 
extract of colocynth, will form a good 
purgative pill. The mass receiving this 
addition must be divided into thirty, 
instead of twenty-four pills. 

154. Black Draught. — 5. The com- 
mon aperient medicine known as black 
draught is made in the following man- 
ner : — Take of senna leaves six drachms, 
bruised ginger half a drachm, sliced 



30 



CHILDREN AND CHICKENS MUST ALWAYS BE PICKING. 



liquorice-root four drachms, boiling 
water half an imperial pint. Keep 
this standing on the hob, or near the 
fire for three hours, then strain, and 
after allowing it to grow cool, add of sal 
Tolatile one drachm and a-half, of tinc- 
ture of senna, and of tincture of carda- 
moms, each half an ounce. HThis mix- 
ture will keep a long time m a cool 
place.) Dose, a wine-glassful for an 
adult; two table-spoonfuls for young 
persons above fifteen years of age. It 
is not a suitable medicine for chil- 
dren. 

165. Tonic Aperient. — 6. Take of Ep- 
som salts one ounce, diluted sulphuric 
acid one drachm, infusion of quassia 
chips half an imperial pint, compound 
tincture of rhubarb two drachms. Half 
a wine-glassful for a dose twice a day. 

156. Infants' Aperient. — 7. Take of 
rhnibarb five grains, magnesia three 
grains, white sugar a scruple, manna 
five grains ; mix. Dose, varying from 
a piece half the size of a sweet-pea to a 
piece the size of an ordinary pea. — 8. 
A useful laxative for children is com- 
posed of calomel two grains, and sugar 
a scruple, made into five powders ; half 
of one of these for a child from birth 
to one year and a-half, and a whole one 
from that age to five years. 

157. Flour op Brimstone is a 
mild aperient in doses of about a quarter 
of an ounce ; it is best taken in milk. 
Flour of brimstone, which is also called 
subUmed sulphur, is generally put up 
in ounce packets at Id. ; its wholesale 
price IB id. per pound. 



158. MEDICINE WEIGHTS AND 
MEASURES. — All medicines are mixed 
by apothecaries* weight : this must be 
carefully borne in mind, as the apothe- 
caries' drachm is more than double that 
of avoirdupois or the common weights. 
A set of the proper weights may be ob- 
tained at any scale-makers ; and they 
will be found to be marked thus : — 



apothecaries* weight. 
20 graios make 1 scruple 9i. 
8 scruples ,, 1 dram 5L 
8 drachms „ 1 ounce Ji. 
12 ounces „ 1 pound lb. 
Medicines are always purchased whole- 
sale by avoirdupois weight. For com- 
potm^ng liquids an apothecary*s glass 
measure will be found indispensable. A 
two or three ounee size will be lai^e 
enough for most purposes. 



5 Grains 






Scruples thus, 3 



Drachms thus, 3 Ounces thus, J 



159. METHOD OF CURING THE 
STINGS OF BEES AND WASPS.— 
The sting of a bee is generally more 
virulent than that of a wasp, and with 
some people attended with very violeitt 
effects. The sting of a bee is bu*bed at 
the end, and, consequently, always left 
in the wound ; that of a wasp is pointed 
only so that they can sting more than 
once, which a bee cannot do. When 
any person is stung by a bee, let the 
sting, in the first place, be instajitly 
pulled out; for the longer it remains 
in the wound the deeper it will pierce, 
owing to its peculiar form, and emit 
more of the poison. The sting is hol- 
low, and the poison flows through it 
which is the sole cause of the pain and 
inflammation. The pulling out of the 
sting should be done carefully, and 
with a steady hand, for if aay -part of it 
breaks in, all remedies then, in a great 
measure, will be ineffectual. When 
the sting is extracted, suck the wounded 
part, if possible, and veiy little inflam- 
mation, if any, will ensue. If hartshorn 
drops are inmiediately afterwards 
rubbed onjthe part, the cure will be more 
complete. All notions of the efficacy of 
sweet oil, bruised parsley, bumet, tobac- 
co, &c.,"appear, on various trials, to be 
totally groundless. On some people, the 
sting of bees and wasps have no effect, 
it is therefore of little consequence what 
remedy they apply to the woimd. How- 
ever, tne effect of stings greatly depends 
on the habit of body a person is of; 
at one time a sting shall take little or no 
effect, though no remedy is used, which 
at another time will be very virulent on 
the same person. We have had occasion 



littijB efTsosa kindub thb firi^ but qbmat onbs put it out. 



31 



to teat this remedy serveral timee, and 
can safely avouch its efficaoj. The 
exposure to which persons are sul^geeted 
during tiie hot summer months^ will 
no doubt reader this advice very^usefol, 
its vezy simplicity making it more 
acceptable. 

160. PRESERVED PLUMBw — Cut 

your plums in half (they must not be 

quite ripe), and ti^e out -&e stanes. 

Weigh ihe plums, and allow a pound of 

loaf-sugar to a pound of fruit. Crack 

the stones, take out the kernels and 

break them in pieces. Boil the plums 

and kernels very ^owly for about 

fifteen minutes, in as little water as 

possible. Then spread them on a large 

diah U> eool, and strain the Hquor. 

Next day make your syrup. Kelt the 

sugar in as Uttle wster as will suffice to 

dissolve it (about a gill of water to a 

pound of sugar), and boil it a few 

minutes, skimming it till quite clear. 

Then put in your pluitis with the 

liquor, and boil them fifteen minutes. 

Put them in jars, pour the juice over 

them warm, and tie diem up, when cold 

wii^ bnoidy paper. Plums for common 

use are very good done in treacle. Put 

your plums into-an eartiuen vessel that 

holdsa gallon, having firrt slit eaoh plum 

^vHh a knife. To tiuee quarts of plums 

put a pint of treaoie. Cover them, and 

set them on hot coals ii^jpie chimney 

comer. Let them stew for twelve 

hours or more, oooasionaliy stirring 

tiiean, and renewing the coals. The next 

day put them up in jars. Done in this 

J>«mier, they will keep till the next 

Spring. Byraps may be improved in 

clearness by adding to the dissolved 

sugar and water some white of egg very 

^•U beaten, aUowing the white of one 

cggto two pounds of sogan Boil it 

^•ly hard (adding the egg shell), and 

f«]^ it well, that it may be quite clear 

before you put in yom- fimit In the 

WMon for " preserves," ourieaders may 

^ glad of the above instructions whi^ 

"•▼•been adopted with great success. 

^ts about making Preserves, 61, are 

^ worOiy of attention. {See aUo, 

3»» «1, «9^ 112^ 120, aadlSL 



161. Hob NO H? That is thb QUES- 
TION. — ^Few things point so 4irectly 
to. the want of cuUvoatiem as the mis* 
use of the letter H by persons in con- 
versation. We hesitate to assert that 
this common defect in speaking indi- 
cates the absence of ediMttien — ^for, to 
our surpnse, we have heard even edu- 
cated persons frequently commit this 
common and vulgar erroh Now, for 
the pui^se of assisting those who de- 
sire to improve their mode of fl^eaking, 
we intend to tell a little stoi^ about 
our next door nei^bour, Mrs. Alex- 
ander Hitching,— ^r, as she frequently 
styled herself, with an air ilf conscious 
dignity, Mrs. Halbzaitdbb 'Itching. 
Her husband was a post captain of 
some distinction, seldom at home;, and 
therefore Mrs. A. H. (or, as she ren- 
dered it, Mrs. H. I.) felt it v^oumbent 
upon herself to represent her own dig* 
nity, and the dignity of her husband 
also. Well, this Mrs. Hitching was a 
next door n^hbour of ours— a most 
agreeable lady in many respeots, mid- 
dle aged, good looking; unoommonly 
fond of talking, of active^ almost of 
fussy habits, very good tempered and 
good natured, but with a most unplsfr* 
sant habit of misusing the letter H to 
such a degree that our sensitive -nerves 
have often been shocked when in her 
society. But we must b6g the reader, 
if Mrs. H. should be an acquaintance 
of his, not to breathe a word of our 
having written this account of her-^or 
there would be no limit to her " hm» 
dignation." And, as her fiunily is vezy 
numerous, it will be necessazy to keep 
the matter as quiet as can be, for it 
will scarcely be possible to mention the 
subject anywhere, without " 'orrifying" 
some of her relations, and instigating 
them to make Mrs. H. become our 
"Aenemy," insteatd of i^maining, as we 
wish her to do, our intimate friend. 



One morning Mrs. H. caUed upon me, 
and asked me to take a walk, saying 
that it was her Aobjeet to look out for 
ao^'ouse^ as her lease had nesrly termi" 
ttsted ; and as she had aftn heard her 



32 



WHAT THOU CANST DO THTSBLT, OOMXIT NOT TO ANOTHBR. 



dear 'Itchiag say that he would like to 
settle ia the neighbourhood of 'Amp- 
stead 'Eath, she should like me to as- 
sist her by my judgment in the choice 
of a residence. 

" I shall be most happy to accom- 
pany you," I said. 

" I knew you would," said she : 
" and I am sure a hoxxr or two in your 
society will give me pleasure. It's so 
long since we've had a gossip. Besides 
which, I want a change of Aair." 

I glanced at her peruke, and for a 
moment laboured under the idea that 
she intended to call at her hairdresser's; 
but I soon recollected. 

** I suppose we had better take the 
^omnibus," she remarked, '' and we can 
get out at the foot of the 'ill." 

I assented, and in a few minutes we 
were in tha street ; in the line of i the 
omnibus, and one of those vehicles 
soon appearing — 

« Wm you 'ail itf inquired she. 

So I hailed it at once, and we got in. 
Now Mrs. H. was so fond of talking 
that the presence of strangers never 
restrained her — a fact which I have 
often had occasion to regret. She was 
no sooner within the omnibus than she 
begpin remarking upon the ^inconve- 
nience of such vehicles, because of their 
smallness, and the Ainsolence of many 
of the conductors. She thought that 
the proprietors ought only to 'ire men 
upon whose civility they could depend, 
llien she launched out into larger to- 
pics — said she thought that the Hem- 
peror of ^austria — (here I endeavoured 
to interrupt her by asking whether she 
had any idea of the part of Hampstead 
she would like ; but she would com- 
plete her remarks by saying) — must be 
as 'appy as the days are long, now that 
the ITempress had presented him with 
a hare to the throne ! (Some of the 
passengers smiled, and, turning round, 
looked out of the windows.) 

I much wished for our arrivsd at the 
spot where we should alight, for she 
commenced a story about a 'andsome 
youn^ nephew of hers, who was a dis- 
tinguished ^officer of the Aarmy. This 



was suggested to her, no doubt, by the 
presence in the omnibus of a fine look- 
ing young fellow, with a moustache. 
She said that at present her nephew 
was s^tioned in JTireland ; but he ex- 
pected soon to be Ordered to the 
Crimea. 

The gentleman with the moustache 
seemed much amused, and smilingly 
asked her whether her nephew was at 
all ^ambitious ? I saw that he (the gen- 
tleman with the moustache) was jest- 
ing, and I would have given anything 
to have been released from the unplea- 
sant predicament I was in. But what 
was my annoyance when Mrs. H. pro- 
ceeded to say to this youth, whose face 
was radiant with humour, that it was 
the 'ight of her nephew's Ambition to 
serve his country in the Aour of need; 
and then she proceeded to ask her fel- 
low-traveller his opinion of the Aupshot 
of the war — ^remarking that she 'oped 
it would soon be ^ver ! 

At this moment I felt so nervous that 
I pulled out my handkerohiej^ and en- 
deavoured to create a diversion by 
making a loud nasal noise, and remark- 
ing that I thought the wind very cold, 
when an accident happened which took 
us all by surprise : one of the large 
wheels of the omnibus dropped off, and 
all the passengers were jostled down 
into a comerY^-but, fortunately, with- 
out serious injury. Mrs. H., however, 
happening to be under three or four 
persons, raised a loud cry for '* 'elp ! 
'elp !" She was speedily got out, when 
she assured us that she was not 'urt ; 
but she was in such a state of Aagita- 
tion that she wished to be taken to a 
chemist's shop, to get some JTaromatic 
vinegar, or same Hoe de Cologne ! The 
chemist was exceedingly polite to her, 
for which she said she could never 
express her Aobligations — an assertion 
which seemed to me to be literally true. 

She was some time before she re- 
sumed her accustomed freedom of 
conversation; but as we ascended 
the hill she explained to me that 
she should like to take the house 
as tenant from 'ear to *taTf — but 



ALL VBOm HilVK ▲ BKOrNXiro^ OOD Bzownox 



ss 



she thought landloroUi would Aobjeot to 
such an agreemenl^ as when they got a 
good tenant they liked to 'old 'im as 
long as they could. She expressed an 
<^inion that 'Ampstead must be very 
'ealthy, because it was so 'igh Aup. 

We soon reached the summit of the 
hill, and turned through a lane which 
led towards the Heath, and in which 
villas and cottages were smiling on 
ttther side. ''Now, there's a Aelegant 
little placet" she exclaimed, "just 
suited to my Aideas — about Aeight 
rooms, and a Aoriel Aover the /En- 
trance." But it was not to let — so we 
passed on. 

Ftesently, she saw something likely 
to suit her, and as there was a bill 
in the window, "To be Let— Inquire 
Within," she gave a loud rat-a-tat-tat 
at the door. 

The servant opened it. 

" I see that this 'ouse is to letf ' 

"Tes, ma'am it is: will you walk 
mf 

'' 'Ow many roozns are there f ' 

"Eleven, ma'am; but if you will 
step in, mistress will speak to you." 

A very graceful lady made her ap- 
pearance at the parlour door, and in- 
vited us to step in. I felt exceedingly 
nervous, for I at once perceived that 
the lady of the house qwke with that 
accuracy and taste whi<^ is one of the 
best indications of refinement. 

"The house is to let — and a very 
pleasant residence we have found it." 

•* 'Ave you ^occupied it long f 

"Our family has resided here for 
more than nine years." 

*' Then, I suppose, your lease 'as run 
Aoutr 

"No! we have it for five years 
longer ; but my brother, who is a cler- 
gyman, has been appointed to a living 
in Yorkshire, and for his sake, and for 
the pleasure of his society, we desire to 
remove." 

" WeU— there's nothing like keeping 
fisanilies together for the sake of 'appi- 
ness. Now, there's my poor dear 'It- 
ching^ — [here she paused, as if some- 
what aineted, and some young ladies 



who were in the room drew their heads 
together, and appeared to consult about' 
their needlework ; but I saw, by dimples 
upon their cheeks, which they could not 
conceal, that they were smiling] — " 'e 's 
'itherto been Aat 'ome so seldom, that 
I 've 'ardly Aever known what 'appineas 
Ais." 

I somewhat abruptly broke in upon 
the conversation, by suggesting that 
she had better look through the house, 
and inquire the conditions of tenancy. 
We consequently went through the 
various rooms, and in every one of 
them she had " an Aobiection to this," 
or "a 'atred for that,' or would give 
"a 'int which might be useful" to the 
lady when she removed. The young 
ladies were heard tittering very much 
as we walked across the staircases, for 
it generally happened upon these occa- 
sions that Mrs. H. broke out, in a loud 
voice, witii her imperfect elocution. I 
felt so much annoyed, that I deter- 
mined to cure Mrs. H. of her defective 
speaking. How I accomplished this 
apparently hopeless task I will state 
hereafter. {See 279.) 



162. TO MAKE GINGEBBBEAD 
CAKE. — ^Take one pound and a-half of 
treacle^ one and a half ounces of ground 
ginger, half an ounce of carraway seeds, 
two ounces of allspice, four ounces of 
orange peel, shred fine ; half a pound 
sweet butter, six ounpes blfljiched 
almonds, one pound honey, and one 
and a half ounces carbonate of soda, 
with as much fine flour as makes a 
dough of moderate consistence. — 
Directions far hakinff «t.^Make a pit in 
five pounds flour, then pour in the 
treacle, and all the other ingredients, 
creaming the butter; then mix them 
altogether into a dough, work it well, 
then put in three quarters of an ounce 
tartaric acid, and put the dough into a 
buttered pan, and bake for two hours 
in a cool oven. To know when it is 
ready, dip a fork into it^ and if it comes 
out sticl^ put it in the oven again ; if 
not^ it is ready* . 





m 



A«CMM».«IMani?RN|- 



A m^m 



163. «HONET WATSSU-IUatifiMl 
B^intB^ mghto\smsB»; oil oi oloveSy oil 
of beigimet^ oil- ei lA^taadM^ o£ oaeh 
half adjBaehm ; liftoaii tlifoojpniaui; j4^ 
low suideif^ sh*T3ag0> four draekno.' 
BigOBt for eight' dog^a ; add twe omoeK 
ea^ o£ ana^ flower ^mdnr aod rose 
T^ftiior 

164. A CUREFOa BTJBN& AND 
SCALDS^ — Fofir oimcas of powdered 
akiia pat into a pint of eold waiter. A 
pieee of rag to 1^ dipped into tkie 
lipoid, to be applied tO'tke iHim or 
8aAld>--freqneatl7 changed during th^ 
dfty. This is & rapid ovre. 

U5. A GUBfi FOR WEAK ANB 
SOBE EYES.— ^ulphtttio of Emc three 
graaos, tincture of epiiunp ten- dropa^ 
water two ouncee. To^ be applied thvte 
or four times anler^^ 

166. PILLS FOR QOUT Aim 
BHEUMATlSM.-^-Acetic extract ef 
colchioutt two graiBB, powdered ipooar 
cuanha Jour grains^ compound eattraDt 
of oolocynth half a diiachni, blue yiU 
four graina. Divide into twelyoj^Uaj 
one to be taken night and Baon^ngv 

167. A IkllXTURE FOB A BAD 
COLD AND COUGH.— Solution of 
acetate of ammonia two ounces, ipeca- 
cuanha wine two dradmis, obtimeny 
wine two drachma, a ohition df mttilite 
of morphine half a dra&hm^treaelo four 
draohma ; waiter add eight ouncea. Two 
tabloHsq^KKHifulB to bo tflJien thiweiimea 
a-day. 

168. TRU5 INDIAN GUBRY 
POWDER. — Turmeorio fowr oan0e9> 
coriander seeda eleven oances^eayenne 
half an omioe, blade pepper five onneBB,. 
pimento two ouneee^ ^oves half aa' 
ounee, cinnamon l^ee omioea, ging^ 
two ounces, cmnin seeds three ounces^ 
shallots one ounce* All theae ingre* 

■ ■ ■ MIB I ■ ipi^ — ^» ■■■ ——■■■■■I <■ ■■■■■^— — ^— i— ^W^fc^^W 

* The receipts from No. 169 to Ho. 180 
have been forwarded to ub by a cheniistr iRith 
the following remark: — "As yoa desire for 
your excellent publication receipts that can 
be guaranteed, I have the honour of for- 
warding you some tfiat are dafiy in me $ nor 
have I found any of thMn to ftifl. I can tiM 
HMiire you Hhat they l^vo aU had- a god* 
trial" — ILF.F.jKermington, . . - • 



abocdd be* of -» ftne ^qyoaUty^ and 

recently gmnad or powdeiedk 

169^ LIQUID FOR THE GUBS 
AlO) PREYSNTION (^ BAUy 
NtfiSS.— Easr de Colore two o«naefl^ 
tincture of cantharidea two draohnu^ 
oil of KOMauxyi, oU of nutaaegv ^*^^ ^^ 
of hwendop, «Mh tan dropa. To be 
rubbed era the bald; part ef the head 
every ni|^» (^147.)' 

im CURU FOR TOOTHACHE.^ 
Two er tiiree dvopa of eaaential oil of 
afaaands^.piit upon a amall piece of lint 
oEOotteiiweel^aKid! plAoedinthe hollow 
of the toothy wbich will be found to 
have the active power of cuEii^ the 
toothache witheuit deatrojiing the tooflh 
OP injuring the giaasui, 

li71. LAVENDER WATER.— E8- 
aence ef musk four drachma, eaaenee 
of ambeigria four diuchms, eil of cin- 
namon ten drops, EngMah hnwader aix 
dracltiQUi^oil of gevaniiinn two dinchnis^ 
spintB of wine^ twant^f onaMB. To be 
aU mixed together. 

172. LOTION FOR* FREGEXES.— 
Muriate ef amnonia^ half a. drachm; 
lavender water^ two diadMna; distilled 
wafer, half a pmt Apfdied with a 
apong^ twO' o# l^ee tbnea a day. 

173. AMERICAN TOOTHPOWI^SL 
OxU, eirttle fiahrbene, dfagen'a blood, 
of eaeh ta^ Araehma ; burnt alum and 
red aandera^ of each four draehma; 
orris root, coght dnc^na; clorea oad 
'dnwrnen, of each half a draehm; 
vanilk, ^even gndna ; raeewood, half a 
drachm ; roae piAl^ e^^ draehma* All 
to be- finely powdered and mixed. 

174. QUININE TOOTH POWDER 
— ^Roaetwih^ two draduna ; precijatated 
chalk, twelve drachms; carbonate of 
ma^^aiay one drachm; quinine (sul- 
phate)^ aiz graina. All to be well 
mixed together. 

175. HOW TO TAKE MARKING 
INK OUT OF LINEN.-A. aaturated 
solution of cyanuret of potassium, aip- 
l^ied with a camera-hair bmsh. After 
the ntarking wk ^aappeara, the linen 
sbeuld be ySniH waahed in cold water. • 

174. HOW TO TAKE INK OUT 
OF BOAR£iS.r.rfitr<Nig mwootio aeidy 



A SMOHVIBEi* HAir » ▲ SHa€iAlC&. BBOSEBB. 



tf 



<ivq[>]mt8.-«dS8ali&i applied wIUl «>. ^letta 
of <d«th ;, afievwazds wcdl vnfihed with 
wftteiu 

irr. HOW TO TAKE WRirma 

INK OUl^ <i^ PAPl^>--^Iutuiii ci 
BHiffbte of tin,, two cbaolnach; watar^ 
Inir dMchras. To- be appUed wiiii a 
WieFii'kalr bnuh. Aftinr thetwatiag 
ha» disappeazBd^ tk9 -psnj^ Hhonld Im 
paai»d tfamMii^ water, and dried. 

17^ A POSITIVB CURE FOB 
CORN&— Tha atrangaBt aaatio add. 
afiplied night aad maauBg wXk a 
QflBiers^air bnsh. In OB^waekthe coca 
inU disappear.. Soft or hard Qocna. 

13». PASTIIiS^ FOiL BUfiNKQi^ 
Caieanlla bavk, «igb;t dmehm^; gam 
beoaoiByioardsnMihHis; yaHaw aaadewy 
two doaeluns ; Btyssai^ two- dvacbias ;, 
oiiibeBiiBiy tvpo* dsackoaa; abacooal, en. 
euiMea; nitve; ona' draoluii^aad a hai£;, 
ttCMilEi^ of Izi^Faeaatii^ sa&iaat'^jnuir 
tilf. Rediace the BuboUiaaea to. a 
powdee, aad foimiato-a paste with tha 
muctlaga^ and; dkada into BDaall eonaa ; 
the» put Hkmot lata a. ovan nnidl* quite 

180* PILIiS FOB A EAD COUOH. 
GoBipoimd ip«caouaahf»rpowdar, half a 
iacloBt; freab dried sqajlbj te»grsiiui4 
muaomBuama^ Um gpaina;, sulphate of 
qaimne,. aiaL gvaina;. toeaale«. auffiident 
^pumtity to nafce a mass; J^i-vidbainto 
^eive pills ; one. to be takan xught and 
iQonuag^ ^^^^ 

^h BLA.GKJlSQ.'Shiicting ia now 
always made with bfwty blaek, tveaele^ 
^jseed or aweet oil, and oil of TatrioL 
*^ pvoportioBa vary in tho different 
diiBctiena^ and a vaaable qjoantity of 
^atev is added, as'pasta onliqiud bhudt; 
^ ia rectoind ;. the mode of making 
^^i^othnrwiaepreeiaaly thasame. (14L) 

182. Liquid B&AOKBia. — 1. Ivocy 
Dlaok and troaole of eaeh ona pound, 
Bweet oil and oil of vitriol of each a 
qnarterofapouBd. Put the first three 
«>gether until the oil ispeifeotly mixed 
5' **««ed;" then add th» oU of vitriol ; 
ouuted with three tames xta w^ht of 
^^r, and a£ber atanding threa hours 
add onik ^un^ ^f watev or souitbefflr. 



2. tor larger <|uanti1rf it may ba 
made as follows : ivory black l^reecwt.. 
molasses or treacle two cwt., linseed 
eil thraas gaUta8,,Qa:^ of vitriol twenty 
pounds, water eig^t^- gaUona Mis at 
above directed. 

X83. Pastx BLA<naxQ.-^l. Ivory 
bkuik two ponndsy treacle one -ponnd^ 
a]ive"oili and ail of vitri(J of each a 
<^gia];tac of a- pound. Mix. as before^ 
aclding only sufficient water to fonoa 
into a pasta. 

2. In larger quantity : Ivory black 
thasee cwt, common treacle twot cwt.,, 
linseed oil and vinegar bottoms ol eaeh- 
threegallon^ oil of vitriol, twenty-eight 
gcHmdSy, water a sufficient quantity. 
Cost : Ivozy black Is. per poand^treacla 
3d. per pound, linseed oil 6d. per pint, 
sweat oil 1& per pint.-^iVbfev The ivoiy 
black: must be. very finely ground for 
liquid blacking, otherwise iti settles ra^ 
pidly. The oil of vitriol ia powerfiilly 
corEoaiae when undiluted, but uniting 
with tiie lima of the ivory black, it is 
partly neutralised, and does not izijure 
the leather, whilst it much improves 
tba^qwdity of th» blaobii^. 

184. Bsm BhAOfaina fob Boots Aina 
Bho99> — Ivory black one and a half 
ounce, treacle one and a half ounce, 
sperm oil thre» drachms,, strong oil of 
vitriol three dracluns, common vinegar 
halfa^pint. Mix the ivory black, treacle, 
and vinegar together, then mix the 
sperm) oil and oU of vitriol separately, 
and add them to' the otiier mixture. 



185.. BOX)T-TOP LIQUID.— OxaUc 
acid and white vitriol of each ona 
ounce, water one and a half pint. To 
be aPF^d with a sponge to the leather, 
previonsly waahed^and then washed off 
again. This preparation is poisonous. 
Coat: Oxalic acid Ist 6d. per pound, 
w-hite vilriol 6d. per pound. 

186, BLACK REVIVER FOR 
BLACK CLOTH.— Bruised galls one 
pound, logwood two pounds, green 
vitriol half a pound, water five quarts. 
Boil for two nouxs, aod stvain. Used 
to reeboire the colour of black cloth, 
dost : Galls Is. 4d. per^pound, logwood 



S6 



A HASTT ICAH HITIB WAimD WOX. 



2d. per ponndy green vitriol Id. per 
poTmd.1 _«. 

ISr. LIQUID FOE PRESEBVINa 
FUBS FROM MOTH.--Warm water, 
one pint ; oorrorive sublimate, twelve 
grains. If washed with this, and after- 
wards dried, fiirs are safe from moth. 
Care should be taken to label the liquid 
— -poiiyn. Cost: corrorave sublimate, 
Sd. per ounce. 

188. FRENCH POLISHEa — 1. 
Njlftha Polish. — Shellac, three 
pounds; wood naptha, three quarts. 
Dissolve. Cost: shellac, 6d. to 8d. 
per pound ; naptha, Is. 2d. per pint.. 

189. 2. Sfibit Poubh. — Shellac, 
two pounds; powdered mastic and 
sandarac, of each one ounce; copal 
varnish, half a pint ; spirits of wine, 
one gallon. Ingest in the cold till dis- 
solved. Cost : shellac, 6d. to 8d. per 
pound; mastic. Is. per ounce; san- 
darac, — per ounce; copal varnish, 
— per jnnt; rectified spirit, 2s. 6d. 
per pint. 

190. DEED OF SEPARATION BE- 
TWEEN A MAN AND HIS WIFE.— 

This indenture, made the day of 

in the year of our Lord, 

1853, between Charles B— , of 

of the first part, Anna B-— Ot — (the 
wife of the said Charles B — ), of the 
second part, and Qt— B — B-- of the 
third part. Whereas the said Charles 
B — and Anna B — , his wife^ have, for 
good reasons, determined to live sepa- 
rate and apart from each other, and on 
that consideration the said Charles 
B — hath consented to allow unto the 
jBaid Anna R — B— a clear weekly pay- 
ment or sum of s. for her mainte- 
nance and support during her life in 
manner heremafber contained. And 
whereas the said Q — B — B — hath 
agreed to become a party to these pre- 
sents, and to enter into the covenant 
hereinafter contained on his part Now 
this indenture witnesseth, tlutt in pur- 
suance of the said agreement, he, tiie 
said Charles B— , for himself his heirs, 
executors, and administrators, doth 



covenant^ promise^ and agree to, and 
with the said Qt — R — B--, his execu- 
tors, administrators, and assigns, in 
manner following; that is to say, that 
he, the said Charles B — > shall and will, 
from time to time, and at all tunes 
hereafter, permit and suffer the said 
Anna B-- B — to live sepantte and 



apart frt>m him, the said Charles 
as if she was sole and unmarried, and 
in such place and places as to her from 
time to time shidl seem meet ; and 
that he, the said Charles B — ^ shall not, 
nor will molest or disturb the said 
Anna R — B — in her person or manner 
of living, nor shall, at any time or times 
hereafter require, or by any means 
whatever, either by eoclesiastioal cen- 
sures or by taking out citation, or 
other process, or by commencing or in- 
stituting any suit whatsoever, se^ or 
endeavour to compel any restitation of 
conjugal rights, nor shidl not nor will 
commence or prosecute proceedings of 
any description against the said Anna 
R — B — in any eccleaaastical court or 
elsewhere ; nor shall nor will use any 
force, violence, or restraint to the per 
son of the said Anna R — B — ; nor 
shall or will at any time during the 
said separation, sue, or cause to be sued, 
any person or persons whomsoever for 
receiving, harlK>uring, lodging, protect- 
ing, or entertaining her, the said Anna 
R— B— , but that she, the said Anna 
R — B — , may in all things live as if 
she were a feme sole and unmarried, 
without the restraint and coercion of 
the said Charles B — > or any person or 
persons by his means, consent, or 
procurement; and also that all the 
clothes, furniture, and other the per- 
sonal estate and elfoets, of what nature 
or Idnd soever, now belonging, or at 
any time hereafter to belong to, or be 
in the actual possession of her, the said 
Anna R — B — ; and all such sums of 
mon^ and personal estate as she, the 
said Anna "R— B — j or the said Charles 
B — in her right, shall or may at any 
time or times during the said separation 
acquire pr be entitled to at law or in 
equity, by purahase, gift, will, intestacyi 



A VOOL'8 BOLT IB SOON 6B0T« 



97 



<ir otherwiM, shall be the sole and aepa- 
rate property of the said Anna B — 6—, 
to manage^ order, sell, dupose of, and 
use the same in sueh manner, to all in- 
tents and puiposesy as if she were a 
feme sole and nnmazried. And 
further, that he, the said Charles B— , 
his executors or administrators, or 
some or one of them, shall and will 
well and truly pay, or cause to be paid, 
unto the said GK— E— B, his executors, 
administrators, or assigns, a clear 
weekly payment or sum of s., on 
Monday in each and every week during 
the life of the said Anna R-~ B— > but 
in trust for her, the said Anna R — B — , 
for her separate maintenance and sup- 
port And the said Qt — R— B— -, for 
himself, his heirs, executors, and ad- 
ministraton, doth hereby covenant 
and agree to, and with the said Charles 
B— , his executors, administrators, and 
assigns, that she, the said AnnaB— B— , 
shall not nor will not^ at any time or 
times hereafter, in anywise molest or 
disturb him, the said Charles B— , or 
apply for any restitution of conjugal 
lights^ or for alimony, or for any fur- 
ther or other allowanoe or separate 
ma i nt e n a n ce than the said weekly sum 
of s. And that he, the said Q^B— 
B—, his heirs, executors, or administra- 
tors, shall and will, from time to time, 
at all times hereafter, save, defend, and 
keep harmless and indemnify the 
Baid Charles B — , his heu«, executors, 
and administrators, and his and their 
^ds^ and tenements, goods and chat- 
tels, q( from, and against all and all 
manner of action and actions, suit and 
Buits, and all other proceedings what- 
Mcver which shall or may at any time 
hereafter be brought, commenced, or 
prosecuted against hioa, the said Charles 
B~-> lus heirs, executors, or administra- 
tors, or any of them, and also o( from, 
^ sgainst all and every sum and sums 
of money, costs, damages, andexpenoes 
which he, the said Charles B— , his 
^J^eoutors, administrators, and assigns, 
mall or may be obliged to pay, or shall 
or may sn&r, sustam, or be put unto 
«or> or by reason, or on account of any 



debt or debts which shall, at any time 
hereafter, during such separation as 
aforesaid, be contracted by the said 
Anna B-— B — , or by reason, or means, 
or on account of any act^ matter, causey 
or things whatsoever relating thereto. 
In witness whereof the said parties to 
these presents have hereunto set their 
hands and seals, the day and year first 
above written. 

[The above has been written for 
Enquire WiOiin by a legal gentleman, 
whose attention has been devoted to 
the many unhappy cases of married life, 
which, judging from the experience of 
our poUce coi^ts, appear to be on the 
increase. It is not generally known 
that such a deed may be materially en- 
tered into.] 

191. HUSBAND AND WIFE.— 
Being hints to each other for the good 
of both, as actually delivered at our own 
table : — 

192. Hdteb fob Wives, — If your 
husband occasionally looks a utUe 
troubled when he comes home, do not 
say to him, with an alarmed counte- 
nance, ** Wbat ails you, my dear ? " 
Don't bother him ; he ^nll tell you of 
hi» own accord, if need be. Don't 
rattle a hailstorm of fun about his ears 
either; be observant and quiet. Don't 
suppose whenever he is silent and 
thoughtful that you are of course the 
cause. Let him alone imtil he is in- 
clined to talk ; take up your book or 
your needlework (pleasantly, cheer- 
fully ; no pouting — no sullenness), and 
wait until he is inclined to be sociable. 
Don't let him ever find a shirt-button 
missing. A shirt-button being off a 
collar or wrist-band has frequently pro- 
duced the first hurricane in married 
life. Men's shir^collars never fit 
exactly— see that your husband's are 
made as well as possible, and then, if 
he does fr«t a UtUe about them, never 
mind it ; men have a prescriptive right 
to fret iJi>out shirt-collars. 

193. Hints fob Husbakim.—- If your 
wife complains that young ladies " now- 
a-day" are very forward, don't accuse 



I 

J 



n 



A iJiA «B(nna> WLvm ▲ umom malobt. 



Iter of jealousy. A little conoem «ii ber ! 
p«u^^nly proTCB her lore for yon, aad 
you may enjoy your triumph -wiftioiit 
saying a word. Don't evinee your 
ffeakneas either, hy oom|daiiiing ef 
erery trifling neglect. What though her 
it&air is not s^t bo dose to youn as it 
used to he, or though her imittmg and 
crochet aeem to absorb too lavge aehare 
of her attention, depend upon it l^iat, 
as her eyes watch the intertwinings of 
^e thr^ids, and the manesuivres of the 
tieedies as they dance in compBanoe 
<to her delicate Angers, she is tbinkaig 
of courting days, loye-lettere, smiles, 
tears, suspicions, and reooneiliatioDS, 
Iby which your two hearts beoeme on- 
twined-together in the network of love, 
whose meshes you can neither of you, 
unravel or escape. 

~ 194. Hints fob Withb. — ^Fever com- 
plain that your husband pores too much 
t>yer the newspaper, to the exelusion 
of that pleasing converse which you 
■fermefly enjoyed with him. Don't 
hide the 'paper ; don^ give it 'to the 
children to tear ; dori* t be sulky when 
*^e boy leaves it at the door ; but take 
it in pleasantly, and lay it down 'before 
TOUT spouse. Think what man would 
'foewithorut a newspaper; treat it as a 
grwA agent in the work of civiUaation, 
which it assuredly is; and think how, 
nrach good newspapera have done 'by 
exposing bad husbimds and bad wives, 
*by giving their errors to the eye* of the 
public. But manage you in this way : 
when your husband is absent, instead 
(JifgOBsipping with ndghbours, or look- 
'Inghito shop windows, sit down quietly, 
and look over that paper; ran your 
*«ye over its home and foreign news ; 
'^lanoe rapidly at the acddeDts and 
casualties; carefully scan the leading 
'artieles; and at tea^me, when your 
imsband again takes up the paper, say, 
"•Hjr dear, what an awful state of 
tldngs there seems to be in India;" or 
'^ what a terrible calamity at the Glas- 
gow theatre ;" or ** trade appears to be 
vottdshlDg in the 'north I " and depend 
upon it down will go the ^per. If he 
%tt8 not tead 'the mformation, he -will i 



hflar it aU "from jwar lipBy 4aid whM 
you httve <doiM^ he wffl ask, " Did you, 
my dear, mad ^mpflon's l0tker apoa 
'the diflcoveiy eC -ohloiofoRn^" And 
whetheryvu did or iiQt> you *vaB. git- 
dually get into as easy a ehart aiyoii 
ever enjoyed ; and yon "Wlil 'Bocn dan- 
cover t£at» lightly used, the nawvpaper 
is the wife's vsal iiiMid, for it keeps the 
huabflBtd at home, and sapj^iesoapitel 
topieaf«r eveiy-day tablo<tidk. 

195. BiMTB 90B HxMBANiMk — Ten 
can hardly ifln^e how M&OBhi&g it is 
to ooeasionaUy naAl vp the MoeiUebtiiin 
of your^courfcuig days. Hewiediowify 
the hours v^ed .awey praorto the ap- 
pointed tuae of meeting; .hew vwrn 
they aeemed to fly, when met; hew 
fond was the ihst greeting ; how tender 
the lest embnuse; how fervent weie 
your vo^ ; how vivid your drevsis fif 
future happinen» when, Mtnming to 
your home, you felt yourself aeoove in 
the 'CenfeBBed love of the objeet «f your 
warm affaotions. is your 4z«cuai vet- 
lised I — are you so happy as ytm -ex- 
pected? Why not f Consider whether 
-as a husband yon are as fervent and 
oenstent as you weve when a Iwer. 
■Bemember that tilie wif^s >alBttBs to 
your unremitting'roganl-*-great<befo!e 
mannage, are now exalted to n vraoh 
hi^^er degree. She has left the woiid 
for you — die home of her ebilc&eed, 
the fireside of her parents, their w«tA- 
ful caw- and sweet intereonise hove all 
bem ylalded rap for you. Xiook then 
most jealously upon ail that may •tend 
to attract you ft-om home, and to 
weaken that union upon which your 
tempozal happiness mainiy depeiids; 
and brieve tikat in the soleam rekttioB- 
ship of husband is to be (found oneef 
the best iguarantees ior man's honcmr 
and happiness. 

196. Hurra sob Wivbb.— Peichaaoe 
you think that your husband's dispesi- 
tson is miioh changed; that he is no 
longer the sweettemperedi ardent lover 
he used to be. This auw^be- a mistake. 
Consider.hiB stimggles with tiie world— 
fais^emrhisting raoe with the buvy -von' 
petition -of 'tmda ^lat is it mAoB 



A mmnmt uax vsm vam. 



99 



iam 80 MgtriQ 4(be punniit vi _ 

iM energetb bf day, ao sleeplen >by 

aight--^itt ilia love -of liome, 'wife/«iid 

^ifldiwi, «Bd « 4i«ad that iSbrir ««- 

apcetahilitgr, aeoorttlig to the ligM^in 

'wlwdi iia iiaji oonoehred dt, rnaj^lM ea- 

«ioaahed i^mib ]^ tlM «trife «f ealet- 

moe, Thu is iike tv«e «ecr^ tif that 

ttlent care ivfakh pveya upon the lM«r«s 

•fmanymoa; aaAixvM it w,iibalwkm 

love is least appaMOt^ it ia neveithelees 

titt aetbre priaoiple wkioli aniiastiB llie 

heart, though feats aad 4isa]ppoist- 

jMtttB nudEB up a ^eud whioh obseopes 

iiie warmer elemenit. As aheve l&e 

douds ihete is f^oriDus smshtee^ infafle 

below are tshewers -and f|leom, so with 

^ conduct of maa bohinii the gloom 

•ef anxiety is a bright fevntam^ofhigh 

end noblie f eeUag. Think df tUs in 

those moflMBte when oleuds seem to 

kwer npon yomr domestio peace, -and, 

by tempering your ceoduot enfiardmi^y, 

the gleoB will soon pass -awi^, and 

ifamth and brightness 'ttfhe its place. 

147. Hnm vob HoanaiiBB. — 3«n- 

mer is the season of love*! Hi^ipy 

•hirds mate, and sing wmeng the tvees ; 

^fishes da»t«ebWB0t &e ranning stveams, 

sad leap from tMr element in resist- 

iMB ecstasy ; catlle group in peaorfol 

seeks, by eoeling streams ; even the 

flowan seem to love as they (Mne their 

tender arms saconnd each Other, and 

throw their wild tressm edwatin beavti- 

M 'proAiaiem; the -happy swain sits 

^Mi his loved and haiiag maslress 

iMMabh tim«helteting eek, ^whose arms 

«Fteadost»«s if»to sfaisldtmd sanotify 

^ttev'pune«ttaflhmflBit What«haUthe 

iimhund do now^ when earth and 

^ke^en seem to meet m hvppy nnkm ? 

Mnit he etili pom over the «<deiibt- 

'^Kms ef the iootmtlng4ieiise, er oeaoe-^ 

'w*ji punroe the toils of ib» woik- 

*^om»-4ipHimg no momont to taste the 

j^ which Heaven measores out so 

ij^iwaiy? Ifol <<Come, 4ear wife, 

wt us tme e im ore b m rthi the fipesh eir 

«f lieaven^^md look «ipon the beanties 

'Of mrifc. ffira swnrnum are 4ef^ we 

'tt|^'4««&l4o9eiiher7 wowiU not give 

mm all to Maounon. Again 4et our 



hearts glow with emotions Of reneoired 
love—our feet shall again tread the 
■green sward, and the music ' of the 
rustling trees shall mmg^e in oar 
n^usperiiigs -of love ! *' 

198. — HnrTB roa Wivm.-^*' It vrasf * 
« Jt wwi not !" "It woi/*' « It was 
nee/" ''Ahr "Hal"— Kow who's 
i^ wiser or the better for this conten- 
tion lor the last word ? Does obstinaey 
estabysh si^eriority, or elicit truth? 
Becidedly neti Woman has always 
been described as clamouring for the 
last word : actors, authors, preachers, 
end philosophers, have agreed in attri- 
buting thistrattto her, and in censuring 
her fi^ it. Yet why they should oea- 
deom her, unless they wish the matter 
revMsed, and thus committed them- 
selves to l^e error imputed to her, it 
wore difficult to discover. Howevor, 
60 it IS ; — and it remains for some ime 
of the sex, by an exh3>ltion of noUe 
example, to aid in sweeping away^tho 
mipleasant impiftation. T^ wife Who 
will establish Uie rule of allowing her 
husband to have the last word, will 
achieve Tor herself and her sex a great 
moral victory ! Is he riffht f — it wore 
a great error to oppose him. lis 4ie 
wrong t — ^he will soon diseover it» smd 
«pplaud the self^ommand which %ore 
uBVexed his pertinacity. And gmdu- 
ally there will spring up such a happy 
fusion of feelings and ideas, that there 
win be no "last word" to contend 
about — ^but a steady and unruffled €ow 
of generous sentiment. 

199. Hum FOB HimBAim.*--'When 
once a man has established a home, 'his 
most important duties have fairiy 
begun. The errors -of youtii may be 
overlooked ; want of purpose, and even 
of honour, in Ms earlier days maybe 
forgotten. But from the moment of 
his marriBge he begins to ^vmte hn in- 
^(elible history; not by pen and hA^ 
but by actions— by whioh he most 
ever afterwards be reported and judged, 
fin conduct at home; his solicitude 
for his fetznily'; the training of his 
ehildren ; his devotion to bis wife ; his 
i«gard €oF the greiftt interests 'of et6r- 



40 



AT OFKH OOOBB IKMB COHS IH. 



viby ; these are the teste by whidi his 
woiiii will ever afterwards be estimated 
by all who think or care about him. 
lliese will determine his position while 
li^ing^ and influence his memory when 
dead. He uses weU. or ill the brief 
space allotted to him, out of all eter- 
nifyy to build up a fiime founded upon 
the most solid of all foundations — pti- 
Tate worth ; and Qod vrill judge him, 
and man judge of him, accordingly. 

^0. Hnns fob Wivbs. — ^Don't ima- 
gine when you have obtained a husband, 
that your attention to personal neat- 
ness and deportment may be relaxed. 
Kow, in reality, is the time for you 
to eidiibit superior taste and excellence 
in the cultivation of your address, and 
the becoming el^ance of your n^pear- 
ance. If it required some little care 
to foster the admiration of a lover — 
how much more is requisite to keep 
yourself lovely in the eyes of him, to 
whom there is now no privacy or dis- 
guise — your hourly companion ? And 
& it was due to yomr lover that you 
should always present to him, who prth 
pated to weid and cherish you, a neat 
and lady-like aspect; how much more 
is he entitled to a similar mark of 
respect^ who has kept hit promite with 
kowmrahle fiddUy, and linked all his 
hopes of future happiness with yours ? 
If you can manage tiiese matters with- 
out appearing to study them» so much 
the better. Some husbands are impa- 
tient of the routine of the toilette, 
and not unreasonably so — ^they possess 
active and energetic spirits, sordy dis- 
turbed by any waste of time. Some 
irives have discovered an admirable 
£unlity in dealing with this difficulty ; 
and it is a secret which, having been 
discovered by some, may be known to 
all — and is well worth tifie finding out. 

201. HiKTS FOB HnsBAin)s. — Custom 
entitles you to be considered the "lord 
and nuuBter" over your household. 
But don't assume the tnatter and sink 
the lord. Remember that noble gene- 
rosity, forbearance, amiability, and in- 
iegnty, are among the more lordly 
at&ibutes of man. As a husband, 



therefore!, ecdiibit the true nobility at 
man, and seek to govern your own 
household by the display of hjg^h moral 
exoellenoeu A domineering spirit — a 
fiuilt-finding petulanoe — impatieiioe of 
trifling delays — and the exhibition of 
unworthy passions at the sUghteat pro- 
vocation, can add no laurel to your 
own " lordly " brow, impart no sweet- 
ness to home, and call forth no respect 
firom those by whom you may be sur- 
rounded. It is one tlung to be a ma»- 
tar — another thing to be a miMk The 
latter should be the husband's aspira- 
tion ; for he who cannot govern himself 
is ill-qualified to govern another. 

202. Hnns to Witbb. — It is 
astonishing how much the cheerful- 
ness of a wife contributes to the hap- 
piness of home. She is the son — the 
centre of a domestic system, and her 
children are like planets around her, 
reflecting her rays. Howmeny thelitUe 
ones look when the mother is joyous 
and good-tempered; and how easily 
and pleasantly her household labours 
are overcome 1 Her dieeilulneBS is re* 
fleeted everywhere : it is seen in the 
neatness of her toilette, the order of 
her table, and even the seasoning of her 
dishes. We remember hearing a hus- 
band say that he could always guage 
the temper of his wife by the quality of 
her cooking : good temper even influ- 
enced the seasoning pf her soups, and 
the lightness and deUcaqy of her pastiy. 
When ill-temper pervades^ the pepper 
is dashed in as a cloud ; perchance the 
top of the pepper-box is included, as a 
kind of dmdnutive thunderi>olt ; the 
salt is all in lumps; and the spioes 
seem to betake themselvee all to one 
spot in a puddingy as if dreading the 
frowning fiaoe above them. If there be 
a husband who could abuse the smiles 
of a really good-tempered wi^B^ we should 
like to look at him J No, no, sodh a 
phenomenon does not exist Among 
elements of domestic hiypinewis the 
amiability of the wife and mother is ef 
the utmost importance — it is one of the 
best securities for zm HAirann <ff 
Hoxi. 



A WOBD BEFOBB IS WORTH TWO BBHDn). 



41 



208. HINTS FOR HOME COMFORTS. 
A Bhort needle makes the most ex- 
pedition in plain sewing. 

When jou are particular in wishing 
to have precisely what you want from 
a hutcher^s, go and purchase it your- 
self. 

One flannel petticoat will wear nearly 
as long as two, if turned behind part 
before, when the front begins to wear 
thin. 

People in general are not aware how 
Tory essentiflJ to the health of tiieir in- 
mates IB the free admission of light into 
their houses. 

A leather strap, with a buckle to 
festen, is much more commodious than 
a cord for a box in general use for short 
distances ; cording and uncording is a 
nasty job. 

There is not any real economy in 
purchasing cheap calico for gentlemen's 
night shirts. The calico cuts in holes, 
and soon becomes bad coloured in 
washing. 

Sitting to sew by candle-light by a 
table with a dark cloth on it is iigurious 
to the eyesight. When no other re- 
2^^ presents itself, put a sheet of 
^Hte paper before you. 

People very commonly complain of 
indigestion : how can it be wondered 
ftt, when they seem by their habit of 
swallowing their food wholesale, to 
foiget for what purpose they are pro- 
vided with teeth. 

Never allow your servants to put 
wiped knives on your table, for, gene- 
rally speaking, you may see that they 
luive been wiped with a dirty cloth. If 
a knife is bnghtly cleaned, they are 
<winpelled to use a clean cloUi. 

There is not anything gained in 
economy by having very young and in- 
ftKperiencea servants at low wages; 
^ey break, waste, and destroy more 
^^uoian equival^ for higher wages, 
sotting aside comfort and respectability. 
No artide in dress tarnishes so 
^||dily as black crape trimmings, and 
WW things ii^jure it more than damp : 
^erefore, to preserve its beauty on 
*^<>niieta, a lady in nice mourning should 



in her evening walks, at all seasons of 
the year, take as a companion an old 
parasol to shade her crape. 

A piece of oil-cloth (about twenty 
inches long) is a useful appendage to a 
common sitting-room. Kept in the 
closet, it can be available at any time 
to place jars upon, &c. &c, which are 
likely to soil your table during the pro> 
cess of dispensing their contents : a 
wing and duster are harmonious accom- 
paniments to the oil-cloth. 

In most families many members are 
not fond of fat: servants seldomlike it — 
consequently there is frequently much 
wasted ; to avoid which, take off bits 
of suet fat from beefsteaks, &c, previous 
to cooking; they can be used for pud- 
dings. With good management tnere 
need not be any waste in any shape or 
form. 

Nothing looks worse than shabby 
gloves ; and, as they are expensive arti- 
cles in dress, they require a little 
management. A good glove will last 
six cheap ones with care. Do not wear 
your best gloves to night church — ^the 
heat of the gas, &c., gives a moisture to 
the hands, that spoils the gloves; do 
not wear them in very wet weather ; as 
carrying umbrellas, and drops of rain, 
spoil them. 

A given quantity of tea is similar to 
malt---only giving strength to a given 
quantity of water, as we find therefore 
any additional quantity is waste. Two 
small teanspoonfuls of good black tea^ 
and one three parts full of green, is 
sufficient to make three teacupfols 
agreeable, the water bdng put in, in a 
boiling state at once : a second edition 
of water gives a vapid flavour to tea. 

It may sound like being overparti- 
cular, but we recommend persons to 
make a practice Of fully addressing 
notes, &c., on all occasions ; when, in 
case of their being dropped by careless 
messengers (which is not a rare occur- 
rence), it is evident for whom they are 
intended, without undergoing the in- 
spection of any other parties bearing a 
similar name. 

Children should not be allowed to 

2 



42. 



A BLINP. MAN SSOVU) XDT JCPGS OF QQWTJJBS. 



oak for the same thing twice. Thia 
may be accomplished by parents, 
teacher, (or whoever may happen to 
have the mana^ment of them), paykig 
attention to their little wants, if proper, 
at once, whea possible. The children 
should be instrueted to understand 
that when they are not answered imme- 
diately« it is because it is not eon- 
Yenient. Let them learn patience by 
waiting. 

We know not of anything attended 
^th more serious consequences than 
tiiafc of sleeping in damp linen. Per- 
sons are frequently assured that they 
have been at a &e for many hours^ 
but the question is as to what sort of 
fire, and whether they have been pro- 
perly turned, so that every part may 
be exposed to the fire. The fear of 
creasing the Hnen, we know, prevents 
mai^ from unfolding it, so as to be 
v^btA we consider sufficiently aired; 
but health is of more importance than 
^pearances : with gentleness there need 
be no fear of want of neatness. 

If the weather appears doubtful, al- 
ways take the precaution of having an 
umbrella when you go out, particu- 
larly in going to church ; your thereby 
avoid incurring one of three disagree- 
ables : in the first place, the chanoe of 
settiiM; wet— or encroaching under a 
Qiend^ umbrella-^or being under the 
lieoessity of borrowing one, conse- 
quently involving the trouble of re- 
turning it, and posdbly (as is the case 
nine times out of ten) inconveniencing 
your friend by neglecting to return it. 
Those who disdain the use of um- 
brellas generally appear with shabby 
hats, tumbled bonnet ribbons, wrinkled 
silk dresses, &c. &;a, the consequence 
ot frequent exposure to unexpected 
showers, to say nothing of colds taken, 
no one can tell how. 

Exercise in the open nir is of the 
^% importance to ^e human firame, 
yet how many are in a manner de- 
prived of it by their own want <^ ma- 
nagement of their time ! Females with 
slender means are for the most part 
destined to in-door occupations^ and 



hav* but little time allotted thesa £or 
taking the air, and that little time is 
generally sadly encroached upon by 
the •ceremoxi^ of dressing to go obL 
It may appear a simple suggestion, but 
experience only will show how much 
time might be redeemed by habits of 
regularity ; such as putting the «hawls, 
cloaks, gloves, shoes, cloge^ &c. &c., 
or whatever is intended to be wom, ia 
readiness, instead of having to search 
one drawer, then another, for possibly 
a ^ove or colW — ^wait for shoes beia^ 
deanedf 4sc. — and this when (probably) 
the out-going persons have to letura 
to their emplovment at a given time. 
Whereas, if all were in readiness, iha 
preparations might be accomplished in 
a few minutes, the walk not being cuiv 
tailed by unnecessary delays. 

Eat slowly and you will not overheat. 

Keeping the feet warm will prevent 
headaches. 

Late atbreakfaet^hurzied for dinner 
— cross at tea. 

. Between husband and wife little ftt- 
tentions beget muioh love. 

Always lay your table neatly, wheGbft 
you have company or not. •, . 

Put your bfdls or reels of cotton »?*^ 
little bags, lea^ng the ends out. 

Whatever you may chodke to gj[f» 
away, always be sure to Jceep yoibr tea^per* 

Dirty wmdows speak to the passei^lgr 
of the negligenoe of the inmates. 

In cold weather, a leg of mutton im- 
proves by being hung threes four, or 
five weekis. 

When meat is hanging; ehange its 
position frequently^ to equally difttri- 
bute the juices. 

There ifi much more injurv done b^ 
admittJng visitors to invalids than is 
generally supposed. 

Matches, out of the reach of dxildren, 
should be kept in every bed-reom. Tb^ 
are cheap enough. 

Apple and suet dumplingetare lighter 
when boiled in a net than a eloth. §9vm 
the pot well. 

When chamber towels get thin ia {he 
middle, cut them in two, sew the sel» 
vf^es together, and hem the sides* 



▲Ui It NOV «OU> fBAV CUZrBBL 



When.yoa dry satt for tlie table, do 
not place it in the saU^oells uaial ii ia 
cold, oibMrwise it will hanim into a 
lump. 

Nev«r pat away plate, kalTOB and 
liKkB, te.^ uBoleaned, or flad inooBTe* 
nienoe will arise when the arfeides are 
votttecL 

Feather-beds should be opened every 
third year, the tiokii^ well dusted, 
soaped, and waxed^ the feathers dressed 
and returned. 

Persons of defeotrre sjght^ when 
threading; a needle^, shoiild hold it over 
sofmethiag white^ by which the «ight 
idll be assisted. 

In mending sheets and shirtfl; pat 
the pieoes anfficienldy lai^ or in the 
first washing the thin parte give way, 
and the vreik. is all uadoB& 

Reading by eandle-Ught^ place the 
eandie behind you, that the nfys may 
pass over your shoulder on to the book. 
This will relieve tiie eyes. 

▲ wire ^re-guard, for etfih fise-plaoe 
la a hoviae, costs little, and groatly 
dimiaisheg the osk to life and property. 
Tir them b^ore going to bed. 

In winter, get the work forward by 
day-light^ to pwvent nmniog abo«t at 
night with candles. Thus yon escape 
grease spots, and risks of firo. 

Be at much pains to keep your chU- 
dreaa' feet dry and warm. Don't bury 
Iheir bodies in heavy flannels amd 
WDol% and leave their knees and legs 
oaked. 

Apples and pears^ cut heito quarten^ 
uid stripped of the rind, baked with a 
litfeie water end sugar, and eaten with 
boiled ric€^ aie capital food for dni- 
dren. 

Alter washing overlook lonen, and 
Btitob on buttMia^ hooks and eyes, Ac ; 
for this pm^^ose keep a " housewife'a 
fiiend," full of misoellaneoua threads, 
cottons, buttons, hooks, &c. 

For ventilation open your windows 
^oth at top and bottom. The fresh 
air rushes in one way, while the foul 
pakes its exit tiie other. This is letting 
^ your finend and CKpeUiag your 
•aemy. 



I 

! 



flb4. OOOKEET SOB OHILDBfilf. 
905. Food FOB AN Ikvant. — ^Takeof 
frash cow's milk, one taiUeapoanfid, 
and mix with two tahfospoonfalB t>f 
hot water ; sweeten with loB£-«agar as 
much as may be agreeable. This quan- 
tity is saffietent for once feedmg a new- 
btnn iniant; and the aame quantity 
may be given every two or three houca^ 
not eftener^-till the mother^a bieaat 
affords natural nourishment. 

206. Milk fob Infants Six MooneBB 
Old. — Ttke one pint of milk, one pmft 
of wafcer; bcA i1^ and add one tal^e^ 
spoanfol of flower. IMssolve the fl<rar 
first in half a^ tea-cupful of water; at 
muBt he straML in gradnally, and 
boiled hard twenty minutes. As tiM 
ehfld ^grows oidarv one third watar. if 
praperiy made^ it is the moot nutst- 
tions, at the same time the moat deli- 
cate food that can be given to yenng 
children. 

207. BnoflS. — Made of lamb <or 
chicken, with stale bread toasted, and 
broken in, as safe and healthy for thi* 
dinners of children, when first w e an e d. 

208. Milk. — Fresh from the oe<r, 
witli a vary little loaf-«ugar, is good 
and safe flood for young children. From 
iAofee years old to seven, pmre miUk^ 
into winch is crumbled stale boead, is 
the best breakfast and supper for a 
ofaOd. 

209. Fob a Ohsld^ Lvncrbov.— r 
Good sweet butter, with stale hnad, m 
one of the moat mitntiona, at thesame 
time the most wholesome articles ef 
food, that can be given children after 
they are iiwniid. 

210. M£LK PoasiDGB. — 9tar four 
tablespoonfuls cf oatmeal, smoothly, 
into a qnait of milk* then stir it 
qmckly into a qnart tif boiling water, 
and boil up a few minutes till it ia 
thickened : sweeten with sugar. Oat- 
meal, where it is found to agree with 
the Btomanh, is mnoh better for chiL- 
dran, bemg a fine opener as well <a 
<demiaer; fine flour in e^wry shape is 
the reverse. Where bisouitppowder is 
in use, let it be made at home; this, 
at all events, wiU pse^nt them getting 



44 



A SWALLOW MAKES NOT 8UHMSB OB SPBING-TIME. 



the Bweepinga of the baker's counters, 
boxes, and baskets. All the left bread 
in the nursery, hard ends of stale 
loayes, &c., ought to be dried in the 
oven or screen, and reduced to powder in 
the mortar. 

211. MXATB FOB ChILDBEN. — ^liut- 

ton, lamb, and poultry, are the best. 
Birds and the white meat of fowls, are 
the most delicate food of this kind that 
can be given. These meats should be 
slowly cooked, and no gravy, if made 
rich with butter, should be eaten by a 
young child. Never give children 
hard, tough, half-worked meats, of 
Any kind. 

212. YlOETABLEB TOB ChILDBEN. — 

EooB, &c. — Their rice oug^t to be 
cooked in no more water tluua is neces- 
sary to swell it ; their apples roasted, 
or stewed with no more water than is 
necessary to steam them; their vege- 
tables so well cooked as to make them 
require little butter, and less digestion ; 
their eggs boiled slow and soft. The 
' boiling of their milk ought to be di- 
rected by the state of their bowels ; if 
flatulent or bilious, a veir little curry- 
powder may be given m their vege- 
tables with good effect — such as tur- 
meric and the warm seeds (not hot pep- 
pers) are particularly useful in such 
cases. 

213. Potatoes and Peas. — Potatoes, 
particularly some kinds, are not easily 
digested by children ; but this is easily 
remedied by mashing them very fine, 
and seasoning them with sugar and a 
little milk. When peas are dressed for 
children, let them be seasoned with 
mint and sugar, which will take off the 
flatulency. If they are old, let them 
be pulped, as the skins are perfectly in- 
digestible by children's or weak sto- 
machs. Never give them vegetables 
less stewed than would pulp through a 
colander. 

214. RioE Pudding with Fbuit. — 
In a pint of new milk put two large 
spoonfuls of rice, well washed ; then 
add two apples, pared and quartered, 
or a few currants or raisins. Simmer 
slowly till the rice ii very soft, then 



add one egg, beaten, to bind it. Serve 
with cream and sugar. 

215. Puddings and Panoakbs fob 
Childben. — Sugar and egg, browned 
before the fire, or dropped as fritters 
into a hot fiying-pan, without taA, will 
make them a nourishing meal. 

916. To fbepabe Fbuit fob Chil- 
dben. — ^A far more wholesome way 
than in pies or puddings, is to put 
apples sliced, or plums, currants, goose- 
berries, &c., into a stone jar; and 
sprinkle among them as much sugar as 
necessary. Set the jar in an oven on a 
hearth, with a tesrcupful of water to 
prevent the fruit from burning; or 
put the jar into a saucepan of water 
till its contents be perfectly done. 
Slices of bread or some rice may be 
put into the jar, to eat with the fruits 

217. KiOE AND Apples. — Core as 
many nice apples as will fill the dish ; 
boil them in light syrup; prepare a 
quarter of a pound of rice in milk, with 
sugar and salt ; put some of the rice in 
the dish, and put in the apples, and fill 
up the intervals with rice, and bake it 
in the oven till it is a fine colour. 

218. A NICE Apple Cake fob Chil- 
dben. — Grate some stale bread, and 
slice about double the quantity of 
apples; butter a mould, and line it 
with sugar paste, and strew in some 
crumbs, mixed with a little sugar; 
then lay in apples, with a few bite of 
butter over them, and so continue till 
the dish is full ; cover it with crumbs, 
or prepared rice ; season with cinnamon 
and sugar. Bake it well. 

219. Fbuetb fob Childben. — ^That 
firuits are naturally healthy in their 
season, if rightly taken, no one who 
believes that the Creator is a kind and 
beneficent Being can doubt. And yet 
the use of simimer fruits appears often 
to cause most fittal diseases, especially 
in children. Why is this? Because 
we do not conform to the natural laws 
in using this kind of diet. These laws 
are very simple and easy to understand. 
Let the fruit be ripe when you eat it ; 
and eat when you require /oo(f. Fruits 
that have teed$ are much healtiiier than 



▲K ILL SBSYAITT WILL NBYEB BX A OOOD JUffTKB. 



45 



the stone fruits. But all fruits are 
Better, for very young children, if 
baked or cooked in some manner, and 
eaten with bread. The French always 
eat bread with raw fruit. Apples and 
winter pears are very excellent foQd 
for children, indeed, for almost any 
person in health ; but best when ea^n 
for breakfast or dinner. If taken late 
in the evening, fruit often proves in- 
jurious. The old saying that apples 
are gold in the morning, silver cU noon, 
and lead at night, is pretty near the 
truth. Both apples and pears are often 
good and nu^tious when baked or 
stewed, for those delicate constitutions 
that cannot bear raw fruit. Much of 
the fruit gathered when imripe, might 
be rendered fit for food by preserving 
in sugar. {See 108.) 

220. Ripe Cubbants are excellent 
food for children. Mash the fruit, 
sprinkle with sugar, and with good 
bread let them eat of this fruit freely. 

221. Blaokbebbt Jam. — Qather the 
fruit in dry weather ; allow half a pound 
of good brown sugar to every pound of 
fruit ; boil the whole together gently 
for an hour, or till the blackberries are 
soft) stirring and mashing them well. 
Preserve it like any other jam, and it 
will be found very useful in families, 
particularly for children — reg^ating 
their bowels, and enabling you to dis- 
pense with cathartics. It may be 
spread on bread, or on puddings, in- 
stead of butter: and even when the 
blackberries are bought, it is cheaper 
than butter. In the country, eveiy 
family should preserve, at least, half a 
peck of blackberries. 

222. To MAKE Senna and Manna 
palatable. — ^Take half an ounce, when 
mixed, senna and manna ; put in half 
a pint of boiling water ; when the 
strength is abstracted, ipoiu' into the 
liquid from a quarter to half a pound 
of prunes and two large tablespoonfiils 
of W. I. molasses. Stew slowly until 
the liquid is nearly absorbed. When 
cold it can be eaten with bread and 
butter, without detecting the aenna^ and 
is excellent for costive children. 



223. A MORAL. 
I BAD a little spot of grmmd 

Where blade nor blossom grew, 
Though fhe bright snnshine sll azoand 

life-giving radianoe threw. 
I moum*d to see a spot so bare 

Of leaves of healthfW green. 
And thought of bowers, and blossoms fklr, 

I firequently had seen. 

Some seeds of various kinds lay by — 

I knew not what they were — 
But, rudely turning o'er the soil, 

I strew'd fhem thickly there ; 
And day by day I watched them spring 

From out the fertUe earth, 
And hoped for many a lovely thing 

Of beauty and of worth. 

But as I mark'd their leaves unfold 

As weeds before n^ view. 
And saw how stnbbomly and bold 

The thorns and nettles grew — 
I sigh'd to think that I had done 

Unwitting^, a thing, 
That, where a beauteous bower should thrive, 

But worthless weeds did bring. 

And thus, I mused : the things we do 

With little heed or ken, 
liay prove of worthless growth, and strew 

With thorns the paths of men ; — 
For little deeds, like little seeds, 
May flowers prove, or noxious weeds I 



224. ROCHE'S EMBROCATION 
FOR HOOPING COUGH.— OUve oil, 
two ounces ; oil of amber, one ounce ; 
oil of cloves, one drachm. Mix. To 
be rubbed on the chest at bed-tune. 
Cost: olive oil. Is. per pint; oil of 
amber, 6s. per pound ; oil of cloves. Is. 
per ounce. 

225. A BLACK MAN'S RECIPE 
TO DRESS RICE.— Wash him well, 
much wash in cold water, the rice flour 
make him stic^. Water boil all ready 
very fast. Throw him in, rice can't 
bum,- water shake him too much. 
Boil quarter of an hour or little more ; 
rub one rice in thumb and finger, if all 
rub away him quite done. Put rice in 
colander, hot water run away ; pour 
cup of cold water on him, put back, 
rice in saucepan, keep him covered near 
the fire, then rice aU ready. Eat him 
upl 



4» 



OFUnOF IB FBITATB FBOFEBUFT WHStm THE LAW CAKNOT SEIZE. 



226. GEMUKTSU-TheUrm cement 
includes all those subBtaaees employed 
for the purpose of catrsing the a&esion 
of two or more bodies, whether origi- 
nally separate, or diyided by an acci- 
dental fracture. As the substances that 
are required to be connected together 
are exceedingly various, and differ -very 
much in their properties as to texture, 
&o. &c., and as the conditions under 
which they are placed,, with regard to 
heat and moisture, are also exceedingly 
variable, a number of eement% pos* 
sessed of very diffsrent properties^ are 
required; for a cement that aasweni 
admirably under one set of cireum- 
stances, may be perfectly uaeless in 
others. A vast nmnher of cemeais are 
known and used in the Tanoue arto, but 
they may all be referred to a few 
classes; and our object in this paper 
will be to describe the manufacture 
and use of the best of each class, and 
also to state what are the general prin- 
ciples upon which iiie success or feolure 
of cementing usually depends. The 
different parts of a solid are held to- 
gether by an attraction between their 
several particles, which is termed the 
attraction of cohesion, or cohesive at- 
traction. The amount of this varies 
with the substances ; thus, the oohe- 
idon of the particles of iron to one 
another is enormously great, whilst 
that between those of chalk is but 
small. This attraction acts only when 
the particles are in the closest possible 
ccmiiict ; even air must not be between 
them. If, after breaking, any substanee, 
we could bring the particles into as 
close contact as before, and remove the 
air, they would re-unite, and be as 
strongly connected as wer. But, in 
general, this is impossible ; small par* 
tioleB of grit and dust get between 
them ; the film of interposed air can- 
not be removed; and thus, however 
ftrmly we press the edges of a broken 
otip tosather, it remains cracked china 
BlIU. Perfectly jQat, dean surfaces, fike 
those of freshly groimd plate-glass, 
may sometimes be made to cohere^ so 
thai the two pieces become one, aad 



cannot be separated without breakiiig:* 
The attraction of cohesion takes place 
between the parts of the same sub* 
stance, and must not be confotmde^ 
with that of adhesion, which is the at- 
traction of different substances to one 
another; for example, the particles of 
a fiece of wood are tinited by cohesive 
attraction, whilst the union of glue and 
wood to each other depends on adhe- 
sive attraction. And it is important 
that this distinction be borne in mind, 
for, in admost all cases, the cohesion 
between the particles of the cement is 
very much less than the adhesion of 
the cement to other bocdes ; and if torn 
apart, the connected joint gives way — 
not by the loosening of the adhesion^ 
but by the li^r of cement splitting 
down the centre. Hence the important 
rule, that the leas cement in a joint, the 
stronger it is. Domestic manipulators 
usually reverse this, by letting as much 
cement as possible remain in the joint, 
which h, therefore, necessarily a weak 
one. A thick, nearly solid cement, 
which cannot be pressed out of the 
joint, is always ii^erior to a thinner 
one, of which merely a connecting film 
remains between the united sudaces. 
Having thus mentioned the general 
principles that ought always to be 
Dome in mind, we vnll now proceed to 
describe the manufactui'e and uses of 
some of the more useful cements. 

22T. Mouth Glue affords a very con- 
venient means of uniting papers, and 
other small light objects; it is made 
by dissolving, by the aid of heat, pure 
glue, as parchment glue, or gelatine, 
with about one quarter or one-third of 
its weight of coarse brown sugar, in as 
small a quantity of boiling water as 
possiUe; this, when perfectly liquid, 
should be cast into thm cakes on a flat 
surface very slightly oiled, and as it 
cools cut up into pieces of a convenient 
suse. When required for use one end 
may be moistened by the mouth, and 
m then ready to be rubbed on any sub- 
stances it may be vnahed to join; a 
piece kept in the desk or work-box is 
exoeedii^y convenient. (See 68.) 



BBVENGB i« «a« osnLr MOT wffitda it is Wrong to pat. 



ir 



339. Pa8tb is tisually maAe hy mb- 
l^g up flovr with cold water and bofi- 
hkg ; if a UMde almn i» mixed belbre 
MBi^ it ifii mucli improre^, being lesa 
eltaatty, working more fireeiy in the 
brash and tbumer, a less qttantity is 
required, and it is tberefone iflroltger. 
II required in large qu«iititj^, as fv 
papesing rooms, ifc may be zuade by 
a^xiag one quartern of flour, one quar- 
ter pound of alum, and a little warm 
watei'; wben mixed, tbe requisite quan- 
tity of boiling water should be poured 
on whflet the ntixtuie is being stirred. 
I^aste is only adapted to eementing 
paper ; -v^en used it should be spread 
en one side of the paper, wfaich should 
tfaett be folded with the pasted side in- 
wards, and allowed to remain a fow 
minutes before being opened and used ; 
tl^ swells the paper, and permits its 
b^ng more smootikly and seenrely st- 
1lliohed« Kept lor a few days, paste be- 
eemss mouldy, and after a short time 
putrid ; this ineon-^emenee may be ob- 
mted by the use of— 

229. PsuANMfr PASfS, made by 
Adding to eaeh half-j^nt of flour^Mete 
without alum> Meen grains of eoifrosive 
sublimaite, previously tubbed to powder 
in a mortar, Iftie whole to be well mixed;, 
this, if pFBV^ited troA drying, by being 
hept in a covered pet, remains good any 
length of time, and is therefore conve- 
nient ; but unfortunately it Isextfemely 
fmsonous, though its excessively nau- 
ftons taste would prevtdnt its being 
•wallowed aeeidentally ; it possesses the 
gMsl advsAtage ef not befaig liable to 
tiie attacks of insectSi 

23(K LiQfOiD Olub; — Seveval prepa- 
rstionsweremuch in vogue aftrw mottUts 
•hice uttder this title. The liquid glUe 
of the shop»is made by dfsselyfaii^ shell- 
bM in watcF, by boying it along with 
borax, whi<^ poSBessesthe pee<;diarpre- 
per^ of eauidng the-soiutien ef the 
Msiftons lae. This preparatieft is eou- 
^Miti«ttt from its cheapness and freedom 
flNnusmett; but it gtves Way tf oKposed 
^ leng«(»itinued dsmp^ wtii^ that 
Vide with naphtha rerists. Of th# use 
oiemmonglve very little'MMI h^nM; 



' it should always be prepared in a glue- 
pot or double vessel, to prevent its be- 
ing burned, which Injures it very ma- 
terially ; the objection to the use of this 
contrivance is, that it renders it impos- 
sible to heat the glue in the inner vessel 
to the boiting point ; this inconvenience 
Can be obviated by employing in the 
outer vessel some liquid, which boils at 
a higher temperature than pure water, 
such as saturated solution of salt (made 
by adding one-third as much salt as 
water). This boils at 224« Fahr., 12« 
above the heat of boiling water, and 
enables the glue in the inner vessel to 
be heated to a much higher tempe- 
rature than when piu'e water is em- 
ployed. If a saturated solution of 
nitre is used, the temperature rises still 
higher. (See 66,) 

231. LncB AND Eoa C^msnt is fre- 
quently made by moistening the edges 
to be united with white of egg, dustmg 
on some lime from a piece of muslin, 
and brin^^ng the ed^es into contact. 
A much better mode is to slake some 
f^reshly burned lime with a small quaa- 
tity of hoiting water ; this occasions it 
to fell into a very fine dry powder, if 
excess of watbr has not been added. 
The white of egg used should be inti- 
mately and thoroughly mixed, by beat- 
ing, with an equal bulk of water, and 
the fAaked lime added to the mixture, 
BO as to form a thin paste, which should 
be used speedily, as it soon sets. This 
is a valuable cement, possessed of great 
strength, and csq^^able of withstanding 
boiKng wftter. Cements made with lime 
and blood, scraped cheese, or curd, may 
be regarded as inferior varieties of it. 
Cracked vessels, of earthenware and 
glass, may ofben be usefully, though 
not ornamentally, Repaired by white 
lead spread on strips of calico, and se- 
cured with bands of twine. But, in 
point of strength, all ordinary cements 
yield the palm to Jefifery's Patented 
Marine Olue^ a compound of India- 
rubber, shellac, and coal-tar naphtha. 
Small omantitieB can be purchased at 
most df the i^i wsrehouseiB, at cheaper 
ra;testhati itcftnbe made. When ap- 



48 



A DUEL IB VOILT FLATIVO AT MiniOIB. 



plied to china and ghuBS^ the aubstances 
ahotdd be cautioualy nubde hot enough 
to melt the glue, which should be then 
rubbed on the edges so as to become 
fluid, and the parts brought into con- 
tact immediately. When well applied, 
the mended stem of a common tobaccO" 
pipe will break at any other part, in 
preference to the junction. The colour 
of the glue unfortunately prerents its 
being used. 

282. The Red Cement, which is 
employed by instrument makers'for 
cementing glass to met-als, andwhi<£ is 
very cheap, and exceedingly useful for 
a variety of purposes, is made by melt- 
ing five parts of black resin, one part of 
yellow wax, and then stirring in gradu- 
ally one part of red ochre or Venetian 
red, in fine powder, and previously well 
dried. This cement requires to be 
melted before use, and it adheres better 
if the objects to which it is applied are 
wsumed. A soft cement, of a some- 
what similar character, may be found 
useful for covering the corks of pre- 
served fruit, and other bottles, and it is 
made by melting yellow wax with an 
equal quantity of resin, or of common 
turpentine (not oil of turpentine, but 
the resin), using the latter for a very 
soft cement, and stirring in, as before, 
some dried Venetian red. Bearing in 
mind our introductory remarks, it will 
be seen that the uniting broken sub- 
stances with a thick cement is disad- 
vantageous, the object being to bring 
the surfaces as closely together as pos- 
sible. As an illustration of a right 
and a wrong way of mending, we will 
suppose a plaster of Paris figure broken ; 
the wrong way to mend it is by a thick 
paste of plaster, which makes, not a 
joint, but a botch. The right way to 
mend it, is by means of some well- 
made carpenter^s giue, which, being 
absorbed in the porous plaster, leaves 
merely a film covering the two Bur- 
gees, and, if well done, the figure is 
stronger there than elsewhere. On 
carefully reading over our article, we 
find one useful substance has been 
omitted; namely, what is termed fncutic 



cement^ which is used for making a 
superior coating to inside walls, and 
whidi must not be confounded with 
the retin ma$Ue. It is made by mixing 
twenty parts of well-washed and sifted 
sharp sand, with two parts of lithaige, 
and one of freshly burned and slaked 
quick-lime, in fine dry powder. This 
is made into a putty, by mixing with 
linseed oil. It sets in a few hours, 
having the appearance of light stone; 
and we mention it, as it may be fre- 
quently employed with advantage in 
repairing broken stone-work (as stairs), 
by filling up the miflsing pui». The 
employment of Roman cement, plaster, 
&c., for masonry work, hardly comes 
within the limits of Domestic Manipu- 
lation. 

288. ECONOMICAL DISH. — Cut 
some pretty fat ham or bacon into 
slices, and fry of a nice brown; lay 
them aside to keep warm; then mix 
equal quantities of potatoes and cab- 
bage, bruised well together, and fry 
them in the £Eit left from the hanu 
Place the mixture at the bottom, and 
lay the slices of bacon on the top. 
Cauliflower, or brocoli, substituted for 
cabbage, is truly delicious ; and, to any 
one possessing a garden, quite easily 
procured, as those newly blown will 
do. The dish must be well seasoned 
wUih pepper. 

284. CURRY POWDER (1).— Take 
two ounces of turmeric, six ounces of 
coriander seed, half an ounce of pow- 
dered ginger, two drachms of cinna- 
mon, sue drachms of cayenne pepper, 
four drachms of black pepper, one 
drachm of mace and doves powdered 
fine, two drachms of pimento, four 
drachms of nutmeg, and an ounce and 
a half of fennel seeid ; powder finely, 
mix, dry, and bottie for use. 

285. CuBBT Powdee (2).— Take of 
coriander seed and turmeric each six 
drachms, black pepper four drachms, 
fennel seed and powdered ginger each 
two drachms, cayenne pepper half a 
drachm ; powder finely, mix, diy, and 
bottle for use. 



236.— BEEF. 

I. NAKBS Ain> SlTDA«ONH OP THB JoiNTS. II. RbLATITB EoOHOKT OF THE 

Joims. in. CooKiHa. IV. Carting. V. Thb Ihtbrnal Paets. TI. 
CooKino THB Intbbnal Pabtb. VII. Be-cooeims and WABitpia. Tin. 

SODTB AKD STUNOtHBtllHa DBniKiS. IX. FAtS, JbLLIBB, UaBBOWS, &C. ftC. 

[7^ xtme tn/ormo^ion rt^iecting veaZ, mutUm, lamb, j>or£, veniton, Ac. See Imtx.] 



337. — L Names and SirnATtonBor the 

Bqid Quabteb. — 1. Sirloin; 2. 
Rump; 3. Aitoh-bone; i. Buttock; 

6. Mouae-buttock j 6. Vuiny pieoa; 

7. Thick flsuk ; 8. Tbin flank ; 9. Leg ; 
.10. Fore-ribs (fivariba). 

FoEi QCABTEB. — 11. Uiddle rib 
(foQT ribs) ; 12. Chuck (three ribii) ; 
13. Shoulder, or leg of mutton piece; 
U. Briaket; 16. Clod; 16. Heck, or 
rtickiiig piece ; 17. Shia; 18. Cheek. 

The names of the joints, and the 
methoda of cutting up the oarcasa, 
TUJ in diflerent localitiee, but the 
above are the most genemL 



The round a, in large Euujliea, one 
of the most jurofitable porta : it is 
mually boiled, and, like most of the 
bwlmg parts of beef, is genenllj' told 



in London at s penny per ponnd lew 
than roasting joints. 

The brisket is also a. penny a pound 
leas in price than the roasUng ports. 
It is not BO economical a part as the 
round, having more bone i/t be weiKhed 
with it, and more fat. Where mere 
are childran, very &t joints are not 
deeiiable, b^ng often disagreeable to 
them, and sometimes prejudicial, espe- 
cially if they have a dislike to it. This 
joint also requires more cooking than 
many others ; that is to say, it requires 
a double allowance of time to he given 
for boiling it : it will, when sarv^, be 
hard and scarcely digestible if no more 
time be allowed to boil it than that 
which is BufBcirait for other joints and 
meats. When stewed it is excellent; 
and when cooked fresh (i e., nnsaited), 
an excellent stock for soap may be ex- 
tracted from it, and yet -Uie meat will 
serve as wdl tbr dinner. 



00 



OOLD MAS MOBS WOmSBXB 



ntAX €KXD« 



The edgebone, or aitchbone, ia not 1 
considered to be a very eeonomical 
joint, thev bone being large m propor- 
tion to the meat ; but the greater port 
of it, at leasts is as goock tmUmk timqr 
prime pari It sells si a penny a pound 
leas than roastiiig jaiatft 

The rump is the paH «i wUfik the 
London butelmr makes gzwl profit, by 
selling it in thefo«rm of steaks. Ib the 
country, as there is not an •qnl de- 
mand for steaks, tke wkola «/ it may 
be purchased as a joint, sad at the 
price of eiber prime parts. Ift may 
be turned to good aeooimi in produc* 
ingmany axceQeat dishes. If irited^ 
it is simply boiled; if used unaalted, it 
ia ustially slewed. 

The veiny piece is aM, at a low priee 
per pound ; but, if htuig for a day €ie 
two, it is yeiy good and "veiy proifit^e. 
Where there are a number ci ssi mule 
and children to have an early dnmer^ 
this part c^ beef will be found de- 
sirable. 

From the leg and shin eseeileat 
stock for soup may be drawn ; and, if 
not reduced too much, the meat taken 
from the bones may be served as a 
stew with vegetables; or it may be 
Masoned, pvimded wi^ butter, and 
potted ; or chopped very fine^ and sea- 
soned with herbs, and bound together 
by egg and bread ommbs ; it may be 
med in balls, or is tiw form of laige 
eggB» and served witk a gravy made 
witii a £bw spoonfiils CKf the soup. 

Of half an ox cheek emeeTlfwt soup 
may be made ; the meat, when taken 
from the bones, may be served as a 
stsw. 

Boastiog parts of beef are the sirloin 
mad the ribs, and these bow in all 
places the highest prise. The most 
profitable of these twoj oints at a fsadfy 
table is the ribs. iTie benea^ if os- 
moved from the' besf befove it is 
voastody will asanst* in Ibrming the 
bflH at a scupi When boned^ the 
ilMBit of the rilia is often rolled iq», 
tied with strings, sad roasted; and this 
is the bestway of ueiBg it, as itenabkB 
the carver to dielfftate equaHj tke 



upper part «f the meat with the more 
skinny and Mtar parts at the lower 
end of the beaeik 

28t.— HI CoOKiKe. 

Tett pewnda of b«ef require from two 
koim to twa hmam and a half roasting, 
eightesB inehee fram a good elear fire. 

Six pewada reqvire one hour and a 
^vsrter to eae hour and a half, fourteen 
inelMa hma. a good clear fire. 

Three riba ef bee^ boned and rolled, 
tied roaid with paper, will require two 
hofm and a hmlt, ei ghte e n inches from 
the fire: ba ats ovce oaly. 

The tvet three lifas^ «^ fifteen or 
twenty pounds will take three hours 
or three aad a half; the lourth and 
fifth ribs win take as lom^ managed in 
the same wot as the sfadoin. Paper 
the fkt and the tUa part, or it will be 
done toe mnieh, before the thick part 
ia done enough. 

When beef is very fiut, it does not 
require baatiog ; if very lean tie it up 
in greasy paper, and baste frequently 
and well. 

Common cooks are generally fond of 
too fieree a fire, and of putting things 
too near to it. 

Slcwroastifig is as advantageous to 
the tenderness and flavour of meat as 
slow boiling. • 

The warmer tiie weather, add the 
staler UUed the meat is» the less time 
it win require to roaet it. 

Meat that is very fat requires me>K 
time than other meat. 



"In the hands of an expert eook," 
says Majendie, " alimentary substanees 
are made ahnost entii«Iy to ehaage 
t&eir flatcms, their Iemtb, eonsistence, 
odom% savour, colour, ohemioal eem- 
poeiiaon, &e., everything is so mocBile^ 
that it is often kopoesible lor the most 
exquisite sense of taste to reeogmse the 
substance which makes up the basis of 
certain dishes. The greatest utility of 
the kitohen coansts in making the rood 
agreeable to the senses^ and reflderiog 
it easy ef dlgestbit." 

Bt A im^ e iArt wtaaportiqn efthrjuioe 



THB PAST IS QOWm — VBE StTHTBa 1» HOT COMB — THB r»BSXm, WHSSE IS IT ? IH. 



of me8t>*wfaioih mixes vn&k ike waior, 
and also diBSolTes some of ito sblids; 
the mor& fdesUe parts of Hke fat melt 
oat, combzzie with the water, and form 
Boup OP hroth. The meat loses its red 
oolour, becomes more saTcmry m taste 
and sm<d], and more firm aend-dS^eiifciUft. 
If the process is continued t9o hnff, ^e 
meat becomes indigestil)^, lees sneea' 
lent^ and tooglb 

To boil meat to petfeetkm^ it tliovld 
be done slowly, in plenty of waler, re- 
pbeed by otiier hot water as erapen^ 
^B takes place; for, if beiled tew 
qoiekly, the out^e beeomes tough; 
and, not aHowiBg the readytraasmlssion 
of heat^ the interior remainfr rare. 

The loss by boiling ^aries^ acoofdmg 
to Professor Donovaai, from 6^ to 16 
per cent. The overage' loss on boiling 
Imteher'B meact, pork^ hams, and baoon, 
i» 12; and on domeetie ponlttry, is 
14|. 

The loss per omt. on boiling salt beef 
» 15; on legs of muttofn, 19; hams, 
12| ; aalt pwk, 13^; knuckles of veal, 
9i; bacon, €i: turkeys, 16; chickens, 

ia|. 

The established rule aa iidgBrdA time, 
is to allow a quarter of aii hour for each 
pound of meat if the b<»l^ is rapid, 
aad twenty minutes if slow. There are 
exceptions to this; for instance^ ham 
aiul poik, which roquire from twenty 
to twenty-five minutes per pound, and 
|mood nearly faaif an hoinr. For solid 
joints allow fifteen minutes for every 
pound, and fpem ten to twenty minutes 
over ; though, of course, the length of 
time will depend much on the strength 
of the fire, regularity in the beiling^ and 
size of the joint. The follow^ table 
^ be useful as an average of the 
^e required to boil the vanooA ar« 
ticfes:^ 

A]un,3oibaweighk,]««aireB . 6 80 

A tongue (If dry), after soaldng . 4 a 

A tongne, out of pfcUe . . 2} to 8 

AneekofnmttaB. ..... 1 80 

Achieken 20 

A Urge fowl , 45 

A capon . . 0^ 8S 

Ajlgwm a 1« 



Motuting, by causing the contraction 
of the cellular Isubstance which con- 
tains thd fat^ expels more fat than 
boiling. The free escape of watery 
particles in the form of vapour, so 
neeessary to produce flavour^ must be 
regslated by frequent basiting with the 
feit which has exuded froni the sneat, 
combined with a little salt and water — 
otherwise^ the- meat would bun^ and 
become hard and tasteless. A bilsk 
fire at first will^ by charring the out- 
side, prevent the heat from penetrating; 
and therefore should only be employed 
when the meat is half roasted. 

The loss by roasting varies, according 
to Professor Bonovan, from 14 3-5tlu 
to nearly double that rate, per cent. 
The average loss on roasting butcher's 
meat is 22 per cent. ; and on domestic 
poultry is 20^. 

The loss per cent, on roasting bee^ 
viz., on sirloins and ribs together, is 
19 l-6th; on mutton, viz., legs and 
shoulders together, 24 4-5ths ; on fore- 
quarters of lamb, 22 l-3rd ; on ducks, 
27 l<5th ; on turkeys, 20^ ; on geese^ 
19^^ ; on chickens, 14 3-5ths. So that 
it will be seen by comparison with the 
per centage given of the loss by boilings 
that roasting is not so economical; 
especially when we take into account 
that the loss of weight by boiling is not 
actual loss of economic materials, for 
we then possess the principal ingre- 
dients for soups ; whereas, after roast- 
ing, the fat only remains. The average 
loss in boiling and roasting together 
is 18 per cent, according to Donovan, 
and 28 per cent, according to Wallace — 
a difference that may be accounted for 
by supposing a difiei'ence in the fatness 
of the meat, duration and deg^e of heal^ 
&c., employed. 

Tha time required to roast various 
articles of food with a clear good fire, 
is given, below : — 

A small capon, fowl, or chicken, 

requtras 20 

A large fowl 45 

A capon, fbtt Eiae 8^5 

Agoose 10 



52 



THESE ARE NOKB 80 WICKED AS BEFBBBSNTED ; 



Wild ducks, and grouse ... 15 

Pheasants, and Turkey poults . 20 

A moderate sized turkey, stuffed . 1 15 

Partridges 25 

Quail 10 

A hare, or rabbit . . about 1 

Beef, ten pounds 2 80 

. Leg of pork, ^ hour for each*^ 

pound, and above ^t al- > 20 

lowanoe J 

A dhine of pork 2 

A neck of mutton 1 80 

A haunch of venison about 3 30 

To roast properly, meat should be put 
agood distance fromthefire, andbrought 
g^udually nearer when about half the 
time required for cooking it has elapsed; 
it should be basted frequently; and 
when nearly done, flotured to make it 
look frothed. Old meats do not re- 
quire so much dressing as yoimg ; and 
if not fat enough, use a little dnpping 
for basting. Yeal and mutton requires 
a little paper put over the fat, to pre- 
serve it from being burnt. 

If roasting with a spit, be careful tp 
have it well cleaned before running it 
through the meat, which should be 
done always in the inferior parts; but 
in many joints the spit will pass into 
the bones, and run along them for some 
distance, so as not to stain or injure the 
prime part. Balance skewers will fre- 
quently be required. 

Broiling requires a brisk rapid heat, 
which, by producing a greater degree of 
change in the affinities of the raw meat 
than roasting, generates a higher flavour, 
so that broiled meat is more savoury 
than roast. The surface becoming 
charred, a dark-coloured crust is formed, 
which retards the evaporation of the 
juices ; and, therefore, if properly done, 
broiled may be as tender and juicy as 
roasted meat. 

Baking does not admit of the evapo- 
ration of the vapours so rapidly as by 
the processes of broiling and roasting ; 
the fat is also retained more, and be- 
comes converted by the agency of the 
heat into an empyreumsctic oil, so aa to 
render the meat less fitted for delicate 
stomachs, and more difficult to digest. 



The meat is, in fact, partly boiled in its 
own confined water, and partly roasted 
by the dry hot air of the oven. 

The loss by baking has not been esti- 
mated; and, as the time required to 
cook many articles must vary with their 
size, nature, &c., we have considered it 
better to leave that until giving the 
receipts for them. 

Frying is of all methods the most 
objectionable; from the foods being less 
digestible when thus prepared, as the fat 
employed undeigoes chemical changes. 
Olive oil in this respect is preferable to 
lard or butter. The crackling noise 
which accompanies the process of frying 
meat in a pan is occasioned by the ex- 
plosions of steam formed in fat, the 
temperature of which is much above 
212 degrees. If the meat is very juicy 
it will not fry well, because it becomes 
sodden b^ore the water is evaporated ; 
and it will not brown because the tem- 
perature is too low to scorch it. To 
fry fish well the fat should be boiling 
hot (600 degrees), and the ^hvfeU dru^ 
in a cloth; otherwise, owing to the 
generation of steam, the temperature 
will fall so low that it will be boiled in 
its own steam, and not be browned. 
Meat, or indeed any article, should be 
frequently t^med and agitated during 
frying, to promote the evaporation of 
the watery particles. To make fried 
things look well, they should be done 
OYer. twice with egg and stale bread 
crumbs. 

IV. GABViNa. (/Sise Index.) 

Y. The Intbanal Parts. (See 
Indsx.) 

YI. COQKINO THE INTERNAL PaBTS. 

{See Index.) 

YII. Be-OOOKINQ and WABMINa. 

{See Index.) 

YIII. SOUFS AND STBENGTHENINa 

Dbinks. (iSee Index.) 

IX. Fats, Jbllibb, Mabbows, &a&c 
(See Index.) __^ 

240. ALMOND FLAVOUR.— Es- 
sence OF Feaoh Kernels — Quintes- 
sence OS* NoTEAtT. — ^Dissolve one ounce 
of essential oil of bitter almonds in one 



NONE 80 GOOD AS THBT SHOULD BI. 



5S 



pint of spirits of wine. Used as flavour- 
ing for cordials, and perfuming pastry. 
In large quantities exceedingly poison- 
ous. A few drops only should be used 
to several pounds of syrups, pastry, &c. 
Cost: oil of bitter almonds. Is. per 
ounce ; spirit, 2s. 6d. per pint. Usually 
sold in quarter or balf-ounce bottles at 
Is. 

241.— FREEZING WITHOUT ICE 
OR ACIDS.— The use of ice in cooling 
depends upon the fact of its requiring a 
yast quantity of heat to convert it from 
a solid into a liquid state, or, in other 
words, to melt it, and the heat so re- 
quired it obtains from those objects 
with which it may be in contact. A 
pound of ice requires nearly as much 
heat to melt it as would be suf&cient to 
make a pound of cold water boiling hot ; 
hence its cooling power is extremely 
great. But ice does not begin to melt 
until the temperature is above the 
freezing point, and therefore it cannot 
be employed in fr-eezing liquids, &c.j 
but only in cooling them. If, how- 
ev^, any substance is mixed with ice 
which is capable of causing it to melt 
more rapidly, and at a lower tem- 
perature, a BtUl more intense cooling 
effect is the result ; such a substance is 
common salt^ and the degree of cold 
produced by the mixture of one part of 
wit with two parts of snow or pounded 
ioO) is greater than thirty degrees 
below freezing. In making ice creams 
Mid dessert ices, the foUowing arti- 
cles are required : — ^Pewter ice-pots 
with tightly-fitting lids famished with 
boDdles; wooden ice-pails, to hold the 
fc^h ice and salt, whidi should be 
Btoutly made, about the same depth as 
tbe ice-pots, and nine or ten inches 
more in diameter ; each should have a 
hole m the side, fitted with a good cork, 
m order that the water from the melted 
*^niaybe drawn off as required. In 
fwiition, a broad spatula^ about four 
mohes long, rounded at the end, and 
•'"'JMbed with a long wooden handle, 
o necessary to scrape the frozen cream 
from the sides of the ice-pot, and for 
"^™g the whole smoothly together. 



When making ices, place the mixture 
of cream and frnit to be frozen, in the 
ice-pot^ cover it with tiie lid, and put 
the pot in the ice-pail, which prooeedto 
fill up with coarsely-pounded ice and 
salt^ in the proportion of about one part 
of enlt to three of ice ; let the whole re- 
main a few minutes (if covered by a 
blanket, so much the better), then whirl 
the pot briskly by the handle for a few 
minutes^ take off the lid, and with the 
spatula scrape the iced cream from the 
sides, mixing the whole smoothly ; put 
on the lid, and whirl again, repeating 
all the operations every few minutes 
until the whole of the cream is well 
frozen. Great care and considerable 
labour are required in stirring, so that 
the whole cream may be smoothly 
frozen, and not in hard lumps. When 
finished, if it is required to be kept any 
time, the melted ice and salt should be 
allowed to escape, by removing the 
cork, and the pail filled up with fresh 
materials. It is scarcely necessary to 
add, that if any of the melted ice and 
salt is allowed to mix with the cream, 
the latter is spoiled. From the diffi« 
culty of obtaining ice in places distant 
from large towns^ and in hot countries, 
andfrom the impracticability of keeping 
it any length of time, or, in fact, of 
keeping sxniAll quantities more than a 
few hours, its use is much limited, and 
many have been the attempts to obtain 
an efficient substitute. For this pur- 
pose various salts have been employed, 
which, when dissolved in water or in 
acids, absorb a sufficient amount of heat 
to frvBcze substances with which they 
may be placed in contact. We shall 
not attempt in this article to describe 
all the various freezing mixtures that 
have been devised, but speak only of 
those which have been found practicallv 
useful, state the drcumstanoes whioi 
have prevented any of them coming 
into common use, and conclude by 
giving the composition of the New 
Freezing Preparation, which is now ex- 
ported so largely to India, and the com- 
position of wMch has hitherto never 
been made pMic. Many of the freezing 



u 



ICAir DOUBUB HS WVOA BT BBQOBSMQ VfOV THBK. 



are to 1» lisaiiid dfr* 
in bookB» ara inoorrectly so 
■iwpfil, for all^oagh tbey thfiznaelyas 
booome oolder tbm fioeezmg, yei tbej 
am not sufficieaily powerM to freom 
tmj quantity of waler, or otiber aub- 
Bkuaaea, when placed in a Yaeeel within 
then. In oi^r to be effioient aa a 
frteoBing mixture, aa ctiatingiiiBhed from 
a oooling one, the matorials need ought 
to be oapaUe of prodnuang by them- 
aelvea an amount of oold more than 
thirty dqgreea below the freeai^ point 
of water, and thia the ordinaiy mix- 
torea wiU not do. Modi more effioieot 
and really freezing mixtoreB may be 
made by using adda to dieaolTe the 
aalta. The oh^pest^ and peihapa the 
best^ of theae for oidinaiy nae, is one 
which is £reqnently employed in 
IVanoe, both for mating dessert ioes, 
and ooolmg wmea, ibc. It consists of 
ooarsely powored glauber salt (sulphate 
of aodaX on which is poured abont 
two-thiids its weight of spirits of salts 
(muriatic acid). The mixture d^oold 
be made in a wooden vessel, as that is 
pfeferable to one made of metal, which 
aonducts the extenial heat to the ma- 
terials with great vspidiiy; and when 
the Bubetanoo to be cooled is placed in 
the mixture^ the whole ^ouM be 
eoyered with a blanket^ a piece of old 
woollen oarpet.doubledy or some other 
Bon-eonduoting material, to proTent 
the acoess of the eKtemal wamrth; the 
•yiMool need for icing wines should not 
be too laige, that there may be no 
waste of tibe freeaing mixture. This 
eombinotion j^xxluoes a degree of oold 
thirty degrees below fneeaing ; and if 
the matenals are bought at any <«f the 
wholesale druggists or diyaidters, it is 
exceedingly ecooomicaL It is opeuj 
howerer, to the very great objection, 
that tiie muiiatio acid is an exceedingly 
corrosive liquid, and of a pungent, 
disagreeable odour; this almost pre- 
cludes its use for any purposes eateept 
that of ioing wines. 

. Anottier substaoce, which is £ree 
from any oorroMve action or unplea- 
sant odcmr^ is the nitrate of ammonia. 



whicfa, if oa^ly dissolved in rather 
less iJian ifai own weight of water, re- 
duoea the temperature to about twenty* 
five degrees below freeaing. The lAh- 
jections to its use are, thai its firigorifio 
power is net snffidently great to freeae 
readily; and if it is required to form 
dessert ices, it is requisite to renew the 
process at the expiration of a quarter 
of an hour, a woond, or even, if the 
weather is vaiy hoi^ and the watber 
used » rather wann, a third or fourth 
timei Again the mtrate of ammania 
is a very expensive aalt; evenin fbniice^ 
where it is manufihotured expressly far 
this purpose^ it is sold at the rate of 
three francs a pound; and in this 
country it cannot be obtained under 
a mueh higher price. Oae great re- 
eommendatien, however, attends its 
uae^ namely, thai it -may be recovered 
again, and used any number of timea, 
by shnply boiling aww the water in 
which it is diasolred, by a gentle £re^ 
until a small portion, on being removed, 
ozystallises on oooling. 

I^ however, nitrate of ammonia in 
eoarse powder is put into the oeoln', 
and there is then added twice its weight 
of freshly emshed washing soda, and 
an equal quantM?r of the eotdest wnter 
that can be obtained, aat intenaely 
poweifiid frigorifie Toaxtxare ia the re> 
suK^ the cold often frJliiig to Ibrty 
degrees belnw freesiQg. VCt^ is by fiur 
the most effioaoiens freesang mixbort 
that can be made without the use ef 
ice or acids. But, unlortonately, it 
has an ahaiost insuperable «ol>jectki^ 
that tiieniterajte of ammonia is decom- 
posed by the aoda, and cannot be 
recovered by eiMperation; this rises 
the expense to so great a neighi^ that 
the plan is pntotically useless. 

Thb 2^bw EanranG PssFABAnoH 
wifBovT lOB DB AooBB obviates all 
these olsjeotions. It is easy of osi^ 
not oorrosive sn its propecties, and 
ei^ble of beiqg used atany time, at a 
moante's notice ; is easy of transport 
being hi a solid form, and, moreover, 
mectovate in ils east. In India, to 
which country it has been exported ia 



XHB VMJJU OF TH£ XJE4LF Ig ▲ WEISPVA TO TKS UYJSQ. 



^ 



QDorxnoiis quamfcitifiti^ it has excited the 
most lively intei^Bt, and the Kepaulese 
princes, when in London, paid the 
{jpreatest attention to its use. It con- 
fidate of two powdeia, the first of which 
is congposea of one part by weight of 
muriate of ammonia^ or sal-ammoniac 
powder, and intimately noized with 
two parts by weight of nitrate of pot- 
ash, or saltpetre. These quantities 
are almost exactly in (what is called by 
<&emists) the combining proportions 
of the two salts, and by reacting on 
each other, the original compounds 
sffe destroyed^ and in the place of mu- 
riate of ommoiua and nitrate of potash, 
we have nitrate of ammonia and mu- 
riate of potash ; thus we have succeeded 
in producing nitrate of ammonia at a 
dieap rate, accompanied by another 
salt^ the muriate of potash, which also 
produces considerable cold when dis- 
solved ; but this mixture used alone 
cannot be regarded as a freezing one^ 
although very efficient in cooling. 
The other pewder is formed simply of 
the best Scotch soda, crushed in a 
nuNTtar, or by passing throu^ a mill ; 
aRhough, as hitherto prepared, its ap- 
pearance has been disguised by the 
admixture of small quantities of other 
maiterials, which have, however, tended 
to diminish its efficacy. The two 
powders so prepared must be sepf»- 
rately ke^t in closely-covered vessels, 
aad in as cool a place as possible ; for 
if the crushed soda is exposed to the 
air, it loses the water it contains, and 
is considerably weakened in power; 
and if the other xnixtuie is exposed, it 
attracts moisture from the air, and dis- 
solves in it — ^becoming useless. To 
use the mixture, take an equal bulk of 
the two powders, mix them together 
by stirring and immediatdy introduce 
them into the ice-pail, or vessel in 
which they are to be dissolved, and 
pour on as much water (the coldest 
that can be obtained) as is sufficient to 
^BBolve them ; if a pint measure of each 
of thex>owders is used, they will require 
about a pint of water to msaolve them. 
4lere.jis«ter than is necessary should 



not be used, as iathat case the 
tional water is cooled instead of the 
substance that it is wished to freese. 
Leas than a pint of each powder, end 
about the same quantity of water, will 
be foimd sufficient to ice two bottle 
of wine, one after the other, in the hot* 
test of weather, if a tub is used of suck 
a suse as to prevent the waste of ma- 
terials. 

If the ordinary sal-ammoidac of thfr 
shops is used, it will be found both 
difficult to powder, and expenmve ; in 
faet, it is 90 exceedingly toi^h, thab 
the only way in which it can be easiyy- « 
divided, eaocept in a drug mill, is by. 
putting as huqge a quantity ^ the aa& 
into water which is actuaUy boiling aa 
the latter wfll dissolve ; as the solution 
cools, the salt crystalises out in the 
soHd form, and if stirred as it ooola^ it 
s^arates in a state of fine division. As 
this process is troublesome;, and as the 
sal-ammoniac is expensive, it ,is better 
to use Uie crude muriate of ammojyi^ 
which is the same substance as sal-am* 
moniae, but before it has been purified 
by sublimation. This is net usually 
kept by druggists, but mav be readij^ 
obtained of anj of the artiadal manure 
merchants, at a very moderate fote; 
and its purity may be readily tested by 
placing a portiom of it on a red-hot iron, 
when it should fly off in a vapour, 
leaving scarcely any residue. 

It is hardly necessary to add, that 
in icing wines, or freezii^ the effect is 
great in proportion to the eoldnesa o£ 
the materials used; therefore, «very 
article employed, via, the water, tubs, 
mixture^ ^c, ahxmkl be as cool aa 
possible. 

242. KBCIMS FOR THE MANU- 
FACTURE OP DESSERT ICES, 
BOTH CKEAM AND WATER. 

243. StiulwbebrtIosCkeak. — ^Take 
one pint of strawberries, one pint of 
cream, nearly half a pound of powdered 
white a«gar, the juice of a lemon; 
mash the fruit through a sieve, and 
take eut the seeds : nux with the other 



A 



56 KEEP ON GOOD TERMS WITH TOUB WIFE, TOUR 8T0UA0H, AIHO TOUB C0N8CIBN0E. 



Articles, and freeze : a little new milk 
added makes the whole freeze more 
quickly. 

244. Baspbbbbt Iob Cbeam. — The 
same as strawberry. These ices are often 
ooloured by cochineal, but the addition 
is not advantageous to the flavour. 
Strawberry or raspberry jam may be 
used instead of the fresh fruit, or equal 
quantities of jam and fruit employed. 
Of course the quantity of sugar must 
be proportionately diminished. 

245. Stbawbebby-wateb Ice. — One 
large pottle of scarlet strawberries, the 

' juice of a lemon, a pound of sugar, or 
one pint of strong syrup, half a pint of 
water. Mix, first rubbing the fruit 
through a sieve, and freeze. 

246. Raspbebby-wateb Ice in the 
same manner. 

247. Lbmon-watebIce. — ^Lemon juice 
and water, each half a pint; strong 
syrup, one pint ; the rind of the lemons 
should be rasped off before squeezing 
with lump sugar, which is to be added 
to the juice ; mix the whole ; strain 
after standing an hour, and freeze. 
Beat up with a little sugar the whites 
of two or three eggs, and as the ice is 
beginning to set, work this in with the 
spatula^ which will much improve the 
consistence and taste. 

248. Obanoe-wateb Ioe in the same 
way. 

249. Fubthbb Directions. — ^Actual 
quantities — one pound of muriate of am- 
monia^ or sal ammoniac, finely powdered, 
is to be intimately mixed with two 
pounds of nitrate of potash or saltpetre, 
also in powder ; this mixture we may 
call No. 1. No. 2 is formed by crush- 
ing three pounds of the best Scotch soda. 
In use, an equal bulk of both No. 1 and 
No. 2 is to be taken, stirred together, 
placed in the ice-pail surrounding the 
ice-pot, and rather leas cold water 
poured on thanwUl dissolve the whole ; 
if one quart of No. 1, and the same 
bulk of No. 2 are taken, it will require 
about one quart of water to dissolve 
them, and the temperature will fall, if 
the materials used are cool, to nearly 

hirty degrees below freezing. Those 



who fail may trace their want of success 
to one or other of the following points : 
— the use of too small a quantity of the 
preparation ; the employment of a fSsw 
ounces ; whereas, in freezing icesy the 
ice-pot must be entirely surrounded 
with the freezing material: no one 
would attempt to freeze with four 
ounces of ice and salt. Again, too 
large a quantity of water may be used 
to dissolve the preparation, when all 
the excess of water has to be cooled 
down instead of the substance it is 
wished to freeze. All the materials 
used should be pure, and as cool as can 
be obtained. The ice-pail in which the 
mixture is made must be of some non- 
conducting material, as wood^ which 
will prevent the access of warmth from 
the air ; and the ice-pot, in which the 
liquor to be frozen is placed, shotdd be 
of pewter, and surrounded nearly to its 
top by the freezing mixture. Bear in 
mind that the making of ice-cream, 
under any circumstances, is an opera- 
tion requiring considerable dexterity 

and practice. 

260. THE ART OF BEING AaREK- 
ABLE. — The true art of being agree- 
able is to appear well pleased with all 
the company, and rather to seem well 
entertained with them than to bring 
entertainment to them. A man thus 
disposed, perhaps, slay not have much 
learning, nor any wit; but if he has 
common sense, and something friendly 
in his behaviour, it conciliates men% 
minds more than the brightest parts 
without this disposition ; and when a 
man of such a turn comes te old age, 
he is almost sure to be treated with 
respect. It is true, indeed, that we 
should not dissemble and flatter in 
company ; but a man may be veiy 
agreeable, strictly consistent wiw 
truth and sincerity, by a prudent si- 
lence where he cannot concur, and a 
pleasing assent where he can. Now 
and then you meet with a person so 
exactly formed to please, that he will 
gain upon every one that hears or be* 
holds him; this disposition is not 
merely the gift of nature, but £ra- 



IV TOU COTKT PBAIBB, TOU DON'T J>SBBBYB IT. 



67 



qnently the effect of much knowledge 
of the world, and a command over the 
passioaB. 

251. DESTRUCTION OF RATS.— 
The following recipe for the destruction 
of rats has been communicated by Dr. 
Ure to the council of the EngUah 
Agricultural Society, and is highly re- 
commended as the best known means 
of getting rid of these most obnoxious 
and deatructiye vermin. It has been 
tried by several intelligent persons, 
and found perfectly effectual. — (Melt 
hog's lard in a bottle plunged in water, 
heated to about 150 degrees of Fah- 
nnheit; introduce into it half an 
ounce of phosphorus for every pound 
of lard ; then add a pint of proof- 
spirit or whiskey; cork the bottle 
finnly alter its contents have been 
heated to 150 degrees, taking it at the 
same time out of the water, and agitate 
smartly till the phosphorus becomes 
uniformly diffused, forming a milky- 
looking liquid. This liquid, being 
oooled, will afford a white compound 
of i^osphorus and lard, from which 
the spirit spontaneously separates, 
and may be poured off to be used 
agun, for none of it enters into the 
eombination, but it merely serves to 
comminute the phosphorus, and dlf- 
^QM it in very fine particles through 
^e lard. This compound, on being 
wwnxed very gently, may be pom'ed 
out into a mixture of wheat flour and 
B^^ar, incorporated therewith, and then 
flavoured with oil of rhodium, or not, 
at pleasure. The flavour may be varied 
witii oil of anniseed, &c This dough, 
oean^ made into peUets, is to be laid in 
'at-holes. By its luminousness in the 
^K it attracts their notice, and being 
fgieeaible to their palates and noses, it 
u readily eaten, and proves certainly 

262. ALMOND PUDDING AND 
SAUCE,— A large cupful of finely- 
junced beef sue^ a teacupful of milk, 
war ounces of bread-crumbs, four 
OQnces of well-«leaned currants, two 
^^ of almonds, half a pound of 
'^^"'^ nwunB^ three well-beaten eggs, i 



and the whites of other two; sugaTt 
nutmegs and cinnamon, and a small 
glass of rum. Butter a shape, and place 
part of the raisins neatly in rows. 
Blanche the almonds ; reserve the half 
of them to be placed in rows between 
the raisins just before serving. Mix 
all the remaining ingredients well to- 
gether, put into the shape, and boil 
three hours. The Sauce — One teaspoon- 
ful of milk, and two yolks of eggs well 
beaten, and some sugar ; place on the 
fire and stir till it jiut cornea to the hoU; 
then let it cool. When lukewarm, stir 
it into a glass of sherry or currant 
wine, and serve in a sauce tureen. This 
sauce is a great improvement to the 
raisin puddrnji:. 

263. STEWED WATEI^CRESa— 
The following receipt may be new, and 
will be found an agreeable and whole- 
some dish : — ^Lay the cress in strong salt 
and water, to dear it from insects. Pick 
and wash nicely, and stew it in water 
for about ten minutes ; drain and chop, 
season with pepper and salt, add a 
little butter, and return it to the stew- 
pan until well heated. Add a little 
vinegar first before serving; put around 
it sippets of toast or fried bread. The 
above, made thin, as a substitute for 
parsley and butter, will 1[>e found an 
excellent covering for a boiled fowL 
There should be more of the cress con- 
siderably than of the parsley, as the 
flavour is much milder. 

264. TO LOOSEN GLASS STOP- 
PERS OF BOTTLES.— With a feather 
rub a drop or two of salad oil round the 
stopper, dose to the mouth of the bottle 
or decanter, which must be then placed 
before the fire, at the distance of about 
eighteen inches; the heat will cause 
the oil to insinuate itself between the 
stopper and the neck. When the bottle 
or decanter has grown warm, gentlj 
strike the stopper on one side, and then 
on the other, with any light wooden 
instrument; tiien try it with the hand : 
if it will not yet move;, place it again 
before the fire, adding another drop of 
oil. After a while strike again as before; 
and, by peraeYering in this prooeei^ 



58 



Air ACT 18 HBTT8R TRMf A ^VQIEB. 



Juywever-tigbtly it may he fiurtened in, 
jyoa will stt length snooeed in loosening 
it This is decidedly the beet plan. 

255. ECONOMICAL FAMILY 
FtTDDING.— Bruise with a wooden 
spoon, through a colander, six large or 
'twelve midifle-slzed boiled x>otatoeB; 
l)eat four eggs, mix with a pint of good 
milk, stir in the potatoes; sugar and 
seasoning to taste ; butter a dish ; bake 
iialf on hour. This receipt is simple 
snd economical, as it is made of what is 
"^rasted in moat fionilies, viz. — coid po- 
'tatoes, which may be kept two or iSiree 
days, tin a sufficient quantity is col- 
lected. It is a weekly ctiiBh at our-table. 
A teaspoonfdl of Scotch di^ marmalade 
makes a delicious aeasomng. 

256. PAESMP WINE.— Take fifteen 
potmds of sliced parsnips, and bofl until 
quite soft in fiye gallons of water; 
equeeze the liquor weU out of them, 
run it through a sieve, and add three 
''pounds of coarse lump mrgar to every 
gallon of liquor. BoU the whole for 
iiaee quarters of on bowc. "When it is 
nearly cold, add a litt3e yeast on toast. 
Xiet it remain in a tub for ten days, 
stirring it fi*om the bottom every dxy ; 
iiien put it into a cask for -a year. As 
it woiks over, fin it up every day. 

257. TUENIP WINE.— Take a large 
' number of turnips, pore and slice them ; 
ilien place in a ddter-pressf, and dbtain 
all the joiee you can. To ev«ry grihm 
of juice add three pounds of lump 
sugar, and half a pint of i>randy. Pour 
ibto a caflkj but do not bung untfi it 
lias done working ; then bung it dose 
.for three tnontln, and draw off into 
«na&er cask ; when it is fine, bottle, 
and codcweB. 

268. CASH AlffD CMaHT.— If you 
-would get riidi, ilanH ^ol in biHIbookB. 
^Credit is the " tempter in anewtAtape." 
^^7 S^'^'^ ^^ trust, and you wiH pur- 
«hai3e a iSnmsand articles that ^OoBh 
TTouid never iiave draomed of. A 
shilHn]^ in the hand looks largsr*Bum 
ten shillings «een through *tii6 per^ 
speetive df a three mtntiis* bfll. <>ish 
IB procticd, while Credit ti&es fittrJbly 
to taste md rotnaeto. LetCosh boya 



dinner, and ytm will hove a bo0f«tsik 
flanked wi& onioBs. Bend KHmiak to 
market, and he will return wilii eight 
pairs of woodeooks and a pe(& of tnssh- 
rooms. Credit believes in diamond 
pias and champagne sappeis. CSosh is 
more easily satisfied. Give him tlwee 
meals a day, and he don't cove nuMih 
if two of them are mode upof i^easted 
potatoes and a little ^^rty salt. Cadi 
IB a good adviser, while Oed^ is a 
good fellow to be on vintmg ierms 
with. If you want doiAle el^BS and 
contentment, do business wiiii Cosh. 

259. WHY THE WEnDINGJBDVG 
IS PLACED ON THE FOaSTH 
FINQER.— We have Temozked <m the 
vulgar error of a vein gcnng imm. the 
fourth finger of the krift handtoliw 
heart. It is said by Sfnabuca and 
others that, therefoie, it beeasse the 
wedding-finger. The piiesAood kept 
up this idea by still kee^ng it«s<the 
wedding-finger, but it was got at throvgh 
the use of the Trinity; for, in l£e 
ancient ritual of Engliflh marriogSB, the 
ring was placed by tiie hnsbnid on the 
top of the thumb of the left iumd, wMh 
the words " In tiie name -of the 
^ther;" he then removed it to 4lie 
forefinger, Ba3riBg, " In the naHie<of the 
Son ;" then to the mid^e finger, lidd- 
ing, ''And of the StAy Gttiost;" finaUy, 
he left it as now, oh the ibui^ fingsr, 
wbh the closing word " Amen."'-^2%« 
Ifiatoro and Poetry tf-Fi/ngfe r rinfft, 

2eO. A ROMAN LADTB TOIiJBT. 
— ^The to9et -of « Roman lady inmA^nd 
on elfCborate and very -cosily prooett. 
It commenced at m^t^ when <t3ie fiee, 
supposed to hove been tamiidMsd by 
exposure, was '•ferlaid with a pCMdliee 
composed of b<Hled ^nr moistened jAtMU*, 
sprMd on with the fingen. Ptjepjpmmi 
<ragnents sealed the lips, and ^heloflky 
was profusely rubbed with CsMna 
ointmeBt. In the morning, the povltice 
and unguents were washed off, a^balih 
of asses' mflk imparted a dsMsats^vidBEito- 
neas to i^e skin, and the psIsfiBbos^ms 
freshened said i sf iwd with snomsl. 
The full ^elids, whioh the Bomoa il«^ 
vtifi kncrwB se 'WsH 4io«r 4» «se^ mkt 



«O0B M'jtfnMUB cdUUEOBi tK>]rar 'FBCK BVBVr 



0B9 



VBdd^ljT iwBiDg ifaem to reyeel a 
glance of suppriae, or of meStsng'tendep- 
uess, now leHing ihenn drop l£e a 'reil 
«f«r tbe Insfaroua e^res, — iSb.% fvll 
rounded eyolids were ooloored 'wiihin, 
and a needle, dipped in jetty dye, gaive 
length and sphericity to the ^fffbrowB, 
The forehead wasencireledbya wreath, 
4M* fillet^ tetened in the luxuriant ^lair, 
which rose iniront in a pymimidtd ^pile, 
formed of «nooeBBiv« Tanges of ovtfis, 
and giving "the appearasoe of more than 
ordinaiy height 

261. METHOD OF CLEANTVTa 
fA}^SSl-HANGfNa8.-^0ttt into eight 
half quarters a quartem loaf, *twodayfi 
■old; it must neHlher be newer nor 
fitaler. With one of these pieces, after 
hflfving Uown off all the dust frcxn the 
"Taper to be cleaned, by ike means of a 
geod pair of b^owB, begin -eA the top 
of the room, holding the crust in tfa^ 
hand,- and wiping lightly downward 
with the crumb, about balf a yard at 
<Baoh stroke, tUl the upper part of the 
hangings is completely cleaned all 
Touiid. Then go round again, with the 
Ifte sweeping stroke domi wards, always 
ONmneneing each sueoessire course a 
Httie higher than the upper stroke had 
extended, till ihe bottom be 'finished. 
Thia epcmition, if careftiHy p erfw me d , 
"'nil frequently make -very old paper 
look idmost equal to new. Great 
CMition must be used not by any 
means to rub tiie psq>er hard, nor to 
■ttompt cleaning it the cress or hori- 
«ontal way. The dirty part of the 
•biead, too, must be oach time cut 
•way, and the pieces renewed as soon 
«• it may become neeessBry. 

m. TO PREVENT MOTHS.— in 
^0 month of April or May, beat your 
^garments well with a snail cane or 
"•Ijrtic-stick, then ^ap them up in linen, 
'•'^^ut pressing the fur too lord, and 
?ut betwixt the folds some camiftior in 
■^ lumps; then put your furs in 
^ state in boxes well closed. When. 
«2 ft»8 are wanted for use, beat them 
™^ M before, arid eipoae them for 
^JjentyJfour bours to the air, which 
^'^ tAe away theflmdH ofthe camphor, i 



2f the {«r hui iong hair, m bear or jfo^, 
add to the oamphor an equal quantitg^ 
of black pepper in powder. 

268. OraOfAK TEA8T. ~ We hme 
j^^eatedly notieed the fatality of lake 
of attacks ci oarbimoles, and tike-pre-via* 
lenoe of dkeaaes of that nature, whonk 
was were dispofled to attnbute to Htm 
state of the atmoaphopa, and as ariflhig 
from much the same canaaaB-Hie Tisiift- 
iaon of cholera. A oorrespondent) ho»- 
«yer, has thrown some lij^t upon the 
subject, and we print his.«tateni«ot in 
l&e hope that tiiie baking fraieraity 
wffl be prohibited by law tfrom usiBg 
the peinioious stuff mentioned. We 
are 'protected firom the sale of disaasfld 
and poisonous meat, and firam the 
adultovjtion of flour, beer, and otiier 
articles, and it Is ahsolvtely neceawoy 
BOW that we should be protected feom 
Gtonaan yeast. Our correapoadeotfiaDpi : 
— *'Ferhaps not the least impoctent 
matter on the subrjeot of eookery is to 
avoid evwything oaloulated to -ii^ave 
the purity of the family bread, wh«th«r 
prepared at home or in the baker's oven, 
and that this is dene to a vast cstant 
(aHbongh unoonflBiomi^) willbevtoone 
apparent from the following statemeot 
of facts, upon which the public reqiOBe 
to be informed : It is well known that 
a Tory laige pvoportbn of the bread 
pr^Mftred for family use is raised ^fiaim 
what is called Oermaoi yeast — anoziins 
oompouad — imported weekly into Hall 
in quantities really astounding, and 
where, I am credibly infonoBd, tons -of 
it are thrown into the sea firom having 
become alrre; yet this is used by the 
great ■minority «f bakers war theiking- 
dom to produce Ae bread for our wt 
pc^polatlon, who liti&e sni^eot the fidow 
poison tiiey avB^hdly aadmioonBoioui]{r 
eensaming, and to wiiioh, firam disooi- 
sions ia medaeal.soeietiesy aad notieSB 
hi medicd jouBoab, it seema extreme]^ 
probable that the numerotm cases of 
carbunoles and boils, which, wiUmi 
these 'tem years, hwre proved of «o 
serious and ervan &fcal a^chanoter, may 
ewe their origia. it ought ito begena- 
NiB^^ tmown that th»«Qennaa yaastis 



60 



XLErXrATUBll SnOKB F01BON TBOX CHB B W ai'J Wg VLOWER. 



prepoved from every specieB of refose 
giainy and especially (where they can 
obtam it) from that which is wholly 
unfit for the food of eitherman or beast, 
and if in a state of positiye putre&otion, 
80 much the more valuable it is for 
their purpose, running the more rapidly 
and easily into fermentation." The fore- 
going remarks having appeared in the 
ManehetUr Ouardicm, called forth the 
annexed contradiction in the Weekly 
JHapatch : — *' We have received severed 
letters from the yeast importers of the 
metropolis, complaining of an article 
oopied from the MoMchester Ouardian 
into the JHspaich, and which stated, 
that the use of German yeast in the 
fermentation of bread caused carbuncles 
and boils on the £bu» and body. The 
great object of the writers is to show 
that the yeast is perfectly wholesome, 
and that instead of being manufiictured 
from putrid rye, it is the sediment of 
the distillation of Hollands, or Soheidam 
gin, drawn off by a common tap, and 
oompressed into a solid, without any 
mixture; in fact, the only difference 
between the brewers' yeast and Qerman 
yeast is, that the former is a liquid beer 
yeasty and the latter a spirit yeast com- 
pressed. Messrs. Wilken and Pugh, 
the yeast importers, inform us — 'that 
the Commissioners of her Majesty's 
Customs have subjected the yeast to 
analysation, and use it themselves for 
the purpose of making their own bread, 
and that her Majesty herself partakes 
of bread, rolls, &c., fermented by 
nothing but Qerman yeast.' " 

264. HOW TO MAKE SEA-WATER. 
—There cannot be a question that by 
fieu* the simplest plan would consist in 
the' evaporation of the sea-water itself 
in large quantities, preserving the re- 
•Bultixig saJt in closely-stopped vessels 
to prevent the absorption of moisture, 
and vending it in tlds form to the con- 
sumer; the proportion of this dry 
saline matter being fifty-six ounces to 
ten gallons of water less three pints. 
This phm was suggested by Dr. B. 
Schweitzer, for the extemporaneous 
formation of sea-water for T»^ip»nftl 



baths. Mr. H. Schweitzer writes me 
that he has for many years made this 
compound, in accordance with his 
cousm's analysiB. Hie proportion 
ordered to be used is six ounces to the 
gallon of water, and stirred well im^ 
dissolved. 

266. HOW TO TAKE CAKE OF 
TOUB HAT.— If your hat is wet, 
shake it out as much as possible ; then 
brush it with a soft brush as smooth as 
you can, or with a clean linen cloth or 
handkerchief; wipe it very carefully, 
keep the beaver flat and smooth, in the 
same direction as it was first placed; 
then, with a small cane^ beat the nap 
gently up^ and hang it up to dry in a 
cool plao(9. When it is dj^, lay it on a 
table, and brush it round several times 
with a soft brush in the proper direc- 
tion; and you will find your hat not 
the least injured by the rain. If ^e 
gloss is not quite so high as you wish, 
take a flat iron, moderately heated, 
and pass the same two or three times 
gently over the hat; brush it after- 
wards, and it will become nearly as 
handsome as when sent home from &e 
maker. — To Scour a Hoi when ike Nap 
ie CloUed, and to take Salt Water ovt— 
Qet a hard brush, a basin of hot water 
(boiling), and some yellow soap ; rub a 
little of Ihe soap lightly on i^e brash 
and dip it into the water ; brush the 
hat round with the nap. If you find 
the nap dotted, do not scrape it with 
your fingers, as that tears it ofi^ but 
brush it until it is smooth, and the 
soap is thoroughly out; then take a 
piece of wood, or the back of a knife, 
and scrape it well round ; you will find 
all the dirt come out; then beat it 
gently with a cane. 

266. CURE FOR BURNS.— Of all 
applications for a bum, we believe that 
there are none equal to a simple cover- 
ing of common vfh€at'Jl&ur, This is 
always at hand ; and while it requires 
no skill in using, it produces most 
astonishing effects. The moisture pro- 
duced upon the surface of a slight or 
deep bum is at once absorbed by the 
flour, and forms a paste which shots 



HS THAT irsOLBOlB ItME, XEMB WOJm XTBOCBOT. 



61 



out the air. As long aa the fluid mat- 
ten oontiime flowing, ihej are absorbed 
and preyented from producing irrita- 
iion, as they would do, if kept from 
passing o£f by oily or resinous applica- 
tions ; while the greater the amount of 
those absorbed by the flour, the thicker 
the protective covering. Another ad- 
vantage of the flour oovering is that 
next to the surface it is kept moist and 
flexible. It can also be readily washed 
ofi; without further irritation in remov- 
ing. It may occasionally be washed off 
▼eiy carefully, when it has become 
matted and diy, and a new covering be 
sprinkled on. 

267. CARE OF LINEN. — When 
linen is well dried and laid by for use, 
nothing more is necessary than to 
Becure it from damp and insects ; the 
latter may be agreeably performed by 
a judidouB mixture of aromatic shrubs 
ttid flowers, cut up and sewed up in 
silken bags, to be mterspersed among 
the drawers and shelves. These ingre- 
dients may comdst of lavender, tfajme^ 
roses, cedar-shavings, powdered sassa- 
fras, cassia lignea, &c., into which a few 
drops of otto of roses, or other strong- 
scented perfume, may be thrown. lu 
all cases, it will be foimd more con- 
fflstent with economy to examine and 
zepair all washable articles, more espe- 
<3ally linen, that may stand in need of 
it, preyious to sending them to the 
laundry. It will also be 'prudent to 
have every article carefully numbered, 
Bnd so arranged, after vnishing, as to 
^ve their regular turn and term in 
domestic use. 

268. HAIR OILS.— Rose Oil.— • 
Olive oil, one pint, Is. ; otto of roses, 
five to sixteen drops, 2s. 6d. per drachm. 
^Bsenee of bergamot being much 
cheaper, Is. per ounce, is usually used 
inst^ of the more expensive otto of 
roses. 

269. Bed Robk Oil.— The same. The 
^coloured before scenting, by steeinng 
^ it one drachm of alkanet root with a 
8«Qtie heat, until the desired tint is 
produced. Alkanet rooty 6d. to 9d. 
Pw pound. 



270. HAIR DTK— A friend of ours, 
to whom we applied upon the subject, 
&voured us with the follovring infor- 
mation : — ^I have operated upon my 
own cranium for at least a dozen years, 
and though I have heard it affirmed 
that dying the hair vrill produce in- 
sanity, I am happy to think I am, as 
yet, perfectly sane, and imder no fear 
of being otherwise ; at all events, I am 
wiser iSnan I once was, when I paid five 
shillings for what I can now xnake my- 
self for less than twopence ! — but to the 
question: — ^I procure lime, which I 
speedily reduce to powder by throwing 
a little water upon it, then mix this 
with litharge (three quarters lime, and 
a quarter litharge), which I sift through 
a fine hair sieve, and then I have 
what is sold at a high price under the 
name of ''Unique Powder," and the 
most effectual (hair dye that has yet 
been discovered. But the application of 
it is not very agreeable, though simple 
enough : — ^Put a quantity of it in a 
saucer, pour boiling water upon it, and 
mix it up with a knife like thick 
mustard; divide the hair into thin 
layers,^ with a comb, and plaster the 
mixture thickly into the layers to 
the roots, and all over the hair. When 
it is all completely covered over with it, 
then lay all over it a covering of damp 
blue, or brown paper, then bind over 
it, closely, a handkendiie^ then put on 
a nightcap over all, and go to bed ; in 
the morning, brush out the powder, 
wash thoroughly with soap and warm 
VTater, then dry, curl, oil, &c. I warrant 
that hair thus managed will be a per- 
manent and beautiful black, which, I 
dare say, most people would prefer to 
either grey or red^ Now, notwithstand- 
ing the patient endurance and satis- 
factory experience of our friend, we 
very much doubt^ whether one person 
in a hundred, would be content to 
envelope their heads in batter of this 
description, and tiien retire to rest. 
To rest ! did we say ? We envy not 
the slumbers enjoyed tmder these cir- 
cumstances. We frtncy we can do 
something still better for those who 



KVOYnaaam a warn itBUh 



YSN. 



aroasbamod of tlmir gny ham, Vhe 
hair dyes fovoMilf iia«dl procbioed ^017 
objectioxuiblB tinta. Lattexly aa¥«Kak 
perf umem have been aelliag dyea, aonr 
aiatiBg (^ twa liq^uida to be uaed m 
auooeflaioii, at aaoeedia^y bigh pnamv 
BQeb aa 7fl.» 148., and 21a^ a oaaa. The^ 
oompoaitioa has been bept a doae 
aeoret in tbe baiidB of a few. The pt e- 
Gudng of it for publication in thia work 
baa been attended with oonakbiable 
difficulty, but ouv readera may take It 
aa an^eameat thai no paina oc expeaBe 
will be aparad to> render leally aaeful 
information. 

271 . HAm Dyb^ . naoAiiLT avYLKD CSo- 
jj&UBiAiff Abgbnzihb, &e. Asc. — So^ 
lution No. I. Hydroeulpfaauei of amr 
monia, one ounce; solution. of potash^ 
th&ee drachma ; diatilied, or raiur wates, 
one ounce (all by meaaore). ICix^ aAd 
put into amall bottles, labeling ii 
Ka I Solution No. II. Nitrate of 
aHver, one dcaohai ; distilled, or ratui* 
water, two ounoea. Diasolved and 
bibeUed No. U. 

Directions. — The solutien Nol L la 
first applied to the hair with a tooth 
brush, and the application continued 
for fifteen or twenty minatea. The 
solution No« II. is thea brushed over^ 
a> comb beiag used* to aeparate the 
hairs, and allow the liqAiid to come in 
coataot with every part. Care muat 
be taken that the liquid do not come 
in contact with the skin, as the solu- 
tion No. II. produces a Tery permanent 
dark stain on all subataaoes with which 
it comes in contaet. If the shade ia 
not sufficiently de^, the operatioB 
may be repeated. The hair i^ould be 
cleaned from grease before using the 
dye. Cost: Hydrosulphuret of am- 
monia, 2a. 6d. per poimd ; solution of 
potash, 8d. per pound ; nitrate of 
silver, 4s. 6d. per ounce; bottle^ lOd* 
to la. 5d. per doaen. 

To ti7 the effect of hair dye upon 
hair of any colour, cut off a lock and 
apply the dye thoroughly as directed 
above. This will be a guarantee of 
success, or will at leait guard against 
fidlure. 



27a.: VU& BO]»ON(u.Proa£ gpitH^ 
onaipi»t ; eanofllor, two>duiieaa^; wIt el 
turpentine^ Ibmr. ouaeea ; eonroanGe stib*> 
limaAe, one ouaee. Mix. Ofaat: proof 
apiia^ Is* lOd. per pint; eaoqihary 
2bv 84L pen pound;, oil of'tnrpantiBej8d» 
perpint ; ooneauretMiblimabe^ Sa* 6d;per 
peund* 

273. TO MAKE A FAC-SDfXLIS OF 
! A UQAF IN CO^P£E.--Thia beautif 
fill, enperitnent eaa be peEft>rmed by 
any person in pooaesaieatof m eonmon 
galwnia battery.. The pvoeeas is aa 
fi>llewBi : — Softeii m pieee olgirttn peroha 
ouer a'oaadle^ ar before a fire; knead 
it with the moist fingers upea a table; 
uatU' the suiftne is perfiaotly smooth, 
and large enouj^ to^ oover the leaf to 
be copied ; lay the leaf flat upoa^ the 
sarfaoej.and? press every part well into 
the guttapeadiak In aboutfi^e miautai 
the leaf mejf bo asmaved, wke% if tiie 
cqpeBoiiMk baa been carefully pe^ormed 
a.perfi»ci impreaaaaa of the leaf wiU be 
made on the guita peniha. Thia muat 
new, be attadud.to- the wire ia ooo- 
nexion' with, the ainQ end of the bat* 
tery (Mnoh eou easily be done by 
hei^aag tha end of the wire, and pMsa- 
ing ii into the gutta peaafaa), duabed 
wflU over with the beat blaek lead, 
with a cameL's^hair b]raalb-4he oliject 
of whieh is to imder it a conductor of 
elect]sieity--4MMl then completely im- 
mersed inasataBailed aolutiioa of sul- 
phate of. ooppec A piece of copper 
attaohed to tiie wise in- oennesion with 
the copper «wl of the iMtttery, mnsat 
also be inaorted inta the coffer solu- 
tion, facing the gutta percha but not 
touching it; thia net only acta aa a 
conductor to the elastricily, but else 
meintaina the- aoftution of copper of a 
permanent atreagtb. Ia a short time^ 
the copper will ba found to creep over 
the whole aunfoee of the gutta percha, 
and in about twenty-four houn^ a 
thick deposit of copper will be obtained, 
whiflh amy than 1^ dataohed firom the 
UMuld. The aoousacy wif^ which a 
leaf may thua be east ia- truly- surpxis- 
lag. I have in my poaaeasion a cast of 
a hazel-leaf made by the procen, which 



THS BWEET1E8T BOBB QBOWB UPON THS SHARPEST THORN. 



67 



nobody would take to Be a production 
of art ; every fibre and nerve, in faot^ 
the minutest part is delineated wiifi. 
the utmost fid elity . 

274. GOLI) FISH.^Great care must 
be taken of gold fish, as they are very 
susceptible; and henoe a loud noise, 
strong smelly violent or even slight 
shaking of the vessel, will eftimes de- 
stroy them. Small wonns, which' are 
common to the water, suffices fbr their 
food in general ; but the Chinese, who 
bring gold fish to great pevfeotioiv 
throw small balls of paste into the 
water, of which they are very fond. 
They give them also lean pork, dried 
in the sun^ and reduced to a very fine 
and delicate powder. J*rash river-water 
aust be given them every day. Care 
must be taken to collect the spawn,, 
when seen floating on the water, as 
otherwise it will be destroyed by the 
fish themselves. This spawn is put 
into a vessel, and exposed to the sun,, 
until vivified by the heat^ Gold fish, 
however, seldom deposit spawn when 
kept in vases. In order to procure a 
supply, they must be put into reser- 
voirs Of a considevable depth, in some 
parts at least, well shaded at intervals 
with water-lilies, and oonstaatly sup- 
plied with fresh water. At a certain 
time of the year, numerous barques are 
seen in the great river of Yangft-se- 
Keang, which go thither to purchase 
the spawn of gold fish. This is ob- 
tained with no small care, for towards 
the month of May, the inhabitcmts 
close the river in several places with 
inats and hurdles, which extend nine 
^ ten leagues, and leave only a space 
m the middle sufficient for the passage 
of boats. The spawn is stopped by 
these hurdles, and the water being 
afterwards drawn up, and put into 
large vessels, is sold to merchants, who 
?*^d it to all parts. Gold fish were 
introduced into England about the 
year 1691, but remained exceedingly 
8<5arce till 1728, when a great number 
were brought over, and presented to 
Sir Matthew Becker, by whom they 
were usually distributed round London. 



275. HETHOB OrH&KDBNTOTr 
OBJfiCTS m PEASTEB OP PARIS. 
— ^Take two parts of stearine, two parts 
of Tenetian soap, one part of pearlashy. 
and twenty-four to thirty parts of ft 
s&lution of eaoBtio pota^. Thesteanae 
aztd soap' arer ofti i&to sliees*, mixed' with 
the oeld ley, Mict Mied for albout hatf 
an' hoW', hf^Xtg ooMtantly stinvdl 
Whene^r tlke> mtja» rises^ » litlie ookl 
le^ is add^ The pearlash, preriouslj) 
moiMeAed vriMi- a liMe ndswater, £i- 
then adiSbd, and tile wh«)e boiled' for**, 
fe^ m^tttes. 1Ph» mass is then stirreiA 
xsotfl eold^ H^Mn it is mixedl with s» 
iMxeh' cold' ley thaA it lleooiiioB 'perfectdy* 
liquid, ancF mms off tile spoon without 
coagulating and oontraoting. Before 
using this eoaopositioi^ it should be 
kept for several days well covered. 
It may be presei'^od fbr years. Be- 
fore applying it to the objeets^ they 
shotrM be weH dusted, &e staintr 
sctttped aWtty, and then coated, by 
means of s ^el: brui^, with the wash, 
as Ibng as* tfte* pliMter of Pkris absorb? 
i1^ and left to dry. The coatingis then 
dusted with leadker, or a soft brush. 
If the surface has not become shining, 
the opemtixm* Mvst ba repeatedk 

226. CUP IS A PI£-D]SH.-~13ie 
custom of pbwiBg an in^perted cup in a 
fruit pie, the cook will inform us, is to 
contain the juice while the pie is baking 
in the oven, and prevent its boiling 
over; aad she is liie more convinoed 
in her theory, because, when the pie ia 
wiithdrawn from the oven, the cup will 
be found full of juice. When the cup 
is first put in. the dish it is full of cdLd, 
air, and, when the pie is placed in the 
oven, this aic will expand by the heat 
and fill the cup^ and drive out all the 
juide and a portion of the present air 
it contains, in whioh state it will remain 
imtil removed from the oven, when the 
air in the cup will condense, and occupy 
a very smAll space, leaving the re- 
mainder to be filled with juice; but 
this does not take place till the danger 
of the juice boiling over is passed. If 
a small glass tumbler is inverted in the 
pie, its contents can be examined into 



64 



AT NIQHT NATUBB IS IH MOUBHIHQ FOR THB LOflS 0» THB BUN. 



while it is in the oven, and it will be 
found what has been advanced is cor- 
rect.— GoKJcr^ Scientific Phenomena of 
Domestic Life. 

277. TO REMOVE INK-STAINS 
FROM SILVER.— The tops and other 
portions of silver inkstands frequently 
become deeply discoloured with ink, 
which is difficult to remove by ordi- 
nary means. It may, however, be com- 
pletely eradicated by making a little 
chloride of lime into a paste with 
water, and rubbing it upon the stains. 
Chloride of lime has been misnamed 
" The general bleacher," but it is a foul 
enemy to i^ metallic surfeMses. 

278. PARISIAN ETIQUETTE. 

A little book has been published 
under this title,* from which we com- 
pile the following rules of politeness 
and taste. In the work itself, they are 
given in a difiPerent form ; and the sub- 
jects are somewhat amplified. Many 
of our readers may be visiting Paris, 
and to such persons the following hints 
will be useful : — 

Intboduotion to Sooibtt. 

Avoid all extravagance and manner- 
ism, and be not over-timid at the 
outset. 

Be discreet and sparing of your 
words. 

Awkwardness is a great misfortune, 
but it is not an unpardonable iaxjlt, 

To deserve the reputation of moving 
in good society, something more is re- 
quisite than the avoidance of blunt 
rudeness. 

Strictly keep to your engagements. 

Punctuality is the essence of royal 
politeness. 

The Toilet. 

Too much attention cannot be paid 
to the arrangements of the toilet. 

A man is often judged by his appear- 
ance, and seldom incorrectly. 

* Parisian Etiquette : a Gaide to Uie Man- 
ners of French Sodetj in Paris. London: 
John F. Shaw, Soafhampton-row. 



A neat ezteribr, equally free from 
extravagance and poverty, almost al- 
ways prochdmB a right-minded man. 

• To dress appropriately, and with good 
taste, is to respect yourself and others. 
A black coat and trowsers are indis- 
pensable for a visit of ceremony, an 
entertainment, or a ball. 

The white or black waistcoat is 
equally proper in these cases. 
The hiGuid should always be gloved. 
A well-bred man always wears yellow 
kids in dancing. [So says our Parisian 
authority : we take exception, however, 
to the yellow — a tint is preferable to a 
decided colour !] 

A person of distinction is always 
known by the fineness of his linen, and 
by the nicety of his hat, gloves, and 
boots. [Rather read: fine linen, and 
a good hat, gloves, and boots, are evi- 
dences of the highest taste in dress.] 

A gentleman walking should always 
wear gloves, this being one of the cha- 
racteristics of good breeding. 

Upon public and state occasions 
officers should appear in tmiform. 

Ladies dresses should be chosen, so as 
to produce an agreeable harmony. 

Never put on a dark-coloured bonnet 
with a light spring costume. 

Avoid uniting colours which will 
suggest an epigram ; such as a straw- 
coloured dress with a green bonnet. 

The arrangement of the hair is most 
important. 

Bands are becoming to faces of a 
Grecian caste. 

Ringlets better suit lively and expres- 
sive heads. 

Whatever be your style of &ce, avoid 
an excess of lace, and let flowers be few 
and choice. 

In a married woman a richer style of 
ornament is admissible. 

Costly elegance for her — ^for the young 
girl, a style of modest simplicity. 

The most elegant dress loses its cha- 
racter if it is not worn with grace. 

Young ^Is have often an air of con- 
straint, and their dress seems to partake 
of their want of ease. 
In speaking of her toilet, a woman 



GO TO BED WITH THB LAMB, AlH) BI8E WITH THE LABK. 



65 



should not conrey the idea that her 
whole skill consists in adjusting taste- 
fiilly some trifling ornaments. 

A simple style of dress is an indica* 
tion of modesty. 

Clbavliness. 

The hands should receive special 
attention. They are the outward signt 
of general cleanliness. The same may 
be Aid of the face, the neck, the ears, 
and the teeth. {See 87, 88, 60, 144, 
145 and 146.) 

The cleanliness of the system gene- 
rally, and of bodily apparel, pertains to 
H^th, and will be Treated of under 
this head. 

The HAlTDKBBOHIBr. 

There is considerable art in using 
Mm accessory of dress and comfort. 

Avoid extreme patterns, styles, and 
colours. 

Never be without a handkerchief 

Hold it firady in the hand, and do 
not roll it into a ball. Hold it by the 
centre, and let the comers form a fiin- 
like expansion. 

Avoid using it too much. With 
some persons the habit becomea trouble- 
some and unpleasant. 

YlBITS Aim Pbesentations. 

Friendly calls should be made in the 
forenoon, and require neatness, without 
costliness of dress. 

Calls to give invitations to dinner- 
parties, or balls, should be very short, 
sad should be paid in the afternoon. 

Visits of condolence require a grave 
style of dress. 

A formal visit should never be made 
before noon. If a second visitor is an- 
nounced, it will be proper for you to 
retire, unless you are very intimate, 
both with the host and the visitor 
announced; unless, indeed, the host 
expresses a wish for you to remain. 

Visits after balls or parties should be 
niade within a month. 

In the latter, it is customary to en- 
close your card in an envelope, bearing 
the address outside. This may be sent 
^v tiost, if vou reside at a distance. 



But, in the neighbourhood, it is polite 
to send your servant, or to call. In 
the latter case a comer should be 
turned down. 

Scrape your shoes, and use the mat. 
Never appear in a drawing-room with 
mud on your boots. 

When a new visitor enters a drawing- 
room, if it be a gentleman, the ladiea 
bow slightly; if a lady, the guests 
rise. 

Hold your hat in your hand, unless 
requested to place it down. Then lay 
it beside you. 

The last arrival in a drawing-room 
takes a seat left vacant near the nustress 
of the house. 

A lady is not required to rise on 
receiving a gentleman, nor to accompany 
him to the door. 

When your visitor retires, ring the 
bell for the servant. You may then 
accompany your guest as £ear towards 
the door as the circumstances of your 
friendship seem to demand. 

Bequest the servant, during the visit 
of guests, to be ready to attend to the 
door the moment the bell rings. 

When you introduce a person pro- 
nounce the name distinctly, and say 
whatever you can to make the intro- 
duction agreeable. Such as "an old 
and valu^ friend,'' a ''school-fellow 
of mine," " an old acquaintance of our 
fomily." 

Never stare about you in a room as 
if you were taking stock. 

The gloves should not be removed 
during a visit. 

Be hearty in your reception of guests. 
And where you see much dififtdence, 
assist the stranger to throw it off. 

A lady does not put her address on 
her visiting card. (See 474.) 



279. H OB NO H?— How Mas. 
HrrcHiNG WAS cured of her habit 

OT SPEAKING INCORRECTLY. — In the 

evening, after returning home, we were 
sitting by the fire, and felt comfortable 
and chatty, when I proposed to Mrs. 
Hitching the following Enigma^ the 



M 



HOmSKT LCNK IS PBSFBBABUI TO AHAMBTOL OACfk 



author* of which, had fsiToured me with 
a copy of it : — 

Tkm Yid* VorU yoa mayaearoh,Mid mj fUlow 

not find; 
I dwella in a Wtetnim, deficient in Vind; 
In the Wisage I 'm seen— in tbe Woice I am 

heard, 
And yet I 'm inwiaible, gives went to no Yard. 
I 'm not much of a Yag, fbr I *m Tanttng in 

Yit; 
Bat dlsttngnlahed in Wine for tbe Ifonnau 

I've writ 
I te die head of an WiUahis, fetturtrtm the 

Yawfr— 
I In the foremost in Wioe, tho' in Wirtue the 

first 
I te not used to Yeapoiu^ and ne'er goes to 

Yor; 
Though in Walour inwindble^-in ITictory 

sure; 
THeflMtofall'WlandsandWietaalsismine — 
Bich in Wenson and Weal, but deficient in 

YIna 
To Wanity given, I in Welweta abound; 
But in Voman, in Yife, and in Yidow ain't 

found; 
Yet, conspicuous in Wifginsy and 1 11 tell yon 

between us. 
To persons of taste I *m a bit of a Wenus ; 
Yet none take me for Yeal — or for Yoe in its 

stead, 
For I ranks not among the sreet Yoo*d, Yun, 

andYedt 

Before the recital of the enigma was 
half completed, Mra. Hitching laughed 
heartily — she saw, of course, the mean- 
ing of it — that it was a play upon the 
Cockney error of using the V instead of 
the W, and the latter instead of the Y . 
Several times, as I proceeded, she ex- 
claimed ''jETexcellent ! Aexcellent !** and 
when I had finished, she remarked that 
it was veiy "^ingenious," and enough 
to "Aopen the Aeyes" of the cockneys 
to their stupid and vulgar hianner of 
speaking. 

A more difficult and delicate task lay 
hefore me. I told her that as she was 
80 much pleased with the first enigma, 
I would submit another by the same 
author. I felt veiy nervous, but deter- 
mined to proceed : — 

.* Henry Iftayhew, Esq., flnt pnblished in 
tho Comk dkncmadt, I860. 



I dwells in the Berth, aadi breathes hi the 

Hisir; 
If you settcbes tiie Hocean, yon 11 find that 

I *m there. 
The flnt of all Hang^ in H o lymp n a am HI, 
Yet I 'm banished flrom 'EaTeo, expelled firem. 

on 'Igh. 
But, though on this Horb I "m destined to 

gporel, 
I te ne^er seen in an *Onse, in an 'Ut^ nor an 

H>vel; 
Kot sn 'Oss nor «n Unter •*«!* bean me, alai I 
But often I 'm found on the top of a HaHL 
I resides in a Hattic, and loves not to roam. 
And yet I 'm inTariably abeent from "Ome. 
Tho* 'uahed in the 'Unicane, of the Uatmo- 

sphere part, • 
I enters no 'Ed, I creeps into no 'Art 
Only look, and you '11 see in the Heye I appear. 
Only hark, and jon 'U 'ear me Just breathe in 

the Hear; 
Though in sex not an 'E, I am (strange para- 
dox !) 
Not a bit of an 'BfTer, but partly a Hex. 
Of Hetemity HI 'm the beginning! And, 



Though I goesnot with Hoar, I'm flist in the 

HarlE. 
I 'm never in 'Ealth— have with Fysie no 

power; 
I dies in a Month, but comes back in a Hour! 

I noticed during the progress of thai 
enigma^ m reciting which I ventured to 
emphasise the misplaoed h's as nmch a» 
possible, that occasional blushes and 
smiles passed oyer Mrs. Hitching's face. 
After it was finished, there was a pause 
of some minutes. At last she saidy 
"Very good, very clever." She care- 
fully avoided using any word in which 
the h, hard or soft, was required. I 
saw she was timid, and X then deter- 
mined to complete the task I had be- 
gun, by repeating the following enigma 
by Byron, upon the same letter ; — 

T was whispered in heaven, 't was mut- 
tered in hell, 

And echo caught faintly the sound as it fell : 

On the confines of earth 't was permitted to 
rest, 

And the depths of the ocean its presence con- 
fessed. 

'T will be found in the sphere when t is riven 
asunder, 

Be seen in the lightning, sad heard in tho 
thunder. 



TeTAMPT.Tca BO NOT AUTHORIBIB SINS. 



er 



T was allottod to man with his earliest breath, 
Attends at his Mrthf and awatts him in death ; 
It presides o'er his luippinessy lianottr, and 

bealtfa. 
Is the prop of his hovse, and the end ot his 

wealth. 
Wlthoat it the soldier and seaman maj roam. 
But woe to the wretch who expels it troxa 



In the whispers of eons(denoe its Twoe will 

he found. 
Nor e'en in the wMrtwind of paadon be 

drowned. 
Twin not soften the heart, and tho* deaf to 

the ear, 
Twill malie it acutely and instantlj- hear. 
Bat in shade let it rest^like a deUeate flower— 
Oh, breathe on it sofOy— it dies in an hoar. 

She was mueh pleaaed, but seemed 
thoughtful, and onoe or twice in oon* 
vereation checked herself, and corrected 
her pronunciation of words that were 
difficult to her. 

A few days afterwards, I called upon 
her, and upon being introduced to the 
pariour to wait for her appearance, I 
saw lying upon her table tho following 

MEMORANDUM UPON THE USE OF 
THE LETTER H. 
Ptvnounee^-Werb, "Erb. 

Heir, *Bir. 

Honesty, 'Onestr* 
Honoor, *Onoar. 

Hospital, 'OspltaL 
Hostler, 'Ostler. 

Hour, *Our. 

Homour, . 'Umour. 
Homble, *UmbIe. 
„ HttmiUty, 'Umility. 

In aU offier ceun^ it is to Ite sounded lehen it 
legina a tuord. 

Mem, — Be careful to soond the ^slightly in 
soefa words as wAere, wAen, wAst, w^—- dont 
■ej, were, wen, wat, wy. 

I am happy to say that it is now a 
pleasure to hear Mrs. Hitching^s con- 
Tersation. I only hope that others may 
improve as she has done. 



»» 



It 



»i 



»t 

n 



»t 



t> 



»t 



280. FEMALE DRESS.— It is well 
^biown that a loose and easy dress con- 
tributes much to give the sex the fine 
proportions of body that are observable 
in the Grecian statues, and which serve 
as models to our present artists, nature 



being too much disfigured among us 
to afford any such, ^e Greeks Imew 
nothing of those Gk>thic shackles, that 
multiplicity of ligatures and bandages 
with which our bodies are compressed. 
Their women were ignorant of the use 
of whalebone-stays, by which ours dis- 
tort their shape instead of displaying it. 
This practice, carried to so great an 
excess as it is in England, must in time 
degenerate the species, and is an in- 
stimce of bad taste. Can it be a plear 
sant sight to behold a woman cut in two 
in the middle, as it were like a wasp ? On 
the contrary, it is as shocking to the 
eye as it is painful to the imagination. 
A fine shape, like the limb, hath its duo 
size and proportion, a diminution of 
which is certainly a defect. Such a 
deformity also would be shocking in a 
naked figure; wherefore, then, should 
it be esteemed a beauty in one that is 
dressed ? Everything that confines and 
lays nature under a restraint is an in- 
stance of bad taste. This is as true in 
regard to the ornaments of the body as 
to the embellishments of the mind. 
Life, health, reason, and convenience 
ought to be taken first into considera- 
tion. Gracefulness cannot subsist with- 
out ease ; delicacy is not debility ; nor 
must a woman be sick in order to 
please. — Jtotusea/u. 

281. GOING IK DEBT.— What com- 
parison is there between the guilt of tiie 
poor uneducated wretch, who ventures, 
in rags and misery, to steal from the 
apparent superfluities of his neighbour 
a portion for his starving family, and 
the crime of the well-fed, well-dressed, 
much-accomplished lady, who sails into 
the shop of the unwary tradesman for 
articles of useless luxury ; and, under 
cover of the respectability of her ap- 
pearance and the address she gives, 
"defrauds him of property to a con- 
siderable amount ! " The ragged cul- 
prit is watched and driven from the 
window — ^the fashionable tfiief is wel- 
comed in complacently and bowed out 
gratefully, with the promise that " her 
esteemed orders shall be attended to 
immediately," "When the goods she 



68 



JUDGMENT IS THE THRONE OF FBUDEKCE. 



has TiominoZZ^ purchased are sent home, 
aad they, lU^e their real owner, are 
readily taken in, the grand piano is, 
perhaps, heard in her elegantly-fur- 
nished yilldy or the carriage of some 
wealthier friend is standing at the door. 
Q^he lad/s place in church and in so- 
ciety is gaily filled, and, for a certain, 
or rather imcertain period, the custom 
and the company of " such a highly- 
respectable family," are considered an 
acquisition in the neighbourhood. But 
" a change comes over the spirit of the 
dream : in course of time, the lady 
who ordered with the greatest ease, is 
discovered to pay with the greatest 
difficulty, and her commands are not 
so much esteenied as formerly. The 
dishonest beggar, if detected, is com- 
mitted to prison; but, when things 
come to a crash with the fashionable 
thief, the lady's husband is simply de- 
clared "unfortunate;" and if forced to 
remove into a humbler dwelling, in a 
district in which she is not known, the 
lady is at liberty to pursue her former 
practices of shop-lifting, as fear as cir- 
cumstances will allow ! It is certainly 
not too much to assert that eveiy one of 
the articles which have been thus fool- 
ishly and fraudulently obtained, and 
the possession of which appeared so in- 
dispensable to the vanity or the con- 
sequence of those who longed for them, 
has, in its turn, helped to lessen their 
consideration, and to expose them to 
ridicule, if not contempt. What, in 
fact, has the costly timepiece, "the 
curtains like Mrs. Pimlico's," the " love 
of a looking glass, like that next door," 
which cost nearly a quarter's income — 
what have these and similar inconsist- 
ent belongings brought upon their im- 
lucky owners ? Literally, nothing but 
censure and Ul-wiU; and yet, for these, 
conscience and comfort have been bar- 
tered, and the elegant lady will expose 
herself to tremble before the humblest 
tradesman in the street, lest he should 
deny her the commonest necessaries of 
life ! — Home Truths for Home Peace, 

282. THE FEMALE TEMPER. — 
No trait of character is more agreeable 



in a female than the possession of a 
sweet temper. Home can never be 
happy without it. It is like the flowers 
that spring up in our pathway, reviv- 
ing and cheering us. Let a man go 
home at night, wearied and worn by 
the toils of the day, and how soothing 
is a word dictated by a good disposi- 
tion ! It is sunshine ftdling on his heart. 
He is happy, and the cares of life are 
forgotten. A sweet temper has a sooth- 
ing influence over the minds of a whole- 
£Eimily. Where it is found in the wife 
and mother, you observe a kindneea 
and love predominating over the natu- 
ral feelings of a bad heart. Smiles, 
kind words and looks, characterise the 
children, and peace and love have their 
dwelling there. Study, then, to acquire 
and attun a sweet temper. 

283. HOW TO REMOVE STAINS 
FROM FLOORS.— For removing spots 
of grease from boards, take equal parta 
of fullers* earth and pearlash, a quarter 
of a pound of each, and boil in a quart 
of soft water ; and, while hot, lay it on 
the greased parts, allowing it to remain 
on them for ten or twelve hours ; after 
which it may be scoured off with sand 
and water. A floor much spotted with 
grease should be completely washed 
over with this mixture the day before 
it is scoured. Fullers' earth or ox-gall, 
boiled together, form a very powerful 
cleansing mixture for floors or carpets. 
Stains of ink are removed by strong 
vinegar, or salts of lemon will remove 
them. 

284. WILLa— If you wish to exa- 
mine a will your best course is to go to 
"The Wills Office," in Doctors' Com- 
mons, St. Paul's Qiurchyard ; have on 
a slip of paper the name of the testator 
— ^this, on entering, give to a clerk 
whom you will see at a desk on the 
right. At the same time pay a shilling, 
and you will then be entitled to search 
all tiie heavy Index volumes for the 
testator's name. The name found, the 
clerk will hand over the will for peru- 
sal, and there is no difficulty whatever, 
provided you know ahout the year of the 
testatot's deaih. The Indexes are all 



SELF-DENIAL IS ONE OF THE CHIEF VIBTUES. 



69 



arranged and numbered according to 
their years. Not only the names of 
those who left wills are giyen, but also 
of those intestates to whose effects 
letters of administration have been 
granted. There is no charge beyond the 
shilling paid for entering. If you re- 
quire a copy of the will, the clerk will 
calculate the expense, and you can have 
the copy in a few days. No questions 
whatever are asked — nor does the 
length of the will, or the time occupied 
in reading it, make any difference in the 
charge. Beyond the shilling paid on 
entering, there is no other demand 
whatever, unless for copying the whole, 
or a portion of the will. It may be as 
well to state, that there are many wills 
which are not lodged in Doctors* Com- 
mons. Some are proved in the courts 
of the several bishops — Gloucester, 
York, Chester, for instance ; and there 
they remain. The wills of all who re- 
sided in London or the neighbourhood, 
or who were possessed of money in the 
funds, are proved in Doctors* Com- 
mons; the wills of the wealthier 
classes are mostly proved there. In 
the countiy, and with small properties, 
the executors usually resort to the 
bishop of the diocese. Most of the 
wills, for instance, of shopkeepers, &c., 
who resided in Manchester, are proved 
in Chester. The same rules are ob- 
served in the country as in London 
with regard to examination, &c. The 
fee — one shilling — ^is the same in all. 
Having ascertained that the deceased 
left a will, and that it has been proved, 
the next inquiry is, " Where was it 
proved?'' The above explanation and 
remarks apply also to the administra- 
tions gi*anted of the effects of those 
who died without wills. 

285. FOR SPRAINS AND BRUISES. 
— Take one pint of ti^ain oil, half-a-pound 
of stone-pitch, half-a-pound of resin, 
half-a-pound of bees -wax, and half-a- 
pound of stale tallow, or in like propor- 
tion. Boil them together for about 
half-an-hour, skim off the scum, and 
pour the liquid into cups, and when 
cold, it will be ready for use. When 



needed, it must be spread at thick, Imt 
not thtcker, than blister^salve, upon a 
piece of coarse flaxen cloth. Apply it 
to the part sprained or bruised, and let 
it remain for a day or more; it will 
give almost immediate relief, and one 
or two plaisters will be sufficient for a 
perfect cm*e. 

286. SAUCE FOR FISH..-Twenty. 
four anchovies chopped ; ten eschalots; 
two ounces of horse-radish, scraped; 
four blades of mace ; one lemon, sliced ; 
twelve cloves; quarter-of-an-oimce of 
black pepper, whole ; one gill of the . 
anchovy liquor ; one quart of best vine- 
gar ; one quart of water. Let the whole 
simmer on the fire until reduced to one 
quart, in a covered saucepan, strain, 
and bottle for use. If requbed for 
long keeping, add a quarter-of-an*ounc9 
of cayenne pepper. 

287. CANARIES. — Especial care 
must be taken to keep the canary scru- 
pulously dean. For this purpose, the 
cage should be strewed every morning 
with clean sand, or rather, fine gravel, 
for small pebbles are €ib9oUUdy essentied 
to life and health in cage-birds : fresh 
water must be griven every day, botH 
for drinking and bathing; the latter 
being in a shallow vessel ; and, during 
the moulting season, a small bit of icon 
should be put into the water for drinking^ 
The food of a canaiy should consist 
principally of summer rape-seed, that is, 
of those small broton rape-seeds which 
are obtained from plants sown in the 
spring, and which ripen during the 
summer; large and black rape-seeds, 
on the contrary, are produced by such 
plants as are sown in autumn, and 
reaped in spring. A little chickweed 
in spring, lettuce-leaves in summer, and 
endive in autumn, with slices of sweet 
apple in winter, may be safely given, 
but bread and sugar ought to be gene- 
rally avoided. Occasionally also, a few 
poppy or canary-seeds, and a small quan- 
tity of bruised hemp-seed maybe added, 
but the last veiy sparingly. Cleanli- 
ness, simple food, and fresh but not 
cold air, are essential to the well-being 
of a canaiy. During the winter, the 



70 



AB A KAir UTES, BO SHALL HE DIB; 



cage should neyer be hung in a room 
without a fire, but even then, when the 
air is mild, and the sun shines bright, 
the little prisoner will be refreshed by 
^ring the window open. The cage 
should never be less than eight inches 
in diameter, and a foot high, with 
perohda at different heights. 

288. MOTHER EVE'S PUDDING. 

Iff you wonld have a good pudding, obserre 

what you're taught : — 
Take two pennyworth of eggs, when twelve for 

the groat; 
And of the same fttdt that Eve had onoe 

chosen, 
Veil pared and wall chopped, at least lia]f*a- 

dosen; 
Six ounces of bread, (let yoar maid eat the 

cnist,) 
The crumbs must be grated as small as the 

dust; 
Six ounces of currants fhmi the stones you 

must sort, 
Lest they break out your teeth, and spoil all 

your sport ; 
Five ounces of sugar won't make It too sweet; 
Some salt and some nntmsg wQl makeit oonir 

plete, 
Three hours let it boil, without hurry or 

flutter. 
And then serve it up, without sugar or butter. 



289. WASH FOR SUNBURN.— 
Take two drachms of borax, one drachm 
of Roman alum, one drachm of camphor, 
half an ounce of sugar-candy, and a 
pound of ox-gall. Mix, and stir well 
for ten minutes or so, and repeat this 
stirring three or four times a-day for a 
fortnight, till it appears clear and 
transparent. Strain through blotting- 
paper, and bottle up for use. 

290. STEWED MUSHROOMS. — 
Cut off the ends of the stalks, and pare 
neatly some middle-sized or button- 
mushrooms, and put them into a basin 
of water with the juice of a lemon as 
they are done. When all are prepared, 
take them from the water with the 
hands to avoid the sediment, and put 
them into a stew-pan with a little fresh 
butter, white pepper, salt, and a little 
lemon-juice ; cover the pan close, and 
let them stew gently for twenty minutes 



or half an hour; then thicken the 
butter with a spoonful of flour, and 
add gradually sufficient cream, or cream 
and milk, to make the same about the 
thickness of good cream. Season the 
sauce to palate, adding a little pounded 
mace or grated nutmeg. Let the whole 
stew gently until the mushrooms are 
tender. Remove every particle of butter 
which may be floating on the top before 
serving. 

291. QUESTIONS AND ANSWER^ 
ON FAMILIAR THINGS.— Why do 
candles and lamps " spirt," when rain 
is at hand? — ^Because the air is filled 
with vapour, and the humidity pene-^ 
trates the wick ; where (being formed 
into steam) it expands suddenly, and 
produces a little explosion. 

292. Why does a drop of water somo- 
times roll along a piece of hot iron 
without leaving the least trace? — 
Because (when the iron is very hot 
indeed) the bottom of the dix>p is 
turned into vapour, which buoys the 
drop up, without allowing it to touch 
the iron. 

293. Why does a laundress put a 
little saliva on a flat-iron, to know if it 
be hot enough? — ^Because, when the 
saliva sticks to the box, and is evapo- 
rated, she knows it is not sufficiently 
hot : but when it runs along the iron, 
it is. 

294. Why is the flat-iron hotter, if 
the saliva runs along it, than if it ad- 
heras till it is evaporated ? — ^Because, 
when the saliva 'runs along the iron, 
the heat is sufficient to convert the 
bottom of the drop into vapour; but 
if the saliva will not roll, the iron is 
not sufficiently hot to convert the bot- 
tom of the drop into vapour. 

295. Why do wet feet or clothes 
give us "coldf* — ^Because the evapo- 
ration absorbs the heat so abundantly 
from the surface of our body, that its 
temperature is lowered below its 
natural standard; in consequence of 
which health is injured. [This also 
explains why it is daugerous to sleep in 
a damp bed.] 

296. Why is the health injured when 



AS A YBXE FALZfl, 80 IT fiRALL UE. 



n 



the temperature of the body is reduced 
helow its natural standltrd ^^-Becattse 
'the balance of the circulation is de- 
stroyed : blood is diiven away from 
the external surface by the chiU, and 
tiirown upon the internal organs, which 
are oppressed by this increased load of 
blood. 

297. Why do not sailors get cold, 
who are frequently wet all day with 
sea-water ? — ^Because the salt of the sea 
retards evaporation ; and (as the heat 
of their bodies is drawn off gradually) 
the sensation of cold is prevented. — 
Also, the salt of the sea acts as a stimu- 
lus, and keeps the blood circulating in 
the skin. 

298. What is the cause of snow ? — 
When the air is nearly saturated with 
vapour, and condensed by a current of 
ab below freezing-point, some of the 
vapour is condensed, and frozen into 
snow. A few years ago, some fisher- 
men (who wintered at Nova-Zembla), 
affcer they had been shut up in a hut for 
several days, opened the window; and 
the cold external air ruahmg in, in- 
stantly condensed the air of the hut, 
and its vapour fell on the floor in a 
shower of snow. 

299. What is the cause of sleet ? — 
When flakes of snow (in their descent) 
pass through a bed of air above freez- 
ing-point, they partially melt, and fall 
to the earth as half-melted snow. 

800. What is hail?— Rain which has 
passed in its descent through some cold 
bed of air, and has been frozen into 
drops of ice. 

801. What is ram ?— The vapour of 
the clouds or air condensed, and preci- 
pitated to the earth. 

802. Why are rain-drops sometimes 
much larger than at other times? — 
When the rain-cloud is floating near the 
earth, the drops are large, because such 
a cloud is much more dense than one 
more elevated. The size of the rain- 
drop is also increased according to the 
rapidity witl^ which the vapours are 
condensed. 

803. Why does the Bible sav that 
God "giveth snow like wool?' — ^Be- 



cause snow (being«^rery bad conductor 
of heat) protects vegetables and seeds 
from the frost and cold* 

304. How does the non-conductiog 
power of snow protect v^etables from 
the frost and cold? — ^It prevents t}ie 
heat of the earth from being drawn off 
by the cold air which rests upon it^ 

805. Why are woollens andfuis used 
for clothing in cold weather? — ^Because 
they are very bad conductors of heat, 
and therefore prevent the warmth of 
the body from being drawn off by tiie 
cold air. 

806. Do not woollens and furs nc* 
tually impart heat to the body ? — "No ; 
they merely prevent the heat of the 
body from escaping. 

307. Where would the heat esca^ 
to, if the body were not wrapped in 
wool or fur ? — ^The heat of the body 
would fly off into the air; for the cold 
air, coming in contact with our body, 
would gradually draw away its hei^, 
till it was as cold as the air itself. 

808. What then. is the principal use 
of clothing in winter-time ? — ^To prevent 
the animal heat frvm escaping too 
freely ; and to protect the body from 
the external air (or wind), which would 
carry away its heat too rapidly. 

309. yfbj are March winds dry f — 
Because they generally blow from the 
east or north-east, and therefore swjaep 
over the continent of Europe. 

310. What is the use of March windff? 
— ^They dry the soil (which is saturated 
by the floods of February), break up 
the heavy clods, and fit the land for 
the seeds which are committed to it. 

311. Why is it said that "Mardi 
comes in like a lion?" — ^Because it 
comes in with blustering east winds, so 
essential to dry the soil, which would 
otherwise rot the seed committed to ft. 

312. Why does " March go out like 
a lamb?" — ^Because the water, evapo- 
rated by the high winds, £eills again in 
showers to fertilise the earth, and 
breaks the violence of the winds. 

313. Why is it said that ** A bushel 
of March dust is worth a king^s ran- 

I som ? " — ^Because it indicates that there 



72 



70R AGB AND WAITT SAYB WHILE TOU HAT. 



has been a continuance of dry weather ; 
and unless March be dry, the seed will 
rot in wet soil. 

814. Why is it said that "A dry cold 
March never begs bread?" — ^Because 
the dry cold winds of March prepare 
the soil for seeds, which germinate and 
produce fruit in the autumn. 

dl5. Why is it said that " A wet 
March makes a sad autumn?" — ^Be- 
cause, if March be wet, so much of the 
seed rots in the ground, that the 
autumn crops are spoiled. 

816. Why is it said that ''March 
.flowers make no summer bowers?" — 

Because, if the spring be very mild, 
vegetation gets too forward, and is 
pinched by the nightly frosts, so as to 
produce neither fruits nor flowers. 

817. Why is it said that "April 
showers bring May flowers ? " — ^Because 
April showers supply the principal 
nourishment on which the seeds de- 
pend for their development. 

818. Why is there more rain from 
September to March, than from March 
to September? — ^From September to 
March the temperature of the ah* is 
, constantly decreasing; on which ac- 
jcoimt, its capacity for holding vapour 

is' on the decrease, and the vapour is 
precipitated as rain. — Dr, Bretoer^s 
Oudde to Science, 



819. OYSTER POWDER.— Open the 
oysters carefully, so as not to cut them, 
except in dividing the gristle which 
attaches the shells. Put them into a 
mortar, and when you have got as many 
as you can conveniently pound at once, 
add about two drachms of salt to about 
a dozen oysters ; pound them, and rub 
them through the back of a hair sieve, 
and put them into a mortar again, with 
as much flour (but previously thoroughly 
dried) as will roll them into a paste ; 
roll this paste out several times, and 
lastly, flour it, and roll it out the thick- 
ness of a half-crown, and cut it into 
gleoes about one inch square ; lay them 
I a Dutch oven, where they will dry 
un ji^ently as not to get burned; 
\em every half hour, and when 



they begin to dxy crumble them. They 
will take about four hours to diy. 
Pound them, sift them, and put them 
into dry bottles ; cork and seal them* 
Three dozen of natives require seven 
ounces and a half of flour to make them 
into a paste weighing eleven ounceSy 
and when dried six and a-half ounces. 
To make half a pint of sauce, put one 
ounce of butter mto a stewpan with 
three drachms of oyster powder, and 
six tablespoonfuls of milk ; set it on a 
slow fire, stir it till it boils, and season 
it with salt. As a sauce, it is excellent 
for fish, fowls, or rumpsteaks. Sprinkled 
on bread and butter, it makes a good 
sandwich. «_ 

820. CHARCOAL AS A DISIK- 
FECTANT.— The great efficacy of wood 
and animal charcoal in absorbing efflu- 
via and the greater number of gaaes 
and vapours has long been known. 

Charcoal powder has also, during 
many centuries, been advantageously 
employed as a filter for putrid water, 
the object in view being to deprive the 
water of numerous organic impurities 
diffused through it, which exert in^ 
jurious effects on the animal economy. 

It is somewhat remarkable that the 
very obvious application of a perfectly 
similar operation to the still rarer fluid 
in which we live— namely, the air, 
which not unfrequently contains even 
more noxious organic impurities float- 
ing in it than those present in water — 
should have, up till February last, been 
so unaccountably overlooked. 

Charcoal not only absorbs effluvia 
and gaseous bodies; but, especially 
when in contact with atmospheric air, 
oxidizes and destroys many of the 
easily alterable ones, by resolving them 
into the simplest combinations they are 
capable of forming, which are chiefly 
water and carbonic acid. 

It is on this oxidizing property of 
charcoal as well as on its absorbent 
power, that its efficacy as a deodorizing 
and disinfecting agent chiefly depends. 

Effluvia and miasmata are usually 
regarded as highly organised, nitro- 



LITTLB STROKES FELL OBEAT OAKS. 



7S 



genous, easily alterable bodies. When 
these are alraorbed by charcoal, they 
come in contact with highly condensed 
oxygen gas, which exists within the 
pores of all charcoal which has been ex- 
posed to the air, even for a few minutes ; 
in this way they are oxidised and 
destroyed. My attention has been 
specially directed for nearly a twelve 
month to the deodorising and disinfect- 
ing properties of charcoal, and I have 
made an immense number of experi- 
ments on this subject. 

On the 22nd of February last, I 
brought the subject before the Society 
of Arts, and on that occasion exhibited 
a specimen of a charcoal respirator and 
the mode of employing it. I likewise 
dwelt at some length on the utility of 
charcoal powder as a means of pi-event- 
ing the escape of noxious effluvia from 
churchyards, and from dead bddies on 
board ship and in other situations. 

On the 9th of June last I also, in a 
letter to the Society of Arts, proposed 
to employ charcoal ventilators, consist- 
ing of a thin layer of charcoal enclosed 
between two thin sheets of wire gauze, 
to purify the foul air which is apt to 
accumulate in water-closets, in the 
close wards of hospitals, and in the im- 
pure atmospheres of many of the back 
courts and mews-lanes of large cities, 
all the impurities being absorbed and 
retained by the charcoal, while a cur- 
rent of pure air alone is admitted into 
the neighbouring apartments. 

In tins way pure air is obtained from 
exceedingly impure sources. Such an 
arrangement as this, carried out on a 
pretty large scale, would be especially 
useful to persons necessitated to live in 
pestiferous districts within the tropics, 
where the miasmata of ague, yellow 
fever, and similar diseases are prevalent. 
The proper amount of air required 
by houses in such situations might be 
admitted through sheets of wire gauze 
or coarse canvas, containing a thin layer 
of coarse charcoal powder. 

Under such circumstances, also, 
pUlows stuffed with powdered charcoal, 
uid bed coverlets having the same 



material quilted into them, could not 
fedl to prove highly beneficial. 

A tolerably tibick charcoal ventilator, 
such as I have just described, could be 
very advantageously applied to the 
gully-holes of our common sewers, and 
to the sinks in private dwellings, the 
foul water in both cases being carried 
into the drain by means of tolerably 
wide syphon pipes, retaining always 
about a couple of inches of water. 

Such an arrangement would effectu- 
ally prevent the escape of any effluvia, 
would be easy of construction, and not 
likely to get soon out of order. 

The charcoal respirators to which I. 
have already referred, and to which I 
should wish to draw especial attention, 
are of three kinds. 

The first form of the respiititor is 
constructed for the mouth alone, and 
does not differ in appearance from an 
ordinary respirator, but is only half its 
weight, and about one-fifth of its price. 

The air is made to pass through a 
quarter of an inch of coarsely powdered 
charcoal, retained in its place by two 
sheets of silvered wire gauze covered 
over with thin woollen cloth, by which ' 
means its temperature is greatly in- 
creased. The charcoal respirator pos- 
sesses several advantages over the 
respirators ordinarily in use : — 

1st. Where the breath is at all fetid, 
which is usually the case in diseases of 
the chest, under many forms of dys- 
pepsia^ &;c., the disagreeable effluvia are 
absorbed by the charcoal, so that com- 
paratively pure air is alone inspired. 
This, I think, may occasionally exert a 
beneficial influence on diseases of the 
throat and lungs. 

2ndly. The charcoal respirator for 
the mouth alone will certainly prove 
highly useful in poisonous atmospheres, 
where miasmata abound, if the simple 
precaution is only observed of inspiring 
the air by the mouth and expiring it 
by the nostrils. 

The second form of respirator is ori- 
nasal — that is, embracing both the 
mouth and the nose. It is only very 
slightly lai^ger than the one already de* 

D 2 



74 



WHEB£ IUSA80N BULESy AfPSIISK 00X18; 



Bcribedy and does not coyer the nose as 
the ordinaiy ori-nasal respirator does;, 
"but merely touches its lower extremity, 
to which it is adapted by means of a 
piece of flexible metal covered mth 
soft leather. When this respirator is 
worn, no air enters the lungs without 
first passing through the charcoal, and 
any effluvia or miasmata contained in 
the atmosphere are absorbed and oxi- 
dized by Uie charcoal. This form of 
the respirator, therefore, is peculiarly 
adapted for protecting the wearer 
against fevers and other infectious dis- 
eases. 

The third form of the respirator is 
also ori-nasal, but is much laiiger, and 
therefore more cumbrous than the pre- 
ceeding variety. It is intended chiefly 
for use in chemical works, common 
sewers, &c, to protect the workmen 
from the noxious eflects of the dele- 
terious gases to which they are fre- 
quently exposed. 

I thmk it but justice to myself to 
state that I have no pecuniary interest 
in any of those respirators. Though 
strongly urged to do so, I refrained 
from securing them by patent, on the 
ground that inventions for the preven- 
tion of death and disease ought to be 
sold at the lowest possible price, and 
should not, thereforei, be encumbered 
with the expense and restrictions de- 
pendent upon patent rights. These re- 
spirators have been very successfully 
xoanufactured by Mr. W. B. Koofi^ of 
8, Willow-walk, Kentish Town, who 
seUs the one for the mouth alone at 6s. ; 
the small ori-nasal at 8s.; and the 
laise ori-nasal at 10s. each. 

I am aware that some persons, who 
admit the deodorising properties of 
charcoal deny that it acts as a disin- 
fectant. I would direct the attention 
of such persons to the following state- 
ment of facts : — About a year ago the 
bodies of a full grown cat and two rats 
were placed in open, pans, and covered 
by two inches of powdered charcoal. 
The pans having stood during all that 
time in my laboratory, and though it 
39 generally very wansy not the slightest 



smell has ever been perceptible^ nor 
have any injuxious eflfects been experi- 
enced by any of the nine or ten persona 
by whom the laboratory is daily fre* 
quentedL 

Now, had the bodies of these ani- 
mals been left to putrify under ordinary 
circumstances, not only would the 
stench emitted have been intolerable^ 
but some of the persons would cer- 
tainly have been struck down by fever 
or oUier malignant disorders. Within 
the last few months charcoal powder 
has been most successfully employed 
both at St. Maiy's and St Bartholo- 
mew's hospitals, to arrest the progress 
of gangrene and other putrid sores. 
The charcoal does not require to be 
put immediately in contact with the 
sores, but is placed above the dressings, 
not imfrequently quilted loosely in a 
little cotton wool. In many cases 
patients who were rapidly sinking have 
been restored to health. 

In the instance of hospital gangrene^ 
we have to deal not only with the 
effluvia, but also with real miasmata ; 
for, as is well known, the poisonou* 
gases emitted by gangrenous sores not 
only affect the individual with whom 
the mischief has originated, but readily 
infect the perfectly healthy wounds of 
any individual who may happen to be 
in its vicinity. So that in this way 
gangrene has been known to spread 
not only through one ward, but through 
several wards of ike same hospitaL 

Within the last few weeks, the dia- 
secting-room at St. Bartholomew's 
hospital has been perfectly deodorised 
by means of a few trays filled with a 
thin layer of freshly-heated wood ohar^ 
coaL A similar arrangement will, in 
all probability, be likewise soon applied 
to the wards of St. Bartholomew'si, and 
every other well-conducted hospitaL 

From these and other considerationfl^ 
therefore, I feel perfectly confident that 
charcoal will prove by &r the cheapest 
and best disinfectant. 

Unlike many other diainfectants it 
evolves no disagreeable vapours, and if 
heated in close vessels will always act^ 



WHBlf APPETITE C0MHAN06, TBM JWXEX PAIBL 



75 



hawerer long it has been in iise> quite 
as eflfectiyely as ak first. 

If our soldiers and sailors, therefore, 
when {daoed in unhealthy situations^ 
were furnished with charcoal respira' 
tors, such as the second form above 
described, and if the floors of the tents 
and the lower decks of the ships were 
coTered by a thin layer of freshly burnt 
wood chf»coal^ I think we could have 
Utile in future to appreh^id from the 
ravages of cholera, yellow fever, and 
similar diseases by which our forces 
have of late been decimated. If found 
more convenient, the charcoal powder 
might be covered with coarse canvas, 
wifchout its disinfectant properties being 
materially impaired. 

The efficiency of the charcoal may be 
greatly increased by making it red-hot 
before using it. This can easily be 
done by heating it in an iron saucepan 
covered with an iron Ud. 

When the charcoal is to be applied 
to inflammable substances, such as 
wooden floors, &;c., of course it must be 
allowed to cool in close vessels before 
being used. — [We have deemed these 
remarks by Dr. John Stenhouse, F.RS., 
lecturer on chemistry at St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital, to be of great impor* 
taace ; we have, therefore^ printed them 
in txtento."] 

321. LEMON SPONGK — For a 
quart mould — dissolve two ounces of 
isinglass in a pint and three quarters 
of water; strain it, and add three 
qtiarters of a pound of sifted loaf sugar, 
the juice of six lemons and the rind of 
one; boil the whole a few minutes, 
strain it again, and let it stand till quite 
cold and just beginning to stiffen ; then 
beat the whites of two eggs, and put 
them to it, and whisk till it is quite 
white ; put it into a mould, whidi 
must be first wetted with cold water, 
or salad oil is a much better substitute 
for turning out jelley, blancmange, kc, 
great care being taken not to pour it 
into the mould till quite cool, or the oil 
will float on the top, and after it is 
turned out it must be carefully wiped 



over with a dean oloth. This plan 
only requires to be tried once to be in- 
variably adopted. 

322. TO KILL SLUGS.— Take a 
quantity of cabbage-leaves, and either 
put them into a worm oven, or hold 
them before the fire till they get quite 
soft; then rub them with unsalted' 
butter, or any kind of fresh drippings 
and lay them in plaees infested with 
slugs. In a few hours the leaves will 
be found covered with snafls and slugs, 
which may then, of course, be destroy^ 
in any way the gardener may think fit. 

328. HOW TO WASH KID 
GLOVES. — Have ready a little new 
milk in one saucer, and a piece of brown, 
soap in another, and a clean cloth or 
towel folded three or four times. On 
the cloth, spread out the glove smooth 
and neat. Take a i».eoe of flannel, dip 
it in the milk, then rub off a good 
quantity of soap to the wetted flannel, 
and commence to rub the glove down- 
wards towards the fingers, holding it 
firmly with the left hand. Continue 
this process until the glove, if white, 
looks of a dingy yellow, though clean ; 
if coloured, till it looks dark and spoiled. 
Lay it to dry ; and old gloves will soon 
look nearly new. They will be soft, 
glossy, smooth, shapy, and elastic. 

324. DYEING THE HAIR.— It may 
be stated once for all that this practice 
is decidedly injuriqus. It may fail al- 
together in produdb^ the desired r&> 
suit ; it is never unattended by a 
certain amount of unpleasant circum*- 
stances, and frequently with evil re- 
sults. 

In the first place, the alteration of 
the abnormal colour, so far as the ge- 
neral aspect of the face is conqemed, 
has an effect the very reverse of that 
which was intended. Every consti- 
tuent part of man tends to make the 
human machine one harmonious whole: 
the figure, the stature, the skin, th9 
hair, the gait, &c 

Fair hair is associated with a sanguis-, 
neous and lymphatic temperament, a 
fine and white skin, blue eyes, and <i^ 



76 



DBEF RIVERS FLOW WITH SILENT MAJESTY; 



soft and mild expression. Black hair, 
on the contrary, is generally connected 
with a bilious habit of body, a muscu- 
lar and nervous temperament, a dark 
and yellowish skin, lively black eyes, 
and a bold, proud air. Red hair is 
associated with a peculiar constitution, 
although closely approaching to the 
fair type. In this variety the skin 
IS transparent, fresh, and presents a 
peculiar limpidity, which belongs ex- 
clusively to the colour of hair men- 
tioned. 

To what absurd contrasts, then, are 
those persons not exposed, who, from 
idle vanity, attempt to break the bond 
of imion which exists between the hair 
and the rest of the body ? If, then, 
from the impression that red hair 
is a disfigurement, it is dyed black, 
what relation can exist between this 
new colour, and the soft blue eye, and 
a skin so fine and so susceptible, that 
the sun's rays seem to penetrate it, 
in the form of those lentiginous spots 
commonly called freckles ? 

These objections do not apply with 
equal force to those cases where the 
object is merely to disguise partial dis- 
colouration of the hair ; but, at the 
same time, it is not always easy to pro- 
duce the exact shade of the original 
colour, and when the hair begins to 
grow this partial discolouration reap- 
pears and discloses the dye. 

Finally, when this discolouration is 
widely diffused over the head, and re- 
quires an extensive application of the 
dye, in the case of an old man for ex- 
ample, the hair will then present a 
lustre, brilliancy, and tint, in melan- 
choly contradistinction with the faded 
and wrinkled skin, dull leaden eye, fur- 
i*owed .cheek, and broken and tottering 
gait. 

Besides, experience has sufficiently 
established the fivct, that the ingredients 
df which the dyes are composed, are 
&r from being free from danger or in- 
convenience. The texture of the hair 
itself is deteriorated by them. 

Composed, as they are generally, of 
very active remedies, they bum the 



hair, alter the piliferous capstde, arrest 
the natural secretion of the hair, and 
favour the production of baldness. 
They also frequently produce inflam- 
mation of the sodp. I have met with 
many cases in which females, who had 
been in the habit of using those dyes, 
were reduced to the sad alternative 
of maintaining a disagreeable and pain- 
ful eruption, the result of the ingre- 
dients employed, or to abandon the 
disguise they were intended to pro- 
duce. 

Since we cannot hope to prohibit al- 
together the use of compositions for 
dyeing the hair, it only remains to 
point out those that are the least in- 
jurious, and most likely to answer the 
purpose sought for. 

From the earliest time the following 
substances have been employed to 
blacken the hau* : — The oil of cade, gall 
nuts, the lie of vine branches, prepara- 
tions of lead ; ravens' eggs have been 
extolled, probably because the colour 
of that bird is the most perfect black ; 
putrified swallows, colocynth, &c. 
However, experience has shown th&t a 
certain number of preparations possess 
more or less efficacy, the principal of 
which I shall here point out. 

Preparations of silver are used in 
various forms ; as, for example, a pa* 
made composed of nitrate of silver, 
cream of tartar, ammoniac, and pre- 
pared lard. 

This pomade is to be applied to the 
hair by the aid of the brush and comb. 
They are also used in the form of 
paste : — Nitrate of silver, proto-nitrate 
of mercury, and distilled water. Dissolve 
— strain, and wash the residue wiUi 
sufficient water to make a paste. 

A clear paste is made of this solu- 
tion and a sufficient quantity of starch, 
which is then carefully applied to the 
hair in the evening. The head is 
covered with a cap of gummed tafieta 
during the night, and the following 
morning the paste is washed o£^ and 
the hair anointed with any simple 
ointment. — Dr. T. ff. Bwrgess on the 
JHieases of the Hair, {See 270, 271.) 



SHALLOW BROOKS ARE NCHBT. 



77 



325. COOKING COLD BUTCHERS 
MEAT. 

326. Beef Minced. — Cut into small 
dice remains of cold beef ; and gravy re- 
served from it on the first day of its 
being served should be put in the stew- 
pan with the addition of warm water, 
some mace, sliced eschalot, salt, and 
black pepper. Let the whole simmer 
gently for an hour. A few minutes 
before it is served, take out the meat 
and dish it; add to the gravy some 
walnut catsup, and a little lemon juice 
or walnut pickle. Boil up the gravy 
once more, and, when hot, pour it over 
the meat. Serve it with bread sippets. 

327. Beef (with hashed potatoes). 
— Hash some potatoes with hot milk, 
the yolk of an egg, some butter and 
salt. Slice the cold beef and lay it at 
the bottom of a pie dish, adding to it 
some sliced eschalot, pepper, salt, and 
a little beef gravy; cover the whole 
with a thick paste of potatoes, making 
the crust to rise in the centre above 
the edges of the dish. Score the potato 
crust with the point of a knife in squares 
of equal sizes. Put the dish before a 
fire in a Dutch oven, and brown it on 
all sides ; by the time it is coloured, 
the meat and potatoes will be suffi- 
ciently done. 

328. Beef Bubble and Squeak. — 
Cut into pieces, convenient for frying 
cold roast or boiled beef ; pepper, salt, 
and fry them ; when done, lay them on 
a hot drainer, and while the meat is' 
draining firom the fat used in frying 
them, have in readiness a cabbage al- 
ready boiled in two waters; chop it 
small, and put it in the fiying-pan with 
some butter, add a little pepper and 
keep stirring it, that all of it may be 
eqiially done. When taken from the 
fire, sprinkle over the cabbage a very 
Uttle vinegar, only enough to give it a 
slight acid taste. , Place the cabbage in 
the centre of the dish, and arrange the 
slices of meat neatly around it. 

329. Beef or Mutton Lobscous. — 
Hince, not too finely, some cold roast 
beef or mutton. Chop the bones, and 
put them in a saucepan with six potatoes 



peeled and sliced, one onion, also sliced, 
some pepper and salt; of these make a 
gravy. When the potatoes are com- 
pletely incorporated with the gravy, 
take out the bones, and put in the 
meat ; stew the whole together for an 
hour before it is to be served. 

330. Beef Bissoles. — Mince and 
season cold beef, and flavour it with 
mushroom or walnut catsup. Make of 
beef dripping a very thin paste, roll it 
out in thin pieces, about four inches 
square; enclose in each piece some of 
the mince, in the same way as for pu£&, 
cutting each neatly all round : fry them 
in dripping of a very light brown. The 
paste can scarcely be rolled out too 
thin. 

331. Veal Minced. — Cut veal from 
the fillet or shoulder into very small 
dice; put into veal or mutton broth 
with a little mace, white pepper, salt, 
some lemon-peel grated, and a table- 
spoonful of mushroom catsup or mush- 
room powder, rubbed smooth into the 
gravy. Take out some of the gravy 
when nearly done, and when cool 
enough thicken it with flour, cream, 
and a little butter ; boil it up with the 
rest of the gravy, and pour it over the 
meat when done. Qamish with bread 
sippets. A little lemon-juice added to 
the gr&yf improves its flavour. 

332. Veal dressed with white 
SAUCE. — Boil milk or cream with a 
thickening of flour and butter ; put into 
it thin slices of cold veal, and simmer it 
in the gravy till it is made hot without 
boiling. When nearly done, beat up 
the yolk of an egg, with a little an- 
chovy and white sauce ; pour it gently 
to the rest, stirring it all the time; 
simmer again the whole together, and 
serve it with sippets of bread and curled 
bacon alternately. 

333. Veal Kissolis. — Mince and 
pound veal extremely fine ; grate into 
it some remains of cooked ham. Mix 
these well together with white sauce, 
flavoured witib mushrooms : form this 
mixture into balls, and enclose each in 
pastry. Fry them in butter of a nice 
brown. The same mince may be fried 



78 



WB INOBSASB OUS WBAUXt 'WHBN WS LBBBBN OUB DBBIBEB. 



in balls wit)h<mt pastry, being first 
o«mented together with egg and bread- 
crambs. 

884. MuTTOK Hashed. — Cut cold 
mutton into thin friioes, fat and lean 
together ; make gravy with the bones 
whence the meat has been taken, boiling 
ihem long enough in water, with onion, 
pe|>per, and salt; strain the graTy and 
warm, but not boil, the mutton in it 
Then take out some of the gravy to 
thicken it with flour and butter, and 
flavour it with mushroom catsup. Pour 
in the thickening and boil it up, having 
before taken out the meat, and placed 
it neatly on the dish in which it is to 
go to the table. Pour ov^r it the boiling 
gravy, and add sippets of bread. 

835. Lamb. — Fiy slices or chops of 
lamb in butter till they are slightly 
browned. Serve them on a puree of 
cucumbers, or on a dish of spinach ; or 
dip the slices in broad-cmmbB, chopped 
parsley, and yolk of an egg ; some 
grated lemon and a little nutmeg may 
be added. Fry them, and pour a little 
nice gravy over them when served. 

836. Pork.— Slices of cold pork, fried 
and laid on apple sauce, form an ex- 
cellent side or comer dish. Boiled pork 
may also be made into rissoles, minced 
very fine like sausage meat, and sea- 
soned sufficiently, but not ov^r much. 



837. TO CLEAN WHITE SATIN 
AND FLOWERED SILKS.— 1. Mix 
sifted stale bread crambs with powder 
blue, and rub it thoroughly aU over^ 
then shake it well, and dust it with 
clean soft cloths. Afterwards, where 
there are any gold or silver flowers, take 
a piece of crimson ingrain velvet, rub 
the flowers with it, which will restore 
them to their original lustre. — 2, Pass 
them through a solution of fine hard 
soap, at a hand heat, drawing them 
through the hand. Rinse in lukewarm 
water, dry and finish by pinning out. 
Brush the flossy or bright side with a 
clean dothes-bnish, the way of the nap. 
Finish them by dipping a sponge into a 
size, made by boilu^ isinglBas in water, 
and rub the wrong siile. Rinse out a 



second time, and brush, and dry near a 
fire or in a warm room. Silk may be 
treated in the same way, but not 
brushed. 

838. POTTED BEEF.— Take three 
or four pounds, or any smaller quan- 
tity, of lean bee^ free from sinews, and 
rub them well with a mixture made of 
a handful of salt, one ounce of aal^pettre, 
and one ounce of coarse sugar ; let the 
meat lie in the salt for two days, turn- 
ing and rubbing it twice a day. Put it 
into a stone jar with a little beef gravy, 
and cover it with a paste to keep it 
close. Bake it for several hours in a 
very slow oven, till the meat is tender ; 
i^en pour off the gravy, which should 
be in a very snuJl quantity, or the 
juice of the meat will be lost ; pound 
the meat^ when cold, in a marble 
mortar till it is reduced to a smooth 
paste, adding by degrees a little ftesh 
butter melted. Season it as you pro- 
ceed with pepper, allspice, nutm^, 
pounded mace, and cloves, or such of 
these spices as are thought agreeable. 
S<Mne flavour with anchovy, hun, shal- 
lots, mustard, wine, flavoured vinegar, 
ragout powder, curry powder, &c., ac- 
cording to taste. When it is tho- 
roughly beaten and mingled together, 
press it closely into small shallow x>ots, 
nearly full, and fill them up with a 
layer a quarter of an inch thick of cla- 
rified butter, and tie them up with a 
bladder, or sheet of India rubber. 
They should be kept in a cool place. 

839. CAKE OF MIXED FRUITS. 
— Extract the juice from red currants 
by simmering them very gently for a 
few minutes over a slow fire ; strain it 
through a folded muslin, and to one 
pound of it add a pound and a half 
of nonsuches or of freshly gathered 
apples, pared, and rather deeply cored, 
that the fibrous part may be avoided. 
Boil these quite slowly until the mix- 
ture is perfectly smooth ; then, to eva- 
porate part of the moisture, let the 
boiling be quickened. In from twenty- 
five to thirty minutes, draw the pan 
from the fire, and throw in gradually 
a pound and a quarter of sugar in fine 



EVBBT BAT OF TOUB X<m S9 A FACW IH TOTTR BSBfOBT. 



79 



powder ; mix it well with the fruit, «iid 
wiien it is diMolTed, «ontinae the boil- 
hag rapidly for tireiity minutes longer, 
keeping the mixture constantiy Btinwd ; 
put it into a mould and ntore it, when 
cold, for winter use, or serve it for 
dessert, or for the second course ; in the 
latter oaAe, deeorste it with spikes of 
almonds blanched, and heap solid 
whipped oream round it, or pour a 
custieu^ into the dish. For dessert, 
it may be garnished with dice of the 
palest apple-jelly. — Juice of red cur- 
rants, one pound; apples (pared and 
cored), one poimd and a half — ^twenty- 
five to thirty minutes. Sugar one 
pound and a half-— twenty minutes. 

.840. THE FAMILY CIBCLB.— 
Under this title, a series of friendly 
parties hare been institttted by a group 
of aoquaantaaoes in London. The fol- 
lowing form of invitation and the rules 
of the Family Circle will be found in- 
teresting, probably useful : — 

Will you do me the favour of meeting here, 
38 a guest, on ■ next, at seven precisely, 

a few friends who have kindly joined in an 
attempt to conunenoe oocaaiooa], pleasant, 
shd social parties, of which the spirit and in- 
tentirill be better understood by the perusal 
of the iem annexed remarire and rules fr(»n 
Tours tinoerely, — — 

They manage it better in France, is 
a remai*k to be often applied with refer- 
ence to social life in F^glamd, and the 
writer fancies that the prevalence here 
of a few bad customs, easily changed, 
causes the disadvantageous difference 
between ourselves sad our more cour- 
teous and agreeable nei^bours. 

1st. Worldly appearance; the phantom 
iMding many to suppose that wealth is the 
standard of worth— ^ the minds of friends, a 
notion equally degrading to both parties. 

^Qd. Overdress ; casHiag wm s oiwar y ex-> 
pense and waste «r tiase. 

3rd. EzMBSftra rsiiiirliinimfialit aamgards 



4th. Latfthoms. 

.The following brief rules are sug- 
gested, in a hope to show the way to a 
ii^ore, constaztt easy, tmd friendly in- 



tercourse amongst friends, the writer 
feeling convinced that society is equally 
beneficial and requisite — ^in £act, that 
mankind in seclusion, like the sword in 
the scabbard, often loses polish, and 
gradually rut^. 

Rule 1. That meetings be held in rotstfon, 
at each member's house, for the ei^oyment of 
conversation ; mtisic, grave and gay; dancing, 
gay only; and card-playing at limited stakes. 

Rule 2. That such meetings oommenoe at 
seven and end about or after twelve, and that 
members and guests be requested to remem- 
ber that punctuality has be«i called tbe po- 
liteness <tf kings. 

Bulb 3. That »a gentlemen ere allowed 
for the whole season to ajppear, like the 
raven, in one suit, ladies are to have the like 
privilege; and that no lady be allowed to 
quiz or notioe the habits of another lady; 
and that demi-toilette in dress be considered 
the better taste in the family circle : not that 
the writer wishes to raise or lower the proper 
standard of ladies' dress, which ought to be 
neither too high nor too low, but at a happy 
medium. 

RcuB 4. That any lady iniHnghig the last 
rule be liable to reproof by the oldest lady pre- 
sent at the meeting, if the oldest lady, like the 
oldest inhabitant, can be discovered. 

RinbE 6. That every member or guest be 
requested to bring with them thejlr own vocal, 
instrumental, or dance music, and take it 
away with them, if possible, to avoid loss and 
confusion. 

"RvhE 6. That no member or guest able to 
sing, play, or dance, refuse, unless excused by 
medical certificate; and that no cold or sore 
throat be allowed tolast more than a week. 

Ruui 7. That as evexy member or guest 
known to be able to sing, play, or daiMW, is 
bound to do so if requested, the performer 
(especially if timid) is to be kindly criticised 
and encouraged; it being a fact well known 
that the greatest masters of an art are always 
the moet lenient critics, firomtheixdeep know- 
ledge of the feeling; intelligence, axid perse- 
verance required to at all approach perfeb- 
tieiL 

BokbS. Ttet genflMnen pvesent do pay 
eveiy atttntlan to ladies, eapeslaHy vislton; 
tat sucb sHentfawi Is is be senBral, andnot 
partieular — lisr Instanoe, aogentlenan is to 
danoe more than three times with one lady 
during the evening, except in the case of 
lovers, privileged to do odd tUngs during their 
temporazy lunacy, and slso married couples, 



80 



TRUST NOT THB MAN WHO FBOMISBS WITH AN OATH. 



who we expected to dance together at least 
once during the erenhig, andoftener if they 
pleaae. 

BcuB 9. That, to avoid unnecessary ez- 
penae, the refreshments he limited to cold 
meat, sandwiches, hread, cheese, butter, vege- 
tables, fruits, tea, cofllee, negus, punch, malt 
liquors, &c. &c. 

Rule 10. That all personal or faoe-to-face 
laudatory speeches (commonly called toasts, 
or, as may be, roasts) be for the future for- 
bidden, without permission or enquiry, for 
reasons following :^That as the family circle 
Includes bachelors and spinsters, and he, she, 
or they may be secretly engaged, it will be 
therefore oruel to excite hopes that may be 
disappointed; and that as some well-informed 
Benedict of long experience may after supper 
advise the bachelor to find the way to woman's 
heart — vice vena^ some deep-feeUng wife or 
widow, by "pitymoven,** may perhaps after 
supper advise the spinster the other way, 
which in public is an impropriety manifestly 
to be avoided. 

HuuE 11 imggegted bv a lady). That any lady, 
after supper, may (if she please) ask any 
gentleman apparently diffident, or requiring 
encouragement, to dance with her, and that 
no gentleman can of course refuse so kind a 
request 

RuuB 12. That no gentleman be expected 
to escort any lady home on foot beyond a dis- 
tance of three miles, unless the gentleman be 
positive and the lady agreeable. 

HuLB THE LAST. That as the foregoing re- 
marks and rules are intended, in perfect good 
faith and spirit, to be considered general and 
not personal, no umbrage is to be taken, and 
the reader is to bear in mind the common and 
homely saying — 
** Always at trifles soom to take oflRenoe, 
It shows great pride and very little sense.*' 

P.S. — To save trouble to both parties, this 
invitation be .deemed accepted, without the 
necessity to reply, unless reftxsed within 
;twenty-four homrs. 



which divide it into loavefl, and it will 
be found, when baked, to produce 
twenty-eight or thirty pounds of escu- 
lent white bread. 



841. RICE BREAD. — Take one 
pound and a half of rice, and boil it 
gently over a slow fire in three quarts 
of water about five hours, stirring it, 
and afterwards beating it up into a 
smooth paste. Mix this while warm 
into two gallons, or four pounds of 
flour, adding at the same time the usual 
quantity of yeast. Allow the dough to 
work a certain time near the fire, after 



342. MISCHIEF-MAKERS. 

OhI could there in this world be found 
Some little qpot of happy ground. 
Where village pleasures might go round 

Without the village tattling ! 
How doubly blest that place would be. 
Where all might dwell in liberty, 
Free from the bitter misery 

Of gossips* endless prattling. 

If such a spot were really known, 
Dame Peace might claim it as her own ; 
And in it she might fix her throne, 

For ever and for ever : 
There, like a queen, might reign and liv«^ 
While every <me would soon forgive 
The little slights they might reoeive, 

And be ofllanded never. 

*Tis mischief-makers that remove 

Far from our hearts the warmth of lo««» 

And lead us all to disapprove 

What gives another pleasure, 
They seem to take one's part — but when. 
TheyVe heard our cares, unkindly then 
They soon retail them aU again, 

Mix'd with their poisonous measure. 

And then they've such a cunning way. 
Of telling ill-meant tales : thegr say, 
"Don't mention what I've said, I pray, 

I would not tell another ;" 
Straight to your neighbour's house they goy 
Narrating everything they know ; 
And break the peace of high and low, 

Wife, husband. Mend, and Inrother* 

Oh! that the mischief-making crew 
Were all reduced to one or two. 
And they were painted red or blue, 

That every one might know them 9 
Then would our villagers forget 
To rage and quarrel, fume and fret, 
And fUll into an angry pet. 

With things so much bdiow them* 

For 'tis a sad, degrading part 
To make another's boaom smart, 
And plant a dagger in. the heart 

We ought to love and eheiigh I 
Then let us evennore be Ikrand 
In quietness with all sronnd. 
While friendship, Joy, and peace abound* 

And angry Heelings perish! 



ZHX NOBLB lOND HAS NO BESBHTJCBinCS. 



81 



84S. GLORIOUS INTELLIGBNCE ! 



AHOTHSB DREADFUL SORTIE 
REPULSEDl 

LORD DUKDONALD OUTDONE t 

The above were the exclamations mth 
wliich a gentleman rushed into the 
office of "Enquire Within" a few 
days ago. ''What's the matter?" we 
asked ; "any news from the Crimea?" 
" The Crimea I No. But you just put 
this piece of information in your work, 
and thousands will thank you for it. 
We have been for a long time troubled 
with bugs, and never could get rid of 
them by any clean, inoffensive, and ex- 
peditious method, imtil a friend of ours 
told us to Btispend a small bag of cam- 
phor to the bed, just in the centre, 
orerhead. We did so, and the -enemy 
was most effectually repulsed, and has 
not made his appearance since — not 
even for a reconnaissance ! " We there- 
fore give the information upon this 
method of getting rid of bugs, our in- 
formant being most confident of its 
success in every case. 



344. TO WASH A WHITE LACE 

"VEIL. — Put the veil into a strong 

Ipther of white soap and very clear 

water, and let it simmer slowly for a 

quarter of an hour. Take it out and 

squeeze it well, but be sure not to rub it. 

^nse it in two cold waters, with a drop 

or two of liquid blue in the last. Have 

ready some very clear weak gum arabic 

water, or some thin starch, or rice-water. 

Pass the veil through it> and clear it by 

clapping. Then stretch it out even, 

SQd pin it to dry on a linen cloth, 

nuiking the edge as straight as possible, 

opening out all the scallops, and fieisten- 

uig each with pins. When diy, lay a 

piece of thin muslin smoothly over it^ 

snd iron it on the wrong side. 

345. HONEY SOAP.— Cut thin two 
pounds of yellow soap into a double 
saucepan, occasionally stirring it till it 
18 melted, which will be in a few mi- 
nutes if the water is kept boiling around 
^'t tiien add a quarter of a pound of 



palm oil, quarter of a pound of hon^y, 
three pennyworth of true oil of cinna- 
mon; let all boil together another six or 
dght minutes ; pour out and stand it by 
till next day, it is then fit for immediate 
use. If made as these directions it will 
be foimd to be a very superior soap. 

346. TO DISTINGUISH MUSH- 
BOOMS FBOM POISONOUS FUNGI. 
— 1. Sprinkle a little salt on the sponfn^ 
part or gills of the sample to be tri^. 
If they turn yellow, they are poisonous, 
— if black, they are wholesome. Allow 
the salt to act before you decide on the 
question. 2. False mushrooms have a 
warty cap, or else fragments of mem- 
brane, adhering to the upper surface, 
are heavy, and emerge from a vulva or 
bag ; they grow in tufts or clusters in 
woods, on the stumps of trees, &&, 
whereas the true mushrooms grow in 
pastures. — 3. False m\ishrooms have an 
astringent, styptic, and disagreeable 
ta8te.---4. When cut they turn blue. — 
5. They are moist on ike surface and 
generally. — 6. Of a rose or orange color 
— 7. The gills of the true mushroom 
are of a pinky red, changing to a liver 
colour.--8. The flesh is white.^9. The 
stem is white, solid, and cylindrical. 

347. LAVENDER SCENT BAG.— 
Take of lavender flowers free from stalk 
half a pound; dried thyme and mint of 
each half an oimce ; ground cloves and 
caraways of each a quarter of an 
ounce ; common salt, dried, one oimce ; 
mix the whole well together, and put 
the product into silk or cambric bags. 
In this way it will perfume the drawers 
and linen very nicely. 

848. WABMING COLD SWEET 

DISHES. 

849. BiCB PuDDiwo. — Over the cold 
rice pudding pour a custard, and add a 
few lumps of jelly or preserved fruit. 
Bemember to remove the baked coating 
of. the pudding before the custard is 
poured over it. 

850. Apple Tabt. — Cut into trian- 
gular pieces the remains of a cold apple 
tart : arrange the pieces around the 
sides of a glass or chma bowl, and leave 



82 



WHBir Al/yVB WH BATS OX7B TSOXTGHTS TO WATCH, 



.•pace in the oe&tre for« eoBtaxd to be 
poured in. 

851. Plux Pddiunq. — Cut into thin 
Tonnd fllifces eold plum padding and fry 
them, in batter. Fry also Spanish frit- 
ters, and place them high in the centre 
of the dish, and the fried pudding ell 
round the heaped-up Mtters. Powder 
All with lump sugar, and serve them 
with wine sauoe in a tureen. 



352. APPLES IN SYRUP FOR IM- 
MEDIATE USE.— Pare and eore some 
hard round apples, and throw them 
into a basin of water ; as they are done, 
darify as much loaf s^gar as will coyer 
them ; put the apples m along with the 
juice and rind of a lemon, and let them 
simmer till they are quite clear ; great 
4sare must be ti^en not to break them. 
Place them on the dish they are to 
sppear upon at table, and pour the 
syrup over. 

353. TO PRESERVE CUCUMBERS. 
—-Take large and fresh^gathered cucum- 
bers, — ^split them down and take out 

r all the seeds, lay them in salt and water 
that will bear an egg three days : set 
tibem on a fire with cold water, and a 
small lump of alum, and boil them a 
few minutes, or till tender; — drain 
them, and pour on them a thin sjrup : 
' —4et them lie two days, boil the syrup 
again, and put it over the cucumbers, 
'repeat it twice more, then have ready 
some fresh clarified sugar, boiled to 
a hUw (which may be known by dip- 
ping the skimmer into the sugar, and 
blowing strongly through the holes of 
it ; if little bladders appear, it has at- 
tained that degree) ; put in the cucimi- 
bers, and simmer it nve minutes : — set 
it by till next day ; — boil the syrup and 
cucumbers again, and set them In 
glasses for use. 

854. BAKED PEARS.— Take twelve 
large baking pears, — pare and cut them 
into halTes, kaving on the stem about 
half an inch long; take out the core 
wi^ the pofart of a knife, and place them 
close together in a blook-tm saueepan, 
the inside of whidb is quite bright, 

*ih the oerer to fit qtdte clo0e,-^pat 



to them the rind of a kmon eat i^san, 

with half its juice, a small stick of cin- 
namon^ and twenty grains of aUspios ; 
cover them with spring-water, and 
allow one pound of loiBf<«ngar to & pint 
and a half oi water : — cover them up 
close, and bake them for six hours in a 
very slow oven : — ^they wiH be quite 
tender, and of a bright colour* Pre- 
pared cochineal is generally used for 
colouring tiiie pears ; but if the above 
is strictly attended to, it will be f ouad 
to answer best. 

355. SORE THROAT.— I have been 
subject to sore throat, and have inva- 
riably found the following prenaratikMi 
(simple and cheap) highly emoaeioiiB 
when used in the early stage : Pour a 
pint of boiling* water up(»i twenl^-five 
or thirty leaves of common sage ; let 
the infusion stand for half an hour. 
Add vinegar sufficient to make it mode- 
rately add, and honey aooording to the 
taste. This combination of ihe astrin- 
gent and the emollient principle seldoia 
fails to produce the desired effect. The 
infusion must be used as a gax^g^e 
several times a day. It has this advan- 
tage over maqy gargles — ^it is pleasant 
to the taste, and may be swallowed 
occasionally, not only without danger, 
but with advantage. 

356. BELVIDERE CAKES, FOR 
BREAKFAST OR TEA.— Take a quart 
of fiour, four eggs, a piece of butter 
the size of an egg, a piece of lard the 
same size ; Tm'-r the butter and lard 
well in the flour; beat the eggs Kght 
in a pint bowl, and fill it up with cold 
milk ; then pour it gradually into the 
flour ; add a teaspoon^l of salt ; work it 
for ^ight or ten mumtes only ; cut the 
dough with a knife the size you wish 
it ; roll them into cakes about the size 
of a br^Lkfiist plate, and bake in a 
quick oven. 

357. CHARCOAL. — All sorts of 
glass vessels and other utensils may be 
purified from long-retained smells of 
every kind, in the easiest and most 
perfect maamer, by rinsing them out 
well with chaxcoal powder, after the 
groflser impnritieB hive been sooured 



IN OUR TAirtTiTIEB OUB 4SKFBBS, AND IN 800IETT OTTB TONQUES. 



83 



off with sand and potash. Rubbixig the 
teeth, and wasfamg out the mouth with 
floe oharcoal powder, will render the 
teeth beautifully white, and the breath 
perfectly sweet, where an offensive 
'breath has been owing to a scorbutic 
disposition of the g^ums. Putrid water 
is immediately deprived of its bad smell 
by charcoal. THien meat, fish, &;c., 
from intense heat, or long keeping, are 
likely to pass into a state of corruption, 
a simple and pure mode of keeping them 
sound and healthful is, by putting a few 
pieces of charcoal, each the size of an 
egg, into the pot or saucepan wherein 
the fish or flesh is to be boiled. Among 
others, an experiment of this kind was 
tried upon a turbot, which appeared to 
be too far gone to be eatable ; the cook, 
as advised, put three or four pieces of 
charcoal, each the size of an egg, -under 
the strainer, in the fish kettle : after 
boiling the proper time, the turbot came 
to the table perfectly sweet and firm. 

858. STAINIIffG.— General Ossbb- 

VATIONS. — When alabaster, marble, and 

other stones, are coloured, and the stain 

is required to be deep, it should be 

poured on boiling-hot, and brushed 

equally over every part if made with 

water; if with spirit, it shotdd be ap- 

pUed cold, otherwise the evaporation, 

b«ng too rapid, would leave the colour- 

iug matter on the sur&ce, without any, 

or very little, being able to penetrate. 

In greyish or brownish stones, the stain 

will be wanting in brightness, because 

the natural colour combines with the 

stain ; therefore, if the stone be a pure 

colour, the result will be a combination 

of the colour and stain. In staining 

hone or ivory, the colours will take 

better before tibian after polishing ; and 

if any dark spots appear, they should 

be rubbed witii chalk, and the article 

dyed again to produce uniformity of 

shade. On removal from the boiling- 

^t dye-bath, the bpne should be imme- 

^tely plunged into cold water, to 

prevent cracks from the heat. If paper 

orporc^men^ is stained, a broad vamidi 

brmh shoald be employed to lay the 



colouring on evenly. When the stains 
for wood are required to be very strong, 
it is better to soak and not brush them; 
therefore, if for inlaying or fine work, 
the wood should be previously spUt or 
sawn into proper thicknesses; and 
when directed to be brushed several 
times over with the stains, it should be 
allowed to dry between each coating. 
When it is wished to render any of the 
stains more durable and beaullful, the 
work should be well rubbed with Dutch 
or common rushes after it is coloured, 
and then varnished with seed-lac var- 
nish, or if a better appearance is desired, 
with three coats of the same o!^ shellac 
varnish. Common work only requires 
frequent rubbing with linseed oil and 
wooUen rags. The remainder, with the 
exception of glass, will be treated of in 
this paper. 

359. Alabasteb, Habble, and Stone, 
may be stained of a yellow, red, green, 
blue, purple, black, or any of the com- 
pound 'colour^ by the stains used for 
wood. 

860. Bone and Ivobt. Black. — 1. 
Lay the article for several hom^s in a 
strong solution of nitrate of silver, and 
expose to the light. 2. Boil the article 
for some tune in a stramed decoction 
of logwood, and then steep it in a solu- 
tion of per-sulphate or acetate of iron. 
3. Immerse frequently in ink, tmtll of 
sufficient depth of colour. 

361. Blrie. — 1. Immerse for some 
time in a dilute solution of sulphate of 
indigo — ^partly saturated with potash — 
and it will be folly stained. 2. Steep 
in a strong solution of sulphate of 
copper. 

862. Green, — ^1. Dip blue-stained ar- 
ticles for a short time in nitro-hydro- 
chlorate of tin, and then in a hot decoc- 
tion of fustic. 2. Boil in a solution of 
verdigris in vinegar until the desired 
colour is obtained. 

863. Bed,— Is Dip the articles first 
in the tin mordant used in dyeiog, and 
then plxmge into a hot decoction of 
Brazil wood — ^half a pound to a gallon 
of water — or cochineal. 2. Steep in 
red xxik imtil sufllciently titained. 



84 



THX &BA IS THE HBAYINa B060X OF THB WOBLD. 



364. Scarlet, — Use Uc-dye instead of 
the preceding. 

865. VioleL — ^Dip in the tin mordant, 
and then immerse in a decoction of 
logwood. 

366. Yellow. — 1. Impregnate with 
nitro-hydro-chlorate of tin, and then 
digest with heat in a strained decoction 
of fustic. 2. Steep for twenty-four 
hours in a strongsolutionof the neu- 
tral chromate of potash, and then 
plimge for some time in a boiling solu- 
tion of acetate of lead. 8. Boil the 
articles in a solution of alimi — a pound 
to half a gallon — and then immerse for 
half ai^hour in the following mixture : 
— Take half a pound of turmeric, and a 
quarter of a pound of pearl-ash ; boil in 
a gallon of water. When taken from 
tins, the bone must be again dipped in 
the alum solution. 

867. Horn must be treated in the 
same manner as bone and ivory for the 
various colours given under that head- 
ing. 

368. In imiMtion of Tortoise-sheU. — 
First steam and then press the horn 
into proper shapes, and afterwards lay 
the following mixture on with a small 
brush, in imitation of the mottle of 
tortoise-shell : — ^Take equal parts of 
quick-lime and litharge, and mix with 
strong soap lees ; let this remain \mtil 
it is thoroughly dry, brush off, and 
repeat two or three times, if necessaiy. 
Such parts as are required to be of a 
reddish brown should be covered with 
a mixture of whiting and the stain. 

369. Ibon. Blade, for thipa* guns, 
shot, Ac. — To one gallon of vinegar add 
a quarter of a pound of iron-rust, let it 
sttmd for a week ; then add a pound of 
dry lamp-black, and three quarters of a 
pound of copperas; stir it up for a 
couple of days. Lay five or six coats 
on Uie gun, ic, with a sponge, allowing 
it to cby well between each. Polish 
wit^ linseed oil and soft woollen rag^ 
and it will look like ebony. 

870. Pafb& and Pabchment. Blue. 
—1. Stain it green with the verdigris 
stain given below, and brush over with 
a solution of pearl-ash — ^two ounces to 



the pint — ^till it becomes blue. 2. Use 
the blue stain for wood. 

371. Cfreen and Bed, — ^The same as for 
wood. 

372. Orange. — ^Bnish over with a tinc- 
ture of turmeric, formed by infusing an 
ounce of the root in a pint of spirit of 
wine; let this dry, and give another 
coat of pearl-ash solution, made by dis- 
solving two ounces of the salt in a quart 
of water. 

873. Purple. — 1. Brush over with the 
expressed juice of ripe privet berries. 
2. The same as for wood. 

374. Yellow. — 1. Brush over with 
tincture of turmeric. 2. Add anatto or 
dragon's-blood to the tincture of tur- 
meric, and brush over as usual. 

375. Wood. -Btedb.—!. Drop a little 
sulphuric acid into a small quantity of 
water, binish over the wood and hold to 
the fire ; it will be a fine black, and re- 
ceive a good polish. 2. Take half a 
gallon of vinegar, an ounce of biiiised 
nut-galls, of logpnrood chips and cop- 
peras each half a pound-~boil well ; 
add half an ounce of the tincture of 
sesquichloride of iron, formerly called 
the muriated tincture, and brush on 
hot. 3. Use the stain given for ships' 
guns. 4. Take half a gsdlon of vinegar, 
half a pound of dry lamp-black, and 
three poimds of iron-rust sifted. Mix, 
and let stand for a week. Lay three 
coats of this on hot, and then rub with 
linseed oil, and you will have a fine 
deep black. 5. Add to the above stain 
an oimce of nut-galls, half a pound of 
logwood chips, and a quarter of a pound 
of copperas; lay on three coats, oil 
well, and you will have a black stain 
that will stand any kind of weather, 
and one that is well suited for ships' 
combings, &c. 6. Take a pound of log- 
wood chips, a quai*ter of a pound of 
Brazil wooc^ and boil for an hour and 
a half in a gallon of water. Brush the 
wood several times with this decoction 
while hot. Make ^ a decoction of nut- 
galls by simmering gently for three or 
four days a quarter of a pound of the 
galls in two quarts of water ; give the 
wood three coats of this, and while wet 



A BIRD'S-NBST IB A NATURAL BGGhCUP. 



85 



lay on a solution of sulphate of iron 
(two ounces to a quart), and when dry 
oil or varnish. 7. Give three coats with 
a solution of copper filings in aquafortis, 
and repeatedly brush over with the 
logwood decoction, until the gi*eenness 
of the copper is destroyed. 8. Boil 
half a pound of logwood chips in two 
quarts of water, add an ounce of pearl- 
aah, and apply hot with a brush. Then 
take two quarts of the logpwrood decoc- 
tion, and half an ounce of verdigris, 
and the same of copperas ; strain, and 
throw in half a pound of iron rust. 
Brush the work well with this, and oil. 

376. Blue, — ^1. Dissolve copper filings 
in aquafortis, brush the wood with it, 
and then go over the work with a hot 
solution of pearl-ash (two ounces to a 
pint of water), till it assumes a per- 
fectly blue colour. 2. Boil a pound of 
indigo, two pounds of woad, and three 
ounces of alum in a gallon of water ; 
brush well over imtil thoroughly 
stained. 

377. In imitation of Botany-Bay 
Wood.— Boil half a pound of French 
berries (the unripe berries of the 
rhamnus infectorius), in two quarts of 
water till of a deep yellow, and while 
boiling hot give two or three coats to 
the work. If a deeper colour is de- 
sired, give a coat of logwood decoction 
over the yellow. When nearly dry, 
form the grain with No. 8 black stain, 
^ued hot, and when dry rust and var- 
nish. 

378. Ghten. — Dissolve verdigris in 
^egar, and brush oyer with the hot 
solution until of a proper colour. 

379. JUahogany Colour. — Bark. 1. Boil 
half a pound of madder and two ounces 
of logwood chips in a gallon of water, 
and brush well over while hot; when 
dry, go over the whole with pearl-ash 
solution, two drachms to the quart. 
2. Put two ounces of dragon*s-blood, 
hruiaed, into a quart of oil of turpen- 
tine; let the bottle stand in a warm 
place, shake frequently, and, when dis- 
solved, steep tlie work in the mixture. 

880. Light Bed ^rotwi.— Boil half a 
^ pound of madder and a quarter of a 



pound of fustic in a gallon of watetr; 
brush over the work when boiling-hot, 
imtil properly stained. 2. The surface 
of the work being quite smooth, brush 
over with a weak solution of aquafortis, 
half an ounce to the pint, and then 
finish with the following: — ^Put four 
ounces and a half of dragon's-blood 
and an ounce of soda, both well bruised, 
to three pints of spirit of wine, let it 
stand in a warm place, shake frequently, 
strain, and' lay on with a soft brush, 
repeating until of a proper colour ; po- 
lish with linseed oil or varnish. 

381. Purple. — ^Brush the work seve- 
ral times with the logwood decoction 
used for Ko. 6 black, and when dry 
give a coat of pearl-ash solution, one 
drachm to a quart, taking care to lay 
it on evenly. 

382. Bed. — 1. Boil a pound of Brazil 
wood and an ounce of pearl-ash in a gallon 
of water, and while hot brush over the 
work imtil of a proper colour. Dis- 
solve two ounces of alum in a quart of 
water, and brush the solution over the 
work before it dries. 2. Take a gallon 
of the above stain, add two more 
ounces of pearl-ash ; use hot, and brush 
often with the alum solution. 3. Use 
a cold infusion of archil, and brush 
over with the pearl-ash solution used 
for No. 1 dark mahogcmy. 

883. In imitation of Bosewood, — ^1. 
Boil half a pound of logwood in three 
pints of water till it is of a very darit 
red, add half an ounce of salt of tartar ; 
stain the work with the liquor while 
boiling hot, giving three coats; then- 
with a painter's graining brush, form- 
streaks with No. 8 black stain; let dry, 
and varnish. 2. Brush over with the 
logwood decoction used for No. 6 black, 
three or four times ; put half a pound 
of iron filings into two quarts of vine- 
gar; then with a graining brush or 
cane, bruised at the end, apply the iron- 
filing solution in the form required, 
and polish with bees-wax and turpen- 
tine when dry, or varnish. 

384. Yellow. — 1. Brush overvyith the 
tincture of turmeric. 2. Warm the work, 
and brush over with weak aquafortis, 



89 



A LAUOmNQ O&UiD IB THS BEST FOBTRAir OV HAPPINESS. 



then hold to the fire. Yaraish. or oil 
as w m%lT -■■ 

885. CUBE OF WABTS.— Mr. Law- 
renooy Buigeon of St. Bartholomew's, 
sajB, the easiest way to get rid of warts 
is to pare off the thickened skin which 
covers the prominent wart; cut it off by 
suocessiTe layers ; share it till you come 
to the sur&ce of the skin, and till you 
draw blood in two or three phioes. 
When you have thus denuded the sur- 
face of the skin, rub the part thoroughly 
over with limar caustic^ uad one effect- 
ive operation of this kind wiU generally 
destroy the wart ; if not, you cut off the 
black spot which has been occasioned 
by the caustic, and apply it again ; or 
you may apply ctceiic acid, and thus you 
will get rid of it. 

886. TO BEMOVE FBECKLES.— 
Dissolve, in half an ounce of lemon- 
juice, one ounce of Venice soap, and add 
a quarter of an ounce each of oil of 
bitter almonds, and deliquated oil of 
tartar. Place this mixture in the sun 
till it acquires the consistency of oint- 
mentt. When in this state add three 
drops of the oil of rhodium, and keep it 
for use. Apply it to the face and hands 
in the manner following : Wash the 
parts at night with elder*flower water, 
then anoint with the ointment. In the 
morning cleanse the skin from its oily 
adhesion by washing it copiously in 
rose-water. 

887. DIBECTIONS FOB PUTTING 
ON GUTTA PEBCHA SOLES.— Dry 
the old sole, and rough it well with a 
rasp, after which, put on a thin coat of 
warm solution with the finger, rub it 
well in ; let it dry, then hold it to the 
fire^ and, whilst warm, put on a second 
coat of solution thicker than the first, 
let it dry. Then take the gutta-percha 
sole, and put it in hot water untU it is 
soft ; take it out, wipe it, and hold the 
sole in one hand and the shoe in the 
oiher to the fii'e, and they will become 
sticky; immediately lay the sole on, 
beginning at the toe, and proceed gra- 
dually. In half an hour, take a knife 
and pare it. The solution should be 
wanned by putting as much as you 



want to use in a cup^ and placing it in 
hot water, taking care that no water 
mixes with the solution. 

388. COD LIVEB OIL.— Cod-lhrer 
oil is neither more nor less than cod-oil 
clarified; and consequently two*third» 
of its medicinal qualities are abstracted 
thereby. Cod-oil can be purchased pure 
at any wholesale oil warehouse^ at about 
one-thirtieth part of the price charged 
for the so-called cod-liver oil. Many 
persons who have used cod-oil pure as 
imported, have found it to answer mueh 
better than the cod-liver oil purehaaed 
of a druggiit. The best vehi^ for 
taking cod-liver oil in is new milk, and 
the duagreeable flavour of the drug can 
easily be covered by the addition of one 
drachm of orange-peel to every eight 
ounces of the oiL 

389. TO BOTTLE FBUITS.-- Bum 
a match in a bottle to exhaust all air> 
then place in the fruit to be preserved, 
quite dry, and without blemish ; sprinkle 
sugar between each layer, put in the 
bung, and tie bladder over, setting the 
bottles bimg downwards, in a large 
stew-pan of cold water, with hay be- 
tween to prevent breaking. When the 
skin is just oraddng; take them out. 
All preserves require exclusion from the 
air ; place a piece of paper dipped in 
sweet oil over the top of the fruit ; pre- 
pare thin paper, immersed in gum- 
water, and, while wet^ press it over and 
around the top of the jar ; as it dries, it 
will become quite firm and tight. 

390. TO CLEAN CANE-BOTTOM 
CHAIBS. — Turn up the chair bottom, 
kc., and with hot water and a sponge 
wash the cane-work well, so that it may 
become completely soaked. Should it 
be very dirty you must add soap. Let 
it dry in the open air, if possible, or in 
a place where there is a thorough 
draught, and it will become as tight and 
firm as when new, providing that it has 
not been broken. 

391. TEETHING.— Young children 
whilst cutting their first set of teeth 
often suffer severe constitutional dis- 
turbance. At first there is restlessness 
and peevishness^ with slight fever, but 



tfUSIO IB fiOUIf ElffiOSIBD IN BOVISJ). 



sr 



not imfrequenily t}xea» are followed by 
conTulsive fits, as they are cozxunonly 
called, which depend on the brain be- 
coming irritated : and sometunea under 
this condition the child is either cut off 
Buddealy, or the foundation of serious 
nuBchief to the brain is laid. The 
remedy, or rather the safeguard, against 
these frightful consequences is trifling^ 
safe, and almost certain, and consists 
merely in lancing the gum covering the 
tooth which ia making its way through. 
When teething is about it may be known 
by the spittle constantly driyelling 
finom the mouth and wetting the frock. 
The diild has. its fingers often in its 
mouth, and bites hard any substance 
it can get hold of. If the gums be 
carefully looked at, the part where the 
tooth is pressing up is swollen and 
redder than usual ; and if the finger be 
pressed on it the <^ild shrinks and cries, 
showing that the gimi is tender. When 
these symptoms occur, the gum should 
be lanced, and sometimes the tooth 
comes through the next day, if near the 
surface; but if not so far advanced the 
cut heals and a scar forms, which is 
thought by some objeotionable, as 
rendering the passage of the tooth more 
difficult. This, however, is untrue, for 
the scar will give way much more 
easily than the uncut gum. If the 
tooth do not come through after two 
ot three days, the lancing may be re- 
puted; and this is more especially 
needed if the child be very factious, 
and seem in much pain. Lancing the 
sums is further advantageous, because 
it empties the inflamed part of its 
blood, and so relieves the pain and 
^Tiflanimation. The relief children ex.- 
peiience in the course of two or three 
hours fi'om the operation is often very 
lomaarkable, as they almost immediately 
become lively and cheerful. 

392. TO MAKE BRITISH ANCHO- 
^^S.— To a peck of sprats put two 
pounds of salt, three ounces of bay salt, 
<^Qe pound of saltpetre, two ounces of 
Prunella, and a few grains of cochineal ; 
pound them all in a mortar, then put 
^^ a stone pan or anchoTy-barrel, first 



a layer of BpnAa, aatd then one of ih&. 
compound, and so on altenntely to th» 
top. Press them down hard; cover 
them close for six mofiths, and they 
will be fit for use, and will readily pro* 
duoe a most excellent flavoured sauee. 
A large trade is done in this artide,. 
especially for making anchovy paste or 
sauce, when a little more colouring i» 
added. 

393. EYELASHES. — The modft 
adopted by the beauties of the East to 
increase the length and strength of 
their eyelashes is simply to dip tha 
split ends with a pair of scissors abont^ 
once a month. Mothers perform th& 
operation on their children, both male 
and female, when they are mere infaotsy 
watching the opportunity whilst they . 
sleep ; the practioe never fails to produce 
the desired efiect. We recommend it 
to the attention of our fair readers, as &: 
safe and innocent means of enhancing 
the chasms which so noony of them, no ' 
doubt, already possess. 

894. APPLE MARMALADE.-— Peel 
and core two poimds sub-add apples 
and put them in an enamelled saucepan 
with one pint of sweet cider, or half a 
pint of pure wme, and one pound of 
crushed sugar, and cook them by a 
gentile heat three hours, or longer, until, 
the fruit is very soft, and then squeese 
it first through a colander and then 
through a sieve. If not sufficiently 
sweety add powdered sugar to suit your 
taste, and put away in jars made air* ■ 
tight by a pieoe of wet bladder. It ia 
ddidous when eaten with milk, and still 
better with <sream. 

395. CHEAP FUEL,— One bushel of 
small coal or sawdust, or both mixed 
together, two bushels of sand, one 
bushel and a half of day. Let these 
be mixed together with common water, 
like ordinary mortar; the more they 
are stirred and mixed together the 
better ; then make them into balls, or 
with a small mould make them in the 
shape of bricks, pile them in a diy 
place, and when they are hard and suf- 
fidently dry, they may be used. A 
fire cannot be lighted with them, but 



88 



GOLD IB THE DUST THAT BLINDS ALL ETSS. 



when the fire is quite lighted, pat them 
on behind, with a coal or two in front, 
and they will be found to keep up a 
stronger fire than any fuel of the com- 
mon kind. 

396. DOMESTIC YEAST. — Ladies 
who are in the habit (and a most lauda- 
ble and comfortable habit it is) of 
making domestic bread, cake, &c., are 
informed that they can easily manu- 
fiujture their own yeast by attending to 
the following directions : — Boil . one 
pound of good flour, a quarter of a 
pound of brown sugar, and a little salt, 
in two gallons of water, for one hour. 
When milk warm, bottle it, and cork it 
close. It will be fit for use in twenty- 
four hours. One pint of this yeast will 
make ISlbs. of br^ul. 

397. COLD PARTRIDGE PIE. — 
Bone partridges, the number according 
to the size the pie is wanted, make 
some good force, and fill the partridges 
with it; put a whole raw truffle in each 
partridge (let the truffle be peeled), 
raise the pie, lay a few slices of veal in 
the bottom, and a thick layer of force ; 
then the partridges, and four truffles to 
each partridge; then cover the par- 
tridges and truffles over with sheets of 
bacon, cover the pie in and finish it. It 
will take four hours baking. Cut two 
pounds of lean ham (if eight partridges 
are in the pie) into very thin slices, put 
it in a stewpan along with the bones 
acnd giblets of the ps^ridges, and any 
other loose giblets that are at hand, an 
old fowl, a faggot of thyme and parsley, 
a little mace, and about twenty-four 
shalots; add about a pint of stock. 
Set the stewpan on a stove to draw 
down for half an hour, then put three 
quarts of good stock; let it boil for 
two hours, then strain it off, and reduce 
the liquid to one pint ; add sherry wine 
to it, and put aside till the pie is baked. 
When the pie has been out of the oven 
for half an hour, boil what was strained 
fh>m the bones, &c. of the partridges, 
and put it into the pie. Let it stand 
for twenty-four hours before it is eaten. 
— N.B. Do not take any of the fat from 
the pie, as that is what preserves it. A 



pie made in this manner will be eatable 
for three months after it is cut; in shorty 
it cannot spoil in any reasonable time. 
All cold pies are made in this manner. 
Either poultry or game that is put into 
a raised crus^ and intended not to be 
eaten imtil cold, should be boned, and 
the liquor that is to fill up the i»0 
made ^m the bones, &c. 

898. TO EXTINGUISH A FIRE 
IN A CHIMNEY. — So many serious 
fires have been caused by chimneys 
catching fire, and not being quickly ex- 
tinguished, that the following method 
of doing this should be made generally 
known. — Throw some powdered brim- 
stone on the fire in the grate, or ignite 
some on the hob, and then put a board 
or something in the front of the fire- 
place, to prevent the fumes descending 
into the room. The vapour of the 
brimstone ascending the chimney, will 
then effectually extinguish the. soot on 
fire. (See 28.) 

399. SUPERFLUOUS HAIR.— Any 
remedy is doubtful; many of those 
commonly used are dangerous. The 
safest plan is as follows: — ^The hairs 
should be perseveringly plucked up by 
the roots, and the skm, having been 
washed twice a day with warm soft 
water, without soap, should be treated 
with the following wash, commonly 
called MILK OF BOSES. — ^Beat four ounces 
of sweet almonds in a mortar, and add 
half an oimce of white sugar during 
the process; reduce the whole to a 
paste by pounding ; then add, in small 
quantities at a time, eight ounces of 
rose water. The emulsion thus formed, 
should be strained through a fine 
cloth, and the residue again pounded, 
while the strained fluid should be 
bottled in a large stopped vial. To the 
pasty mass in the mortar add half an 
ounce of sugar, and eight ounces of 
rose water, and strain again. This pro- 
cess must be repeated three times. To 
the thirty-two ounces of fluid, add 
twenty grains of the bichloride of 
mercury, dissolved in two ounces of 
alcohol, and shake the mixture for five 
minutes. The fluid should be applied 



SNYY IB ▲ SELF XXECUTIOKEB. 



S9 



with a towel; immediately after wash- 
ing, and the skin gently rubbed with a 
diy cloth till perfectly dry. Wilson, in 
his work on Healthy Shin, writes as 
follows: — "Substances are sold by the 
perfumers called depilatories, which are 
represented as having the power of re- 
moving hair. But the hair is not de- 
Btroyed by these means, the root and 
that part of the shaft implanted with- 
in the skin still remain, and are ready 
to shoot up with inoi*eased vigour as 
Boon as the depilatory is withdrawn. 
The effect of the depilatory is the same, 
in this respect, as that of a razor, and 
the latter is, imquestionably, the better 
remedy. It must not, however, be 
imagined that depilatories are negative 
remedies, and that^ if they do no per- 
manent good, they are, at least, hum- 
leas; that is not the fact; they are 
violent irritants, and require to be used 
with the utmost caution. ♦ ♦ * * ♦ 
After all, the safest depilatory is a pair 
of tweezers and patience." 

400. DISINFECTING LIQUID.— In 
a wine bottle of cold water, dissolve two 
omices acetate of lead, (sugar of lead ;) 
and then add two' (fluid) ounces of 
strong nitric acid (aquafortis). Shake 
the mixture and it will be ready for 
use.-— A very small quantity of the 
liquid, in its strongest form, should be 
nsed for cleansing all kinds of chamber 
utensils. For removing offensive 
odours, clean cloths thoroughly 
moistened with the liquid, diluted with 
eight or ten parts of water, should be 
suspended at various parts of the 
room. — ^In this case the offensive and 
deleterious gases are neutralized by 
chemical action. Fumigation in the 
usual way is only the substitution of 
one odour for another. In using the 
above, or any other disinfectant, let it 
never be forgotten that fresh air — and 
plenty of it, is cheaper and more 
effective than any other material. 

401. CLEANLINESS. — " I have 
more than once expressed my conviction 
that the humanizing influence of habits 
of cleanliness and of those decent obser- 
vations which imply self-respect — the 



best, indeed the only foundation of re- 
spect for others — has never been suffi- 
ciently acted on. A clean, fresh, and well- 
ordered house exercises over its inmates 
a moral no less than a physical influence, 
and has a direct tendency to make the 
members of a family sober, peaceable, and 
considerate of the feelings and happiness 
of each other; nor is it difficult to 
trace a connexion between habitual 
feelings of this sort and the formation 
of habits of respect for property, for 
the laws in general, and even for those 
higher duties and obligations the observ- 
ance of which no laws can enforce." — 
Dr. Sattthwood Smith. {See 231.) 



402. DYEING.-— The filaments from 
which stuffs of all kinds are fabricated, 
are derived either from the animal or 
vegetable kingdom. We recognise the 
former by the property they possess of 
liberatmg ammonia on being treated 
with potass ; while the latter afford 4a 
liquor having an add reaction under 
the flame treatment. The animal king- 
dom furnishes three varieties — silk, 
wool, and the furs, ftc, of various am- 
mals ; the vegetable kingdom also three 
— ^flax, hemp, and cotton : all of which 
require certain preliminary prepam- 
tions to render them fit for the dyer, 
which do not come within our province, 
our space only admitting of a rapid 
glance at the production of the various 
colours. 

408. Genbbal Obskbvationb. — ^The 
various shades produced by colouring 
matters may be classed in one or other 
of the following groups : — 

1. Blues *) 

2. Beds ySinyae, 

3. TeUows J 

4. Violets 1 

5. Orange colours >Binary. 

6. Greens J 

7. Compound colours | «5__-^ 

8. Black. J ^*^'^- 

Some colours adhere at once to the 
stufl*, and are called stthstanticU colov/rs ; 
while others require that the material 
to be dyed should undergo some pre- 
vious preparation in order to render it 



90 



TBUQAUrr FBOTEB AST EAST CBAIB TOK OLD AQE. 



pemument. The substances used to 
fix the colonrmg matters are called 
mordants, which should possess four 
qualifications : — ^1. They should possess 
an equal affinity for ike fibre of the 
.material and the colouring matter. 
2. They should be incapable of injuring 
or destroying either by prolonged 
Action. 3. 'Diey should form, with 
the colour, a compound capable of 
resisting the action of air and water. 
4. They should be capable of readily 
conforming to the various operations of 
the dyer. 

404. Thb Hobdanib. — For the 
reasons just given, the acetate or tar- 
trate of iron is preferable to the sul- 
phate; and the acetate or tartrate of 
alumina to alum. 

405. For redt, y^HomB, greau, and 
pinki* — Aluminous mordants are to be 
used. , 

406. For hlaeka, browns, pnets, and 
jinoUtt. — ^The acetate or tartrate of iron 
'Siuat be employed. 

407. For scarlets, usen tinmordant, 
made by dissolving in strong nilaic add 
ooe^eighthof ita weight of sal-ammoniac; 
^tiMD adding by degrees one-eighth of its 
weight of tin, and dilating tiie solution 
with one-fourth of its weight of water. 

408. Calico, Lutsn, avd Musldt.' 
,£lue. — ^Wash well to remove dressing, 

and dry ; then dip in a strong solution 
of sulphate of indigo— ^partly saturated 
with potash — and hang up. Dry a 
.piece to see if the colour is deep enough, 
if not, dip again. 

409. Saxon Blue. — ^Boil the article in 
alum, and then dip in a strong solution 
of chemic blue. 

410. Buff. — ^Boil an oimce of anatto 
in three quarts of water, add two oxmces 
of potash, stir well, and put in the 
calico while boiling, and stir well for 
five minutes ; remove and plunge into 
cold pump water, hang up the articles 
without wringing, and when almost 
dry, fold. 

411. Pink. — ^Immerse in the acetate 
of alumina mordant, and then in the 
coleuring matter of a pink saucer. 

412. Qreen. — ^Boil the article in an 



alum mordant, and then in a solution 
of indigo mixed with any of the yellow 
dyes, until the proper colour is ob- 
tained. 

413. Tdiov). — ^1. Cut potatoe tops 
when in flower, and express the juice ; 
steep articles in this for forty-eight 
hours. 2. Dip in a strong solution of 
weld after boiling in an aluminous mor- 
dant. Turmeric, fustic, anatto, ho., 
will answer the same as weld. 

414. Cloth. Black. — ^Impregnate the 
material with the acetate of iron mor* 
dant, and then boil in a decoction of 
madder and logwood. 

415. Madder red. — Boil tiie cloth in 
a weak solution of pearl-ash— -an ounce 
to a gallon of water — ^wash, dry, and 
then steep in a decoction of bruised 
nutgalls. After dirying, it is to be 
steeped twice in warm alum water, then 
dried and boiled in a decoction made 
of three quarters of a pound of madder 
to every pound of the article. Tt should 
then be taken out and dried, and 
steeped in a second bath in the same 
manner. When dyed, the articles 
should be washed in warm soap and 
water, to remove a dun-coloured matter 
given out by the madder. 

416. Scaaiet. — Three quarters of a pint 
of a tin mordant, made by dissolving 
three pounds of tin in six^ pounds of 
hydrochloric acid, is added to every 
pound of lac dye, and digested for six 
hours. To dye twenty-five pounds of 
cloth, a tin boiler of seventy-five gallons 
capacity should be filled nearly full 
with water, and a fire kindled under it. 
When the heat is 150 deg. Fahr., half a 
handful of bran and two ounces of tin 
mordant are to be thrown into it The 
froth which arises is skimmed off, the 
liquor is made to boil, and two pounds 
and three quarters of lac dye, previously 
mixed with a pound and thi^e quarters 
of the solvent, and fourteen ounces of 
the tin solvent are added. Immediately 
afterwards two pounds and three quar* 
ters of tartar, and a pound of ground 
sumach, both tied up in a linen bag, 
are to be added and suspended in the 
bath for five minutes. The fire being 



xooNovT 18 THX HomsHoia) Mjxrr, 



91 



iritlidnLwn, five gallcms of cold water, 
and two pints and three quarters of tin 
mordant being ponred into the bath, 
the cloth is immersed in it. The fire 
is then replaced, and the liquid made 
to boil rapidly for an hour, when the 
cloth is removed and washed in pure 
water. 

417. Tdhw. — ^TTse No. 2. for calico. 
Quercitron and weld produce a solid 
yellow ; fustic, a very brilliant tint ; 
white turmeric yields a less solid yellow. 

418. Fbathebs. JBUtek, — Use the 
same ss for cloth. 

419. Blue. — ^Every shade may be 
^Ten by indigo — or dip in silk dye. 

420. CriTnson. — Dip in acetate of 
alumina mordant, then in a boilings-hot 
decoction of Brazil wood — and, last of 
all, pass through a bath of cudbear. 

421. PinJCf or Jtose coloWf is given 
bysafflower and lemon juice. 

422. Beep red. — ^Proceed as for crim- 
son, omitting the cudbear bath. 

423. Tellaia. — ^Mordant with acetate 
of alumina, and dip in a bath of tur- 
meric, or weld. 

^ 424. Hair. BlaeJc. — As the object 
in view is simply to dye the hair wilh- 
out tinging the skin, the following will 
1)6 found the best : — Take equal parts 
of lithaige and lime; mix well, and 
form into a paste with water, if a black 
is desired ; with milk, if brown. Clean 
the head with a small-tooth comb, and 
then well wash the hair with soda and 
water to free it from grease ; then lay 
on the paste pretty thick, and cover the 
head with oU-skin, or a cabbage-leaf : 
^r which go to bed. Next morning 
the powder should be carefully brushed 
away, and the hair oiled. 

425. Leather. SlcLch — ^Use No. 4 
Slack staiTi, and poHsh with oil. 

426. GloveSf Nankeen. — Steep saffiron 
ni boiling hot soft water for about 
twelve hours ; sew up the tops of the 
gloves, to prevent the dye staining the 
maides, wet them over with a sponge 
%ped in the liquid. A tea-cupful of 
dye will do a pair of gloves. 

427. Gloves, Pwrple. — Boil four ounces 
of logwood, and two oimces of roche 



alum, in three pints of soft water, till 
half wasted; strain, and let it cooL 
Sew up the tops, go over the outsides 
with a brush or sponge twice; then 
rub off the loose dye with a coarse 
cloth. Beat up the white of an egg, 
and rub it over the leather with a 
sponge. Tinegar will remove the stain 
from the hands. 

428. Silk. BUu^ — ^TTse the same as 
for cloth, but black dyeing is difi&cult. 

429. Blue. — ^1. Wash quite clean, linse 
well, and then dip in a hot solution of 
sulphate of iron, after a short time 
take it out and ripse again. Have ready 
in anotiier vessel a hot solution of 
prussiate of potash, to which a small 
quantity of sulphuric acid has been 
added. Dip the silk in this liquid ; on 
removal rinse in dean water, and ex- 
pose to the air to dry. 2. Wash well, 
rinse, wring out, and then dip in the 
following: — ^Boil a pound of indigo, 
two pounds of woad, and three ounces 
of alum in a gallon of water. When 
the silk is of a proper^ colour, remove, 
rinse, and dry. 

480. CamaHon, — Boil two gallons of 
wheat and an ounce of alum in four 
gallons of water, strain through a fine 
sieve ; dissolve half a poimd more of 
alum and white tartar; add three 
pounds of madder, then put in the silk 
at a moderate heat. 

431. Madder Bed. — ^Use the dye for 
cloth. 

482. TdUm. — Take dear wheat bran 
liquor fifteen pounds, in which dissolve 
three quarters of a pound of alum; 
boil the silk in this for two hours, and 
afterwards teke half a pound of weld, 
and boil it till the colour is good. 
Nitre used with alum and water in l^e 
first boiling fixes iJie colour. 

483. Wool. Blue. —Boil in a de- 
coction of logwood, and sulphate or 
acetate of copper. 

434. Br(ywn. — Steep in an infusion 
of green walnut-peels. 

485. Drab. — Impregnate with brown 
oxide of iron, and then dip in a bath of 
querdtron bark. If sumach is added, 
it will make the colour a dark brown. 



92 



WIT IS THE LiaHTNINa OF THB HIND. 



436. Qreen, — ^Flitit imbue mth the 
blue, and then with the yellow dye. 

437. Orange. — ^Dye first with the red 
dye for cloth, and tiien with a yellow. 

438. i2<!(2.— Take four and a half 
pounds of cream of tartar, four and a 
quarter pounds of alum ; boil the wool 
gently for two hours ; let it cool, and 
wash the following day in pure water. 
Infuse twelve pounds of madder for 
half an hour with a pound of chloride 
of tin in lukewarm water, filter through 
canvas, remove the dye from the can- 
vas, and put in the bath, which is to be 
heated to 100 deg. Fahr. ; add two 
ounces of aluminous mordant^ put the 
wool in, and raise to boiling heat. Be- 
move the wool, wash, and soak for a 
quarter of an hour in a solution of 
white soap in water. 

439. YeUow. — ^Dye with that used for 
calico &c , 

44o! CALFS HEAD PIK— Boil the 
head an hour and a half, or rather more. 
After dining from it, cut the remaining 
meat off in slices. Boil the bones in a 
little of the liquor for three hours ; 
then strain it off, and let it remain till 
next day ; then take off the fat. To 
make the Pie. — ^Boil two eggs for five 
minutes; let them get col(^ then lay 
them in slices at the bottom of a pie- 
dish, and put alternate layers of meat 
and jelly, with pepper and chopped 
lemon also alternately, till the dish is 
full; cover with a crust and bake it. 
l^ext day turn the pie out upside 
down. 

441. CARPETS.— If the comer of a 
carpet gets loose and prevents the door 
opening, or trips every one up that 
enters the room, nail it down at once. 
A dog's-eared carpet marks the sloven 
as well as the dog's-eared book. An 
English gentleman, travelling some 
years ago in Ireland, took a hammer 
and tacks with him, because he found 
dog's-eared carpets at all the inns 
where he rested. At one of these inns 
he tacked down the carpet which, as 
usual, was loose near tJie door, and 
soon afterwards rang for his diimer. 
While the carpet was loose the door 



could not bo opened without a hard 
push ; so when the waiter came up, he 
just unlatched the door, and then going 
back a couple of yards, . he rushed 
against it, as his habit was, with a 
sudden spring to force it open. But 
the wrinkles of the carpet were no 
longer there to stop it, and not meet- 
ing with the expected .resistance, the 
unfortunate waiter fell full sprawl into 
the room. It had never entered his 
head that so much trouble nught be 
saved by means of a hammer and half- 
a-dozen tacks, until his fall taught him 
that make-shift is a very unprofitable 
kind of shift. There are a good many 
houses in England ivhere a similar 
practical lesson might be of service. — 
Hotue Furnishing. 

442. MINCE MEAT.— Take seven 
pounds of currants well picked and 
cleaned ; of finely chopped beef suet» 
the lean of a sirloin of beef minced raw, 
and finely chopped apples (Kentish or 
Gk>lden Pippins), each three and a half 
pounds ; citron, lemon peel, and oi*ang^ 
peel cut small, each half a pound ; fine 
moist sugar, two pounds; mixed spice, 
an ounce ; the rind of four lemons and 
four Seville oranges ; mix well, and put 
in a deep pan. Mix a bottle of brandy 
and white wine,, the juice of the lemons 
and oranges that have been grated, to- 
gether in a basin ; pour half over, and 
press down tight with the hand, then 
add the other half and cover closely. 
Some families make one year to use 
the next. 

443. ELEGANT BREAD PUD- 
DING.— Take light white bread, and 
cut in thin slices. Put into a pudding- 
shape a layer of any sort of preserve, 
then a slice of bread, and r^eat until 
the mould is almost full, four over 
all a pint of warm milk, in which four 
beaten eggs have been mixed; cover 
the mould with a piece of linen, place 
it in a saucepan with a little boiling 
water, let it boil twenty minutes, and 
serve with pudding sauce. 

444. CRAB, MOCK.— Take any re- 
quired quantity of good fat mellow 
cheese, pound it well in a mortar. 



PEBSSYBRAKCE SB THX BRIBOB BT WHICH DIFFICfULTT IB OYEBCOUS. 



93 



incoTporating made muBtard, salad oil, 
trinegar, pepper (oayenne is the best), 
md salt sufficient to eeason and render 
it about the oonsistence of the cream of 
& crab. Add and mix well half a pint 
or more of pickled shrimps, and serve 
in a crab-shell, or on a dish, garnished 
with slices of lemon. 

445. CURRIED BEEF, MADRAS 
WAY. — ^Take about two ounces of but- 
ter, and place it in a saucepan, with 
two small onions cut up into slices, and 
let them fry until they are a light 
brown ; then add a table-flpoonfiil and 
a half of curry powder, and mix it up 
well. Now put in the beef cut into 
pieces about an inch square ; pour in 
from a quarter to a third of a pint of 
Qulk, and let it simmer for thirty 
minutes ; then take it off, and place it 
in a dish, with a little lemon juice. 
Whilst cooking stir constantly, to pr»> 
vent it burning. Send to table with a 
wall of mashed potatoes or boiled rice 
round it. It greatly improves any 
c^irry to add with the milk a quarter 
of a cocoa-nut, scraped very smcdl, and 
squeezed through muslin with a little 
water; this softens the taste of the 
c^iny, and, indeed, no curry should be 
made without it. 

446. CHOICE OP FRIENDS.— We 
should ever haTO it fixed in our me- 
mories, that 6y the eha/racter of those 
wftoTO we choose for our friends, ottr 
om it likely to he fwrmedy and will 
OBrtainly be judged of by the world. 
We ought, therdfore, to be slow and 
cautious in contracting intimacy; but 
^hen a virtuous friendship is once es- 
taoliahed, we must ever consider it 
as a sacred engagement.— iV. Blair, 

447. STRASBURG POTTED MEAT. 
**^e a pound and a half of the rump 

o'beef, cut into dice, and put it in an 
earthen jar, with a quarter of a pound 
oj butter at the bottom, tie the jar 
fcTvl-^^ ^th paper, and set over a pot 
^ hoil : when nearly done, add cloves, 
^*^. allspice, nutmeg, salt, and cayenne 
P«Ppep to taste ; then boil till tender, 
ana let it get cold. Pound the meat, 
^^h four anchovies washed and bcndd ; 



add a quarter of a pound of oiled butt^, 
work it well together with the grayy, 
warm a little, and add cochineal to 
colour. Then press into small pots, 
and pour melted mutton suet over the 
top of each. 

448. HAMS, TONGUES, &c., GLAZ- 
ING FOR— Boil a shm of beef twelye 
hours in eight ^or ten quarts of water; 
draw the gravy from a knuckle of veal 
in the same manner; put the same 
herbs and spices as if for soup, and add 
the whole to the shin of beef, It must 
be boiled till reduced to a quart. It 
will keep good for a year ; and when 
wanted for use, warm a little, and 
spread over the ham, tongue, &c., with 
a feather. 

449. BOLOGNA SAUSAGES.— 
Take equal quantities of bacon, fat and 
lean, bee^ veal, pork, and beef suet ; 
chop them small, season with pepper, 
salt, &c., sweet herbs, and sage rubbed 
fine. Have a well-washed intestine, fill, 
and prick it ; boil gently for an hour, 
and lay on straw to dry. They maybe 
smoked the same as hams. 

460. FKUIT STAINS IN LINEN. 
— ^To remove them, rub the part on 
each side with yellow soap, then tie up 
a piece of pearlash in the cloth, &c., 
and sQAk well in hot water, or boil ; 
afterwards expose the stained part to 
the sun and air until removed. 

461. PRESERVING THE COLOUR 
OF DRESSES. — ^The colours of merinos, 
mousseline-de-laines, ginghams,chintzesy 
printed lawns, ftc., may be preserved 
by using water that is only milk-warm ; 
making a lather with white soap, hefore 
you put in the dress, instead of rubbing 
it on the material ; and stirring into a 
first and second tub of water a large 
tablespoonful of ox-gall. The gall can 
be obtained from tiie butcher, and a 
bottle of it should always be kept in 
every house. No coloured articles 
should be allowed to remain long in the 
water. They must be washed fast, and 
then rinsed through two cold vraters. 
Into each rinsing water, stir a teaspoon- 
ful of vinegar, which will help to 
brighten the colours ; and after xinsisg^ 



94 



SOLIVnDB IB XRB JTUBSB OF WlBDOlL 



hang them out immediatoly. When 
irimvnff-dr^ (or still a little damp}» 
bring them in ; have irons ready heated> 
and iron them at onoe, as it injurea the 
colours to allow them to remain damp 
too long, or to sprinkle and roll them 
up in a coveriitg for ironing next day. 
If they eannot be oonveniently ironed 
immediately, let them hang till they 
are quite dry ; and then damp and fi>ld 
them on ihefoUovfing day, a quarter of 
an hour before ironing. The best waj 
is not to do ooloured dresses on the day 
of the general wash* but to give them a 
morning by themselves. They should 
only be undertaken in clear bright 
weal^er. If allowed to freeze, the 
colours will be irreparably injured. 
We need scarcely say that no coloured 
articles should ever be boiled or scalded. 
If you get from a shop a slip for testing 
the durability of colours, give it a lab 
trial by washing it as above; after- 
wards, pinning it to the edge of a towel, 
and hanging it to dry. Some colours 
(espeeially pinks and light^greens), 
though they may stand perfeoUy well 
in washing, will change as soon as a 
warm iron is applied to them ; the pink 
turning purplish, and the green bluish. 
Ko coloured artiolie should be smoothed 
with a hat iron. 

462. SWEET BAOS FOR LINEN. 
— ^These may be composed of any mix- 
tures of the following articles : — ^flowers 
dried and pounded ; powdered cloves, 
mace, nutmeg, cinnamon; leaves — 
dried and pounded — of mint^ balm, 
dragou'-wort, southern-wood, ground- 
ivy, laurel, hyssop, sweet marjorum, 
origanum, rosemary; woods, such as 
cassia, juniper, rhodium, sandal-wood, 
and rose-woiod; roots of angelica, zedo- 
ary, orris; all the fragrant balsams; 
ambergris, musk, and^oivet. Theselatter 
should be carefully tned on linen. 

453. WEDDING-RINGS. —The cus- 
tom of wearing wedding-rings, appears 
to have taken its rise among the 
Romans. Before the celebration of 
their nuptials, there was a meeting of 
• friends at the house of the lady's fetther, 
tp settle articles of the marriage con- 



tmct, when it was agreed that the dowiy 
should be paid down on the wedding- 
day or soon after. On this occasion 
there was commonly a feast, at the 
conclusion of which the man gave to 
the woman, as a pledge^ a ring, which 
she put on the fourth finger of her left 
hand, beccmse it wets beUeved that.<t nerve 
reeuihed thence to the heart, and a day 
was then named for the marriage. 
(See 259.) 

454. TO AVOID CATCHINra COLD. 
— ^Accustom yourself to tiie use of 
sponging with cold water every mom* 
logon first getting out of bed. It should 
be followed with a good deal of rub- 
bing with a wet toweL It has consider- 
able effect in giving tone to the skin, 
and maintaining a proper action in 
it, and thus proves a safeguard to the 
injurious influence of cold and sudden 
changes of temperature. Sir Astley 
Cooper said, " The methods by which 
I have preserved my own healtik are — 
temperance, early rising, and i^onging 
the body every morning with cold 
water, immediately after getting out 
of bed; a practice which I have adopted 
for thirty years without ever catc^iing 
cold." 

465. CLEANING JAPANNED 
WAITERS, URNS, Ac.— Rub on with 
a sponge a little white soap and some 
lukewarm water, and wash the waiter or 
urn quite dean. Never use hot water, 
as it will cause the japan to scale off. 
Having wiped it dry, sprinkle a little 
flour over it j let it rest a while, and 
then rub it with a soft dry doth, and 
finish with a silk handkerchief If there 
are white heat marks on the waiters, 
they will be difficult to remove. But 
you may try rubbing them with a 
flannd dipped in sweet oilj and after- 
wards in spirits of wiae. Waiters and 
other articles of pa/pier mcbcM should 
be washed with a sponge and cold water, 
without so£^, dredged with flour while 
damp ; and after a while wiped off, and 
then polished with a silk handkerchief. 

456. CEREMONIES.— All ceremo- 
nies are in themselves very sillv things ; 
but yet a man of the worla should 



OOSTTENTMBNT SLKJCFS SOUNDLY. 



95 



know them. They ore the outworks of 
maimerB and decency, which would be 
too often broken in upon, if it were not 
for tibat defence which keeps the enemy 
at a proper distance. It is for that 
reason I always treat fools and cox- 
combs with great ceremony, true good* 
breeding not being a sufficient barrier 
against them. 

467. TO GLEAN- LOOKING- 
GLASSES, MIRRORS, &c.— If they 
should be hung so high that they can- 
not be oonyeniently reached, have a 
pair of steps to stand upon ; but mind 
that they stand steady. Then take a 
piece of soft sponge, well washed and 
cleaned from eYeiything gritty, just dip 
it into water and squeeze it out again, 
and then dip it into some spirits of 
wine. Rub it over the glass ; dust it 
oyer with some powder blue,. or whiting 
sifted through muslin,* rub it lightly 
and quickly off again, with a cloth ; 
then take a clean doth, and rub it well 
again, and finiah by rubbing it with a 
silk handkerchief. If the glass be very 
large, clean one half at a time, as other- 
wise the spirit of wine will dry before 
it can be rubbed off. If the frames are 
not Tarnished, the greatest care is 
necessary to keep them quite dry, so as 
not to touch them with . the sponge, as 
this will discolour or take off the gild- 
ing* To clean the frames, take a Uttla 
raw cotton in the state of wool, and rub 
the frames witii it ; this will take off all 
the dust and dirt without injuring the 
gilding. If the frames are well var- 
nished, rub them with spirit of wine, 
which will take out all spots, and give 
them a fine polish. Yamished doors 
inay be done in the same manner. 
Never use any cloth to frames or drav>- 
^^s, or unvarnished oil pabitings, when 
cleaning and dusting them. 

458. SCONES.— Flour, two pounds; 
Di-carbonate of soda, quarter of an ounce ; 
Bait, quarter of an ounce ; sour butter- 
nulk, one pint, more or less. Mix to the 
cynaistence of light dough, and roll out 
aoout half an inch thick, and cut them 
out to any shape you please, and bake 
on a girdle over a clear fire about ten 



or fifteen minutes; tunung them to, 
brown on both sides — or they may be 
done on a hot plat^ or ironing-stove* 
A girdle is a thin plate of cast iron 
about twelve or fourteen inches in. 
diameter, with a handle attached to 
hang it up by. — These scones are ez* 
cellent for tea^ and may be eaten either 
cold or hot, buttered, or with cheese. 

459. UlsTB^RMEKTED CAKES, &c. 
The retail price of soda is 8d. per. 
pouitd avoirdupois ; and the acid, known 
imder the more common name of spirits 
of salts, is 4d. per pound avoirdupois* 
The price of the acid and soda by the 
ounce is Id. each. 

460. Tea Cakes. — Take of floui, one 

pound ; sugar, one ounce ; butter, one 

ounce ; muriatic acid, two drachms ;, 

bi-carbonate of soda, two drachms ; milk, 

' six ounces ; water, six oimces. Rub the 

butter into the flour; dissolve the 
sugar and soda in the mOk, *and the 
acid in the water. First add the milk, 
&c. to the flour, and partially mix :. 
then the water and acid, and mix well 
together; divide into three portions,: 
and bake twenty-five minutes. Flat 
round tins or earthen pans ai*e the best 
to bake them in. If the above is made 
with baking powder, a teaspoonful 
may be substituted for the acid and 
soda in the above receipt, and all the 
other directions carried out as stated, 
above. If buttermilk is used, the acid, . 
milk, and water, must be left out. 

461. Unfekmented Cake. — Take of 
flour, one pound and a-half ; bi-carbo- 
nate of soda, three drachms ; muriatic 
acid, three drachms ; sugar, one oimce 
and a-half; butter, one oimce and a- 
half; milk, twenty ounces; cuiTants, 
six ounces, more or less. Mix the soda 
and butter into the flour by rubbing 
them together ; next dissolve the sugar 
in the milk, and diffuse the acid 
thi'ough it by stirring ; then mix the 
whole intimately, adding fruit at dis- 
cretion ; and bake in a tin or earthen 
pan. 

462. Luncheon Cakes. — Take of 
flour, one pound; muriatic acid; two 



96 



HOKESTT IB A STRONG STAFF TO LEAK XTPOK. 



drachmis; bi-carbonate of soda^ two 
drachms ; sugar, three ounces ; butter, 
three ounces ; currants, four ounces ; 
milk one pint or twenty ounces ; bake 
one hour in a quick oven. 

463. Nice Plum Cake. — Take of 
flour, one pound; bi-carbonate of soda, 
quarter of an ounce ; butter, six ounces ; 
loaf sugar, six oimces; currants, six 
ounces ; three eggs ; milk, about four 
ounces ; bake one hour and a half in a 
tin or pan. 

464. Lemon Buns. — Take of flour,, 
one pound ; bi-carbonate of soda, three 
drachms; muriatic acid, three drachms; 
butter, four ounces; loaf sugar, four 
ounces; one egg; essence of lemon, six 
or eight drops; make into twenty 
bunS; and bake in a quick oyen fifteen 
minutes. 

466. Soda Cake.— Take of flour half 
a poimd; bi-carbonate of soda, two 
drachms ; tartaric acid, two drachms ; 
butter four ounces ; white sugar^ two 
ounces; currants, four ounces; two 
eggs ; warm milk, half a teacupful. 

466. Excellent Biscuits. — ^Take of 
flour two pounds; carbonate of ammonia^ 
three drachms, in fine powder; white 
flugar, four ounces ; arrowroot,one ounce ; 
butter, four ounces ; one egg; mix into 
a stiff paste with new milk, and beat 
l^em well with a rolling-pin for half 
an hour ; roll out thin, and cut them 
out with a docker, and bake in a quick 
oven for fifteen minutes. 

467. Wine Biscuits. — Take of flour 
half a poimd ; butter, four ounces ; sugar, 
four ounces ; two eggs ; carbonate of 
ammonia, one drachm; white wine 
enough to mix a proper consistence, 
and cut out with a glass. 

468. Plain Suet Pudding. — ^Take of 
flour, one pound and a half; bi*carbonate 
of Bodtk, three drachms ; muriatic acid, 
three drachms ; beef-suet, four ottnces ; 
powdered ginger, half a drachm ; water 
or milk one pint. Mix according to 
the directions given for the tea-<^e, 
and boil or steam for two hours. 

469. Plum Pudding. — ^Take of flour, 
one pound ; bi-carbonate of soda, two 
drachms ; muriatic acid, two drachms ; 



beef-suet, eight ounces ; currants, eight 
ounces ; nutmeg and orange-peel, grated 
fine, quarter of an ounce ; three eggs. 
To be boiled or steamed four hours. 

470. Batter Pudding. — Take of flour, 
four oimces ; bi-carbonate of soda, two 
drachms ; a little sugar, and one egg. 
Mix with milk to a thin batter, and 
bake in a well-buttered tin, in a brisk 
oven half an hour. A few currants 
may be strewed in the bottom of the 
tin if preferred. 

471. Pastry FOR Tarts, &c. — Take of 
flour one poimd ; bi-carbonate of soda, 
two drachms; muriatic acid, two 
drachms; bu^r, six ounces. Water 
enough to bring it to the consistence 
required. __ 

472. BREAD PUDDING. — ITnfei> 
mented brown bread, two ounces ; milk, 
half a pint ; one egg ; sugar, quarter of 
an ounce. Cut the bread into slices, 
and pour the milk over it boiling hot ; 
let it stand till well soaked, and stir in 
the egg and sugar, well beaten, with a 
little grated nutmeg; and bake or steam 
for one hour. 

473. SUGAR-BISCUITS.— Cut the 
butter into the flour. Add the sugar and 
carraway seeds. Pour in the brandy, 
and then the milk. Lastly, put in the 
pearl-ash. Stir, all well with a knife, 
and mix it thoroughly, till it becomes 
a lump of dough. Flour your paste- 
board, and lay the dough on it. Knead 
itveiy well. Divide it into eight or 
ten pieces, and knead each piece sepa- 
rately. Then put them all together, 
and knead them very well into one 
lump. Cut the dough in half, and roll 
it out into sheets, about half an inch 
thick. Beat the sheets of dough very 
hard on both sides with the rollmg-pin. 
Cut them out into round cakes witix the 
edge of a tumbler. Butter iron pans, 
and lay the cakes in them. Bake them 
of a very pale brown. If done too 
much, they will lose their taste. Let 
the oven be hotter at the top than at 
the bottom. These cakes kept in a 
stone jar, closely covered from the air, 
will continue perfectly good for several 
months. 



BE NOT THE FIRST TO QUARREL WITH A FRIEND. 



97 



474. BALLS AND EVENINa PAR- 

TIES. 

475. An invitation to a ball should 
be given at least a week befoi*ehand. 

476. Upon entering, first address the 
lady of the house ; and after her, the 
nearest acquaintances you may recog- 
nise in the house. 

477. If you introduce a friend, make 
h&m acquainted with the names of the 
chief persons present. But first present 
Mm to the lady of the house, and to 
the host. 

478. Appear in full dress. 

479. Always wear gloves. 

480. Do not wear rings on the out- 
cJde of your gloves. 

481. Avoid an excess of jewellery. 

482. Do not select the same partner 
frequently. 

483. Distribute your attentions as 
much as possible. 

484. Pay respectful attention to 
^derly persons. 

485. Be cordial when serving refresh- 
ments, but not importunate. 

486. If there are more dancers than 
the room will accommodate, do not 
join in every dance. 

487. In leaving a large party it is 
minecessary to bid farewell, and im- 
proper to do so before the guests. 

488. A Paris card of invitation to an 
evening party usually implies that you 
are invited for the season. 

489. In balls and large parties there 
should be a table for cards, and two 
paeks ai cards placed upon each table. 

490. 'Chess and all unsociable games 
should be avoided. 

491. Although many persons do not 
like to play at cai*ds except for a stake, 
the stakes agreed to at parties should 
be very trifling, so as not to create ex- 
citement or discussion. 

492. The host and hostess should 
look after their guests, and not confine 
their attentions. They should, in fact, 
assist those chiefly who are the least 
known in the room. 

493. Avoid political and religious 
discussions. If you have a "hobby," 
keep it to yourself. 



494. After dancing, conduct your 
partner to a seat. 

495. Besign her as soon as her next 
partner advances. 

{For the Figures of Dances, consult 
the Index, — See 864.) 

496. TO PREVENT THE SMOK- 
ING 0F\ lamp.— Soak the wick in 
strong vinegar, and well dry it before 
you use it. 

497. EGGS MAY BE PRESERVED 
by applying with a brush a solution of 
gum-arabic to the shells, and afterwards 
packing them in dry charcoal dust. 

498. TO RENDER SHOES WATER- 
PROOF.— Warm a little bee's-waxand 
mutton suet until it is liquid, and rub 
some of it slightly over the edges of the 
sole where the stitches are. {See 70.) 

499. TO CLEAN CANE CHAIRS. 
— Sponge them until soaked, with soap 
and hot water. 

500. MARBLE MAY BE CLEANED 
by mixing up a quantity of the strong- 
est soap-lees with quick-lime, to the 
consistence of milk, and laying it on 
the marble for twenty-four hours; clean 
it afterwards with soap and water. 

601. A GREEN PAINT FOR GARi- 
DEN-STANDS, Ac, may be obtained 
by mixing a quantity of mineral green 
and white lead, ground in turpentine, 
with a small portion of turpentine var- 
nish for the first coat ; for the second 
put as much varnish in the colour as 
will produce a good gloss. 

602. INK-SPOTS may be taken out 
of mahogany by applying spirits of salt. 

603. STAINS may be i-emoved from 
the hands by washing them in a small 
quantity of oil of vitriol and cold water 
without soap. 

604. WAX nay be taken out of cloth 
by holding a red-hot iron within an inch 
or two of the marks, and afterwai*ds 
rubbing them with a soft clean rag. 

605. SILK ARTICLES should not 
be kept folded in white papers, as the 
chloride of lime used in bleaching the 
paper will impair the colour of the silk 

606. MILDEWED LINEN may be 
I restored by soaping the spots, whild 



98 



OlfB DOUBT MA7 LEAD TO DISBBLIBF. 



wet, coyering them with fine chalk 
scraped to powder, and well rubbed in. 

507. TO TAKE INK-STAINS OUT 
OF A COLOURED TABLE-COVER.— 
Dissolve a teaspoonfol of oxalic acid in 
a tea-cup of hot water; rub the stained 
part well with the solution. 

608. BURN.— The first application to 
a bum should be sweet oil, phtthig it 
on immediately, till other remedies can 
be prepared. 

509. A HALF-WORN CARPET 
may be made to last longer by ripping 
it apart, and transposing the breadths. 

510. MEDICINE STAINS may be 
removed from silver spoons by rubbing 
them with a rag dipped in sulphuric 
acid, and Washing it off with soap-suds. 

Sll.PAPIER-MACHEarfcicles should 
be washed with a sponge and cold 
water without soap, dredged with flour 
while damp, and polished with a flan- 
nel. 

512. TO LOOSEN A GLASS STOP- 
PER. — ^Pour round it a little sweet oil 
close to the mouth of the bottle, and 
lay it near the fire ; afterwards wrap a 
thick cloth roimd the end of a stick 
and strike the stopper gently. {See 254.) 

513. GLASS should be washed in 
cold water, which gives it a brighter 
and clearer look than when cleansed 
with warm water. 

514. IRON WIPERS. — Old soft 
towels, or pieces of old sheets or table- 
cloths, make excellent iron wipers. 

615. TO BLEACH A FADED 
DRESS. — ^Wash it well in hot suds, and 
boil it until the colour seems to be 
gone, then wash, and rinse, and dry it 
in the sun ; if still not quite white 
repeat the boiling. 

516. FLANNEL should always be 
washed with white soap, «nd> in warm 
but not boiling water. 

517^ A HAT should be brushed 
every day with a hat-brush, and twice 
a-day in dusty weather. 

61 8r RINGS that have stones in 

them should always be taken ofif the 

finger when the hands are washed, else 

they become discoloured. 

. 519. COLD GREEN TEA, veiy 



strong, and sweetened with sugar, wil^ 
when set about in saucers, attract flies, 
and destroy them. 

520. CLOTHES CLOSETS that hav© 
become infested with moths should be- 
well rubbed with a strong decoctioot. 
of tobacco, and repeatedly sprinkled 
with spirits of camphor. 

521. THE STING OF A NETTLE, 
may be cured by iiibbing the part witlk 
rosemary, mint, or sage leaves. 

522. CHARCOAL FUMES.-— The: 
usual remedies for persons overoome- 
with the fumes of charcoal in a dose- 
apartment are, to throw cold water oxb 
the head and to bleed immediately; 
also apply mustard or hartshorn to t^e 
soles of the feet. 

623. AN EVER-DIRTY HEARTH, 
and a grate always choked with cinders* 
and ashes, are infallible evidences of 
bad house- keeping. 

524. TO EXTINGUISH A FIRE ia 
the chimney, besides any water at hand^ 
throw on it salt, or a handful of flour of 
sulphur as soon as you can obtain it ;; 
keep all the doors and windows tightly 
shut, and hold before the fire-place a. 
blanket or some woollen article to ex- 
clude the air. {See 695.) 

525. READING IN BED at night, 
should be avoided, as, besides the- 
danger of an accident, it never fsdls tO' 
injure the eyes. 

526. IN ESCAPING FROM AFIRE,, 
creep or crawl along the room with 
your face close to the groimd. Children 
should be eai'ly taught how to press out 
a spark when it happens to reach any 
part of their dress, and also that running- 
into the air will cause it to blaze imme> 
diately. {See 696.) 

527. LIME WATER beaten up with 
sweet oil is an excellent ointment fox- 
bums. 

628. PAPERFIRE-SCREENS should 
be coated with transparent varnish^ 
otherwise they will soon become soiled 
and discoloured. 

629. THE BEST LAMP-OIL k that 
which is clear and nearly colourless, 
like water. 

590. OIL-GREASE may be reoMiYed 



ONE KIND WORD MAT TI7BN ASIDE A TOKREWT OF ANQEB. 



99 



from an hearth by covering it imme- 
diately with thick hot ashes^ or with 
oiu*ning coals. 

631. CANDLES improve by keeping 
a few months. If wax ciindles become 
discoloured or soiled, they may be re- 
stored by rubbing them over with a 
clean flannel slightly dipped in spirits 
of wine. 

632. IN LIGHTING CANDLES 
always hold the match to the side of the 
wick, and not over the top. 

533. IN CHOOSING PAPER FOR 
A ROOM, avoid that which has a variety 
of colours, or a large showy figure, as 
no furniture can appear to advantage 
with such. Large figured papering 
makes a small room look smaller. 

6Zi. FOR KEEPING A DOOR 
OPEN, place a large brick covered 
neatly with a piece of carpeting against 
the door. 

636. A STAIR-CARPET should 
never be swept down with a long broom, 
but always with a short-handled brush, 
and a dust-pan held closely under each 
step of the stairs. 

686. OIL-CLOTH should never be 
scrubbed with a brush, but, after being 
first swept, it should be cleansed by 
washing with a large soft cloth and 
lukewarm or cold water. On no ac- 
count use soap or hot water, as either 
will biing off the paint. 

537. STRAW-MATTING may be 
cleaned with a large coarse cloth dipped 
in salt and water, and then wiped dry : 
the salt prevents the matting from 
turning yellow. 

638. OIL-PAINTINGS hung over the 
mantle-piece are liable to wrinkle with 
the heat. 

539. OTTOMANS and SOFAS, whe- 
ther covered with cloth, damask, or 
ohintz, will look much the better for 
being oleaned occasionally with bran 
and flannel. 

640. FURNITURE made in the 
winter, and brought from a cold ware- 
house into a wai-m apartment, is very 
liable to crack. 

641. ROSEWOOD FURNITURE 
should be rubbed gently every day 



with a clean soft cloth to keep it in 
order. 

542. DINING-TABLES may be 
polished by rubbing them for some 
time with a soft cloth and a little cc^- 
drawn linseed oil. 

543. IRON-STAINS may be removed 
from marble by wetting the spots with 
oil of vitriol, or with lemon-juice, or 
with oxalic add diluted in spirits of 
wine, and, after a quarter of an hour, 
rubbing them dry with a soft linen 
cloth. 

644. SILVER and PLATED WARE 
should be washed with a sponge and 
warm soapsuds every day after using, 
and wiped dry with a dean soft towel. 

545. CHINA TEA-POTS are tha 
safest, and, in many respects,, the most 
pleasant. Wedgwood ware is very £^t, 
after a time, to acquire a disagreeable 
taste 

646. JAPANNED URNS, WAIT- 
ERS, &c., should be cleaned widi a 
sponge and cold water, finishing with a 
soft dry cloth. 

547. TO CLEAN LOOKING- 
GLASSES.— Fkst wash the glass all 
over with lukewarm soap-suds and a 
sponge. When dry, rub it bright with 
a buckskin and a little pi'epared chalk 
finely powdered. 

548. A MAHOGANY FRAME should 
be first well dusted, and then cleaned, 
with a flannel dipped in sweet oil. 

549. BRONZED CHANDELIERS, 
LAMPS, &o., should be merely dusted 
with a feather-brush, or with a soft 
cloth, as washing them will take off the 
bronzing. 

650. TO CLEAN KNIVES AND 
FORKS.--Wash the blades in warm 
(but not hot) water, and afterwards rub 
them lightly over with powdered rotten- 
stone wet to a paste with a little cold 
water, then polish them with a clean 
cloth. 

561. BLACKING FOR STOVES 
may be made with half a pound of black 
lead finely powdered, and (to make it 
stick) mix with it the whites of tliree 
eggs well beaten ; then dilute it with 
sour beer or porter till it becomes as 



100 



HOW MUCH PAIN THE EVILS HAVE COST tTS 



thin as shoe-blacking ; after stirring it, 
set it over hot ooals to simmer for 
twenty minutes ; when cold it may be 
kept for use. 

552. FOR CLEANINa BRASSES 
belonging to mahogany furniture either 
powdered whiting or scraped rotten- 
stone mixed with sweet-oil and rubbed 
on with a buckskin is good. 

558. THE BEST COVERING FOR 
A KITCHEN FLOOR is a thick un- 
figured oil-cloth, of one colour. 

554. MEAT may be kept several 
days in the height of summer, sweet 
and good, by lightly covering it with 
bran, and hanging it in some high or 
windy room, or in a passage where 
there is a current of air. 

555. AVHEN VELVET GETS 
FLUSHED from pressure, hold the 
parts over a basin of liot water, with 
the lining of the dress next the water ; 
the pile will soon rise and assume its 
original beauty. 

556. A TIGHT BOOT OR SHOE 
goes on easier when thoroughly warmed 
by turning the soles next to the fire. 

657. GLASS VESSELS, and other 
titensils, may be purified and cleaned 
by rinsing them out with powdered 
charcoal. 

558. HOUSEHOLDERS would exer- 

'cise a wise precaution against fires by 

directing that the last person up should 

perambulate the premises previous to 

■going to bed, to ascertain that all fires 

'-are s^e and lights extinguished. 

659. SHOULD A FIRE BREAK 
OUT in a chimney, a wetted blanket 
should be nailed to the upper ends of 
the mantel -piece, so as to cover the 
opening entirely, when the fire will go 
-outofitselfi (5ce524.) 

560. ALL FLANNELS should be 
soaked before they are made up, first 
in cold then in hot water, in order to 
shrink them. 

661. WORSTED AND LAMBS*- 
WOOL STOCKINGS should never be 
mended with worsted or lambs'-wool, 
because the latter being new it shrinks 
more than the stockings, and draws 
them up till the toes become short and 



narrow, and the heels have no shape 
left. 

562. PRESERVED GINGER is 
made by scalding the young roots till 
they become tender, then peeling them 
in cold water, frequently changing the 
water ; and after this they are put into 
a thin syrup, from which, in a few days, 
they are removed to the jars, and a 
rich syrup poured over them. 

563. WHEN MUCH PASTRY IS 
MADE in a house, a good quantity of 
fine flour should be kept on hand, in 
dry jars, and quite secured from the 
air, as it makes lighter pastry and bread 
when kept a short time, than when 
quite fresh ground. 

564. TO SOFTEN HARD WATER, 
or purify river water, simply boil it, 
and then leave it to atmospheric expo- 
sure 

565. WHERE PAINTED WAINS- 
COT, or other wood-work requires 
cleaning, fuller's earth will be found 
cheap and useful; and, on wood not 
painted, it forms an excellent substi- 
tute for soap. 

566. TO DESTROY FLIES in a 
room, take half a tea-spoonful of black 
pepper in powder, one tea-spoonful of 
brown sugar, and one table-spoonful of 
ci*eam, mix them well together, and 
place them in the room on a plate, 
where the flies are troublesome, and 
they will soon disappear. 

567. WHERE A CHIMNEY 
SMOKES only when a fire is first 
lighted, it may be guarded against by 
allowing the fire to kindle gradually. 

568. WHENEVER OIL IS USED 
for the purpose of artificial light, it 
should be kept free £i*om all exposure 
to atmospheric air ; as it is apt to ab- 
sorb considerable quantities of oxygen. 
If oil is very coarse or tenacious, a 
very small quantity of oil of turpen- 
tine may be added. 

569. FAMILY CLOCKS ought only 
to be oiled with the very purest oil, 
purified by a quart of lime-water to a 
gallon of oil, in which it has been well 
shaken, and suffered to stand for three 
or four days, when it may be drawn o£El 



THAT HAVB KKYER HAPPENED. 



101 



670. TO HEAT A BED at a mo- 
ment's notice, throw a little salt into 
the warming-pan and suffer it to bum 
for a minute previous to use. 

571. TO ASCERTAIN WHETHER 
A BED BE AIRED. — Introduce 
a glass goblet between the sheets 
for a minute or two, just when 
the warming-pan is taken out ; if the 
bed be dry, there will only be a slight 
cloudy appearance on the glass, but if 
not, the damp of the bed will assume 
the more formidable appearance of 
drops, the warning of danger. 

672. FLOWERS and shrubs should be 
excluded from a bed-chamber. 

673. WATER of every kind, except 
rain water, will speedily cover the in- 
side of a tea-kettle with an unpleasant 
crust ; this may easily be guarded 
against by placing a clean oyster-shell 
in the tea-kettle, which will always 
keep in good order, by attracting the 
particles of eai*th or of stone. 

574, IN PREPARING TEA a good 
economist will be careful to have the 
best water, that is, the softest and 
least impregnated with foreign mixture ; 
for if tea be infused in hard and in soft 
water, the latter will always yield the 
greatest quantity of the tanning matter, 
and will strike the deepest black, with 
sulphate of iron in solution. 

675. IN MAKING COFFEE, observe 
that the broader the bottom and the 
smaller the top of the vessel, the better 
it will be. 

676. TO DRIVE AWAY MOTHS 
from clothes, wrap up some yellow or 
turpentine soap in paper ; or place an 
open bottle containing spirits of turpen- 
tine in the wardrobe. 

677. THE WHITE OF AN EGG, 
well beaten with quicklime, and a small 
quantity of very old cheese, forms an 
excellent substitute for cement, when 
wanted in a hurry, either for broken 
china or old ornamental glass ware. 

678. COOKS should be cautioned 
against the use of charcoal in any quan- 
tity, except where there is a free current 
of air ; for charcoal is highly prejudidal 
in a i^te of ignition, although it may 



be rendered even actively beneficial 
when boiled, as a small quanUty of it, 
if boiled with meat on the turn, will 
effectually cure the unpleasant tahit. 

679. THE HOUSEWIFE who is 
anxious to di*ess no more meat than will 
stiffice for the meal, should know that 
beef loses about one poxmd in four in 
boiling, but in roasting, loses in the 
proportion of one pound five ounces, 
and in baking about two ounces less, or 
one pound three ounces ; mutton loses 
in boiling about fourteen ounces in four 
pounds; in roasting, one poimd six 
ounces. 

580. THE ENGLISH, generally 
speaking, are very deficient in the prac- 
tice of culinary economy; a French 
family would live well on what is often 
wasted in an English kitchen: the 
bones, drippings, pot-liquor, remains of 
fish, vegetables, &c., which are too often 
consigned to the grease-pot or the dust- 
heap, might, by a very tiifling degree of 
management on the part of the cook, or 
mistress of a family, be converted into 
sources of daily support and comfoi*t, 
at least to some poor pensioner or other, 
at an expense that even the miser could 
scarcely grudge. 

581. IF YOtr ARE ABOlrt" TO 
FURNISH A HOUSE, do not spend 
all your money, be it much or little. 
Do not let the beauty of this thing, and 
the cheapness of that, tempt you to 
buy unnecessary articles. Doctor 
Franklin's maxim was a wise one — 
''Nothing is cheap that we do not 
want." Buy merely enough to get 
along with at first. It is only by expe- 
rience that you can tell what vdll be 
ike wants of your family. If you 
spend all your money, you will find 
you have purchased many things you 
do not want, and have no means left to 
get many things which you do want. 
If you have enough, and more than 
enough, to get everthing suitable to 
your situation, do not think you must 
spend it all, merely because you hap- 
pen to have it. Begin humbly. As 
riches increase, it is easy and pleasant 
to increase in comforts; but It is 



102 



TAKE THINGS ALWATS BT THE SMOOTH HANDLE. 



always painful and inconyenient to de- 
crease. After all, these things are 
viewed in their proper light by the 
ti:uly judicious and respectable. Neat- 
ness, tastefulness, and good sense may 
be shown in the management of a small 
household, and the arrangement of a 
little furniture, as well as upon a larger 
scale; and these qualities are always 
pi*aised, and always treated with re- 
spect and attention. The considei*a- 
tion which many purchase by living 
beyond their income, and, of course, 
living upon others, is not worth the 
trouble it costs. The glare there is 
about this false and wicked parade is 
deceptive ; it does not, in fact, procure 
a man valuable fiiends, or extensive 
influence. 

582. IF A LARDER BY ITS POSI- 
TION^ will not admit of opposite win- 
dows, then a current of air must be 
admitted by means of a flue from the 
outside. 

683. THE BENEFICIAL EF- 
FECTS OF CHARCOAL in stojpping 
putrefaction are now well ascertained ; 
fish or meat may be restored by boil- 
ing charcoal with them. {See 320.) 

584. **^ MORNING'S gMlLK" says an 
eminent Grerman philosopher, " com- 
monly yields some hundredths more 
cream than the evening's at the same 
temperature. That milked at noon 
furnishes the least ; it would therefore 
be of advantage in making butter and 
cheese, to employ the morning's milk, 
and to keep the evening^ s for domestic 
use." 

585. BREAD contains eighty nutri- 
tious parts in 100 ; meal thirty-four in 
100; French beans ninety-two in 100; 
common beans, eighty-nine in 100 ; peas, 
ninety-three in 100 ; lentils, ninety-four 
in 100 ; cabbages and turnips, the most 
aqueous of all the vegetables compared, 
produce only eight pounds of solid 
matter in 100 pounds; carrots and 
spinaoli produce fourteen in the same 
quantity; whilst 100 pounds of pota- 
toes contain twenty-five pounds of dry 

' substance. From a general estimate it 
results, that one pound of good bread 



is equal to two pounds and a half or 
three pounds of potatoes ; that seventy- 
five pounds of bread and thirty of meat 
may be substituted for 300 pounds of 
potatoes. The other substances bear 
the following proportions : four parts 
of cabbage to one of potatoes ; three 
parts of turnips to one of potatoes ; 
two parts of carrots and spinach to 
one of potatoes ; and about three parts 
and a half of potatoes to one of rice, 
lentils, beans, French-beans, and diy 
peas. 

686. TO TEST FLOUR, people m 
the trade generally knead a small quan- 
tity by way of experiment ; if good, the 
flour immediately forms an adhesive, 
elastic paste, which will readily assume 
any form that may be given to it, 
without danger of breaking. Pui*e and 
unadulterated flour may likewise be 
easily distinguished by other methods : 
seize a handful briskly, and squeeze it 
half a minute ; it preserves the form of 
the cavity of the hand in one piece, 
although it may be rudely placed on 
the table ; not so that which contains 
foreign substances, it breaks in pieces 
more or less ; that mixed with whiting 
being the most adhesive, but still 
dividing and falling down in a little 
time. 

687. A GREAT INCREASE ON 
HOME-MADE BREAD, even equal to 
one-fifth, may be produced by using 
bran water for kneading the dough. 
The proportion is three pounds of bran 
for every twenty-eight pounds of flour, 
to be boiled for an hour, and then 
Bti*ained through a hair-sieve. 

688. EXCELLENT PASTE for fruit 
or meat pies may be made with two- 
thirds of wheat flour, one-third of the 
flour of boiled potatoes, and some butter 
or dripping ; the whole bein? brought 
to a proper consistence with warm 
water, and a small quantity of yeast 
added when lightness is desired. This 
will also make very pleasant cakes for 
breakfast, and may be made with or 
without spices, fruits, &o. 

689. POTATOES.— There are few 
articles in families more subject to 



NOTHING IS TROUBLESOME THAT WE DO WILEINQLT. 



103 



waste, both in paiing, boiling, and being 
actually thrown away, than potatoes; 
asid there are few cooks but what boil 
twice as many potatoes every day as 
are wanted, and fewer still that do not 
throw the residue away, as totally unfit 
an any shape for the next day's meal ; 
yet if they would take the trouble to 
iieat up the despised cold potatoes with 
an equal quantity of flour, they would 
&id them produce a much lighter 
Rumpling or pudding than they can 
make with flour alone ; and by the aid 
of a few spoonfuls of good gravy, they 
will provide a cheap and agreeable 
■appendage to the dinner-table. 0ee 122.) 
590. BOILING.— This most simple 
•of culinary processes is not often per- 
formed in perfection; it does not re- 
•quire quite so much nicety and attend- 
ance as roasting; to skim your pot 
well, and keep it really boiling (the 
slower the better) all the while —to 
know how long is required for doing 
the joint, &c., and to take it up at the 
<critical moment when it is done enough 
— comprehends almost the whole art 
and mystery. This, however, demands 
a patient and perpetual vigilance, of 
which few persons are, unhappily, capa- 
ble. The cook must take especial care 
that the water really boils all the while 
she is cooking, or she will be deceived 
in the time ; and make up a sufficient 
'^re (a frugal cook will manage with 
much less fire for boiling than she uses 
;for roasting) at first, to last all the 
•time, without much mending or stir- 
Ting, and thereby save much trouble. 
When the pot is coming to a boil, 
there will always, from the cleanest 
meat and clearest waiter, rise a scum to 
the top of it; proceeding partly from 
the foulness of the meat, and partly 
from the water: this must be care- 
fully taken oS, as soon as it rises. On 
this depends the good appearance of 
all boiled things, an essential mat- 
-ter. When you have scummed well, 
put in some cold water, which 
will i^row up the rest of the scum. 
'*Fhe oftener it is scummed, and the 
cleaner the top of the water is kept, 



the cleaner will be the meat. K let 
alone, it soon boils down and . stickB to 
the meat; which, instead of looking 
delicately white and nice, will have 
that coarse and filthy appearance we 
have too often to complain of, and the 
butcher and poulterer be blamed for 
the carelessness of the cook in not 
scumming her pot with due diligence. 
Many put in milk, to make what they 
boil look white, but this does more 
harm than good : others wrap it up in 
a cloth ; but these are needless pre- 
cautions ; if the scum be attentively re- 
moved, meat will have a much more 
delicate colour and finer flavour that it 
has when muffled up. This may give 
rather more trouble — ^but those who 
wish to excel in their art, must only 
consider how the processes of it can be 
most perfectly performed : a cook who 
has a proper pride and pleasure in her 
business, will make this her maxim 
and ^le on all occasions. Put your 
meat into cold water, in the proportion 
of about a quai*^ of water to a pound of 
meat ; it should be covered with water 
during the whole of the process of boil- 
ing, but not drowned in it; the less 
water, provided the meat be covered 
with it, the mAre savoury will be the 
meat, and the better will be the broth 
in every respect. The water should be 
heated gradually, according to the thick- 
ness, &c., of the article boiled ; for in- 
stance, a leg of mutton of ten pounds 
weight should be placed over a mode- 
rate fire, which will gradually make the 
water hot, without causing it to boil for 
about forty minutes ; if the water boils 
much sooner, the meat will be hard- 
ened, and shrink up as if it was 
scorched — by keeping the water a cer- 
tain time heating without boiling, its 
fibres are dilated, and it yields a quan- 
tity of scum, which must be taken off 
as soon as it rises, for the reasona al- 
ready mentioned. " If a vessel con- 
taining water be placed over a steady 
fire, the water will grow continual^ 
hotter, till it reaches the limit of boil- 
ing ; after which, the regular accessions 
of heat are wholly spent in conreriiBg 



104 



WU SELDOM REPENT OF HAYINQ EATEN TOO LITTLE. 



it into steam ; the water remains at the 
same pitch of ^temperature, however 
fiercely it boils. ThQ only difference 
IP, that with a strong fire it sooner 
comes to boil, and more quickly boils 
away, and is converted into steam." 
Such are the opinions stated by Bucha- 
nan in his " Economy of Fuel." There 
was placed a thermometer in water in 
that state which cooks call gentle sim- 
mering — ^the heat was 212", i. e,, the 
same degree as the strongest boiUng. 
Two mutton chops were covered witii 
cold water, and one boiled fiercely, and 
the other simmered gently, for three- 
quarters of an hour ; the flavour of the 
chop which was simmered was decidedly 
superior to that wh^h was boiled ; the 
liquor which boiled fast, was in like 
proportion more savoury, and, when 
cold, had much more fat on its surface ; 
this explains why quick boiling renders 
meat hard, &c. — ^because its juices are 
extracted in a greater degree. (See 289). 

591. Beckon the tiio: for its first 
coming to a boil. The old rule of 
fifteen minutes to a pound of meat, we 
think rather too little ; the slower it 
boils, the tenderer, the plumper, and 
whiter it will be. For those who choose 
their food thoroughly c4oked (which all 
will who have any regard for their 
stomachs), twenty minutes to a pound 
will not be foimd too much for gentle 
simmeiing by the side of the fire; 
allowing more or less time, according 
to the thickness of the joints and the 
coldness of the weather; always remem- 
bering, the slower it boils the better. 
Without some practice it is difficult to 
teach any art ; and cooks seem to sup- 
pose they must be right, if they put 
meat into a pot, and set it over the fire 
for a certain time — ^making no allow- 
ance, whether it simmers without a 
bubble, or boils a gallop. 

592. Fresh killed Meat will take 
much longer time boiling than that 
which has been kept till it is what the 
butchers call ripe, and longer in cold 
than in warm weather ; if it be frozen, 
it must be thawed before boiling as 
before roasting ; if It be fresh killed, it 



will be tough and hard, if you stew it 
ever so long, and ever so gently. In 
cold weather, the night before you 
dress it, bring it into a place of which 
the temperature is not less than forty* 
five degrees of Fahrenheit's ther- 
mometer. The size of the boiling pots 
should be adapted to what they are to 
contain; the larger the saucepan the 
more room it takes upon the fire ; and 
a larger quantity of water requires a 
proportionate increase of fire to boil it. 
In small families, we recommend block 
tin saucepans, &c., as lightest ami 
safest ; if proper care is taken of them, 
and they are well dried after they are 
cleansed, they are by far the cheapest ; 
the purchase of a new tin saucepan 
being little more than the expense of 
tinning a copper one. Take care that 
the covers of your boiling pots fit close^ 
not only to prevent unnecessary 
evaporation of the water, but that the 
smoke may not insinuate itself under 
the edge of the lid, and give the meat a 
bad taste. 

593. If tou let Meat or Poultry 
REMAIN IN THE Water after it is done 
enough, it will become sodden and lose 
its flavour. 

594. Beef and Mutton a little under- 
done (especially very large joints, which 
will make the better hash or broil) is 
not a great fault — ^by some people it is 
preferred; but lamb, pork, and veal, 
are uneatable if not thoroughly boiled 
— ^but do not overdo them. A trivet, 
or fish-di*ainer, put on the bottom of 
the boiling po^ raising the contents 
about an inch and a-half from the bot- 
tom, will prevent that side of the meat 
which comes next the bottom from 
being done too much — and the lower 
part of the meat will be as delicately 
done as the other part ; and this wiU 
enable you to take out the contents of 
the pot without sticking a fork, &c^ 
into it. If you have not a trivet, use 
four skewers, or a soup-plate laid tho 
wrong side upwards. 

595. Take care of the liquor you 
have boiled poultry or meat in ; in Ay^ 
minutes you may make it into soup* 



FBIDE COSTS MORE THAN HUNGER, THIRST, OR COLD. 



105 



696. The good housbwifb never 
bofls a joint without converting the 
broHi into «ome sort of soup. 

597. If the liquor be too salt, 
only use half the quantity, and the 
Test water ; wash salted meat well with 
cold water before you put it into the 
boiler. 

598. ROASTING. — Beef. — ITie 
noble sirloin of about fifteen pounds 
^if n&uoh thicker the outside will be 
done too much before the inside is 
<enough), will require to be before the 
fire about three and a-half or four 
hours. Take care to spit it evenly, 
that it may not be heavier on one side 
iSian the other ; put a little clean drip- 
ping imto the dripping-pan (tie a sheet 
of paper over it to preserve the fat), 
baste it well as soon as it is put down, 
and every quarter-of-an-hour all the 
time it is roasting, till the last half- 
hour; then take off the paper and 
make some gravy for it, stir the fire 
and make it clear ; to brown and froth 
it, sprinkle a little salt over it, baste it 
with butter, and dredge it with flour ; 
let it go a few minutes longer, till the 
froth rises, take it up, put it on the 
dish, k,c. Qamish it with hillocks of 
horse-radish, scraped as fine as possible 
with a very sharp knife. 

599. A Yorkshire Pudding is an 
excellent accompaniment. 

600. Ribs of Beef. — The three 
first ribs, of fifteen or twenty pounds, 
will take three hours, or three and a- 
balf : the fourth and fifth ribs will take 
as long, managed in the same way as 
the sirloin. Paper the fat and the thin 
part, or it will be done too much, be- 
fore the thick part is done enough. 

601. Ribs of Beef boned and 
■ROLLED.— When you have kept two or 
three ribs of beef till quite tender, take 
out the bones, and skewer it as round 
as possible (like a fillet of veal) ; be- 
-fore they roll it, some cooks egg it, and 
sprinkle it with veal stuffing. As the 
meat is more in a solid mass, it will re- 
qnitv more time at the fire than in the 
-preceding receipt : a piece of ten or 
iw^Te pou«dfl wdght will not be well 



and thoroughly roasted in less than 
four and a half or five hours. For the 
first half-hour it should not be less 
than twelve inches from the fire, that 
it may get gradually warm to the centre; 
the last haJf-hour before it will be 
finished, sprinkle a little salt over it, 
and if you wish to froth it, flour it, &c. 

602. Mutton. — As beef requires a 
large soimd fire, mutton must have a 
brisk and sharp one ; if you wish to 
have mutton tender it should be hung 
as long as it will keep, and then good 
eight-tooth, i. e .four years* old mutton, 
is as good eating as venison. 

603. The Leg, Haunch, and Saddli^ 
will be the better for being hung up in 
a cool airy place for four or five days at 
least ; in temperate weather a week ; 
in cold weather, ten days. A leg of 
eight pounds will take about two hours ; 
let it be well basted. 

604. A Chine or Saddle— t. e., the 
two loins, of ten or eleven potmds — 
two hours and a half. It is the busi- 
ness of the butcher to take off the skin 
and skewer it on again, to defend the 
meat from extreme heat, and preserve 
its succulence. If this is neglected, 
tie a sheet of paper over it ; baste the 
strings you tie it on with directly, or 
they will bum. About a quarter of an 
hour before you think it will be done, 
take off the skin or paper, that it may 
get a pale brown colour, and then 
baste it, and fiour it lightly to froth 
it. 

605. A Shoulder, of seven pounds, 
an hour and a half. Put the spit in 
close to the shank-bone, and run it 
along the blade-bone. 

606. A Loin of Mutton, from an 
hour and a half to an hour and three- 
quarters. The most elegant way of 
carving this is to cut it lengthwise, as 
you do a saddle. A neck about the 
same time as a loin. It must be care- 
fully jointed, or it is very difficult to 
carve. 

607. The Neck and Breast are, in 
small families, commonly roasted to- 
gether. The cook will then crack the 
bones across the middle before they 



106 



NEVER BUY WHAT TOU »0 NOT WANT BECAUBB IT IB CHEAP. 



are put down to roast. If this is not 
done carefully they are yery trouble- 
some to carve. A breast, an hour and 
ft quarter. 

608. A Haunch — i. c, the leg and 
part of the loin of mutton. Send up 
two sauce-boats with it ; one of rich 
drawn mutton gravy, made without 
spice or herbs, and the other of sweet 
sauce. It generally weighs about fifteen 
pounds, and requires about three hours 
and a half to roast it. 

609. Mutton (venison fashion).— 
Take a neck of good four or five-year- 
old South-down wether mutton, cut 
long in the bones ,* let it hang, in tem- 
perate weather, at least a week. Two 
days before you dress it, take allspice 
and black pepper, ground and pounded 
fine, a quarter of an ounce each, rub 
them together, and then rub your 
mutton well with this mixture twice a 
day. When you dress it, wash off the 
spice with warm water, and ,roast it in 
^aste. 

610. Veal requires particular care to 
roast it a nice brown. Let the fire be 
the same as for beef; a sound large 
fire for a large joint, and a brisker for a 
smaller : put it at some distance from 
the fire to soak thoroughly, and then 
draw it nearer to finish it brawn. When 
first laid down it is to be basted ; baste 
it again occasionally. When the veal 
is on the dish pour over it half-a-pint 
of melted butter : if you have a little 
brown gravy by you, add that to the 
butter. With those joints which are 
not stuffed, send up forcemeat in balls, 
or rolled into sausages, as garnish to the 
dish, or fiied pork sausages : bacon and 
greens are nl ways expected with veal. 

611. Fillet op Veal of from twelve 
to sixteen. pounds, will require from 
four to five hours at a good fire ; make 
some stuffing or forcemeat, and put it 
under the flap, that there may be some 
left to eat cold, or to season a hash : 
brown it, and pour good melted butter 
over it. Garnish with thin slices of 
lemon, and cakes or balls of stuffing, or 
duck stuffing, or Med pork saxisages, 
'tfurryMMuce, bacon and greens, &c. 



612. A Loin is the best part of the 
calf, and will take ^ibout three hounl 
roasting. Paper the kidney fat, and the 
back : some cooks send it up on a toast^ 
which is eaten with the kidney and the 
fykt of this part, which is more dshcate 
than any marrow, &c. If there is more 
of it than you thiuk will be eaten with 
the veal, before you roast it cut it out,. 
it will make an excellent suet pudding t 
take care to have your fire long enough 
to brown the ends. {See 239). 

613. A Shoulder of Veal front 
three hours to three hours and a half i 
stuff it with the forcemeat oi<dered for 
the fillet of veal, in the imder side. 

614. Neck, best end, will take two 
hours. The scrag part is best made 
into a pie or broth. Breast, from an 
hour and a half to two hours. Let the 
caul remain till it is almost done, then 
take it off, to brown it; baste, flour,, 
and froth it. 

615. Veal Sweetbread. — Trim a 
fine sweetbread, it cannot be too fresh ; 
parboil it for five minutes, and throw it 
into a basin of cold water ; roast it plain, 
or beat up the yolk of an egg, and pre- 
pare some fine bread crumbs. When 
the sweetbread is cold, dry it thoroughly 
in a cloth, run a lark spit or a skewer 
through it, and tie it on the ordinary 
spit ; egg it with a paste brush, powder 
it well with bread crumbs, and roast it. 
For sauce, fried bread crumbs round it, 
and melted butter with a little mush- 
room catsup and lemon juice, or serve 
them on buttered toast, garnished with 
egg sauce, or with gravy. 

616. Lamb is a delicate, and com- 
monly considered tender meat, but 
those who talk of tender lamb^ while 
they are thinking of the age of the ani- 
mal, forget that even a chicken must be 
kept a proper time after it has be^ 
killed, or it will be t€Migh picking. 
Woeful experience has warned us to 
beware of accepting an invitation to 
dinner on Easter Sunday; and nnless 
commanded by a thorough-bred gour- 
mand,' our incisors, molars, and princi- 
pal viscera, have protested against the 
imprudence ot encountering young 



N£YER SPEND YOUB UONST BSFOBE TOU HAVE IT. 



107 



tough Btringy mutton under the mis- 
nomer of grasB'lamb. To the usual 
accompaniments of roasted meat, green 
mint sauce or a salad is commonly 
added ; and some cooks, about five 
minutes before it is done, sprinkle it 
with a little minced parsley. 

617. GRiVas-LAiiB is in season from 
Saster to Michadmas. 

618. HouBE'LAMB from Christmas to 
Lady'day. 

619. When obeen mint cannot be 
got, mint vinegar is an acceptable sub- 
stitute for it. 

620. HrND-QiTARTBR of eight pounds 
wiU take from an hour and three-quar- 
ters to two hours; baste and froth it. 

621. Fore-quarter of ten pounds, 
about two hours. 

622. It IS A pretty general cus- 
tom, when you take off the shoulder 
from the ribs, to squeeze a Seville 
orange over them, and sprinkle them 
with a little pepper and salt. 

623. Leq of five pounds, from an 
hour to an hour and a-half. 

624. Shoulder, with a quick fire, an 
hour. 

625. KiBS, about an hour to an hour 
and aquarter ; joint it nicely ; crack 
the ribs across, and bend them up to 
make it easy to carve. 

626. LoiN^ an hour and a-quarter. 
Neck, an hour. Breast, three-quarters 
of an hour. 

627. PREPARATION OP VEGE- 
TABLES.— There is nothmg in which 
the difference between an elegant and 
an ordinary table is more seen, than in 
the dressing of vegetables, more especi- 
ally of greens : they may be equally as 
fine at first, at once place as at another, 
but their look and taste are afterwards 
very different, entirely from the careless 
way in which they have been cooked. 
They ure in greatest perfection when in 
greatest plenty, i.e., when in full sea- 
son. By season, we do not mean those 
early days, that luxury in the buyers, 
and avarice in the sellerB about London, 
force the various vegetables : but the 
time of the year in which by nature 
and .oommofn cultm^, and the mere 



operation of the sun and climate, they 
are in most plenty and perfection. 

628. Potatoes and peas are seldom 
worth eating before Midsummer. 

629. Unripe Yeqetables are as in- 
sipid and unwholesome as imripe frnits. 

630. As TO THE quality op vege- 
tables the middle size are preferred to 
the largest, or the smallest ; they are 
more tender, juicy, and full of flavour, 
just before they are qtiite full grown : 
freshness is their chief value and excel- 
lence, and I should as soon think of 
roasting an animal alive, as of boiling a 
vegetable after it is dead. The eye 
easily discovers if they have been kept 
too long; they soon loose their beauty 
in all respects. 

631. Roots, greens, salads, &c., and 
the vai-ious productions of the garden, 
when first gathered, are plump and 
firm, and have a fragrant fi-eshness no 
art can give them again ; though it will 
refresh them a little to put them into 
cold spring water for some time before 
they are dressed. 

632. To BOIL THEM in soft water wiU 
preserve the colour best of such as are 
green ; if you have only hard water put 
to it a teaspoonful of carbonate of 
potash. 

633. Take care to wash and 
CLEANSE them thoroughly from dust, 
dirt, and insects, — this requires great 
attention — pick off all the outside leaves, 
trim them nicely, and if they are not 
quite fresh-gathered and have become 
flaccid, it is absolutely necessary to 
restore their orispness before cooking 
them, or they wDl be tough and un- 
pleasant ; lay them in a pan of clean 
water, with a handful of salt in it, for 
an hour before you dress them. Most 
vegetables being more or less succulent, 
their full proportion of fluids is neces- 
sary for their retaining that state of 
crispness and plumpness which they 
have when growing. 

634. On being out or gathered, 
the exhalation from their surfflLce con- 
tinues, while from the open vessels of 
the cut surface there is often great 
exudation or evaporation, a^d thus 



108 



NEVER TROUBLE ANOTHER FOR WHAT YOU OAK DO TOXntSELP. 



their natural moisture is diminished ; 
the tender leaves become flaccid^ and 
the thicker masses or roots lose their 
plumpness. This is not only less 
pleasant to the eye, but is a real in- 
jury to the nutritious powers of the 
vegetable ; for in this flaccid and shri- 
velled state its fibres are less easily 
divided in chewing, and the water 
which exists in vegetable substances, in 
the form of their respective natural 
juices, is directlj' nutritious. 

635. The first care in the pre- 
servation OP SUCCULENT VEGETABLES, 
therefore, it is to prevent them from 
losing their natural moisture. They 
should always be boiled in a saucepan 
by themselves, and have plenty of 
water : if meat is boiled with them in 
the same pot, they will spoil the look 
and taste of each other. 

636. To HAVE VEGETABLES DELI- 
CATELY CLEAN, put on your pot, make 
it boil, put a little salt in and skim it 
perfectly clean before you put in the 
greens, &c., which should not be put in 
till the water boils briskly ; the quicker 
they boil the greener they will be. 

637. When the vegetables sink, 
they are generally done enough, if the 
water has been kept constantly boiling. 
Take them up immediately, or they 
will lose their colour and goodness. 
Drain the water from them thoroughly 
before you send them to table. This 
branch of cookery requu^es the most 
vigilant attention. 

638. If vegetables are a minute or 
two too long over the fire, they lose all 
their beauty and flavour. 

639. If not thoroughly boiled 
tender, they are tremendously indiges- 
tible, and much more troublesome 
during their residence in the stomach 
than under-done meats. 

640. To PRESERVE or GIVE COLOUR 

in cookery many good dishes are 
spoiled ; but the rational epicure who 
makes nourishment the main end of 
eating, will be content to sacrifice the 
shadow to enjoy the substance. Once 
for all, take care your vegetables are 
fresh; for as the fishmongier often 



suffers for the sins of the cook, so the 
cook often gets undeservedly blamed 
instead of the green-grocer. 

641. PRESERVING FRUIT.— The 
grand secret of preserving is to deprive 
the fruit of its wat-er of vegetation in 
the shortest time possible; forwhicU 
purpose the fruit ought to be gathered 
just at. the point of proper maturity. 
An ingenious French writer considers 
fruit of all kinds as having fotir dis- 
tinct periods of maturity — ^the matu- 
rity of vegetation, the honeyfication, of 
expectation, and of coction. 

642. The first of these he considers 
as the period when, having gone through 
the vegetable processes up to the ripen- 
ing, it appears ready to drop spontane- 
ously. This, however, is a period 
which arrives sooner in the warm cli- 
mate of France than in the colder 
orchards of England ; but its absolute 
presence may be ascertained by the 
general filling out of the rind, by the 
bloom, by the smell, and by the facility 
with which it may be plucked from the 
branch. But even in France, as gene- 
rally practised in England, this period 
may be hastened, either by cutting cir- 
cularly through the outer rind at the 
foot of the branch, so as to prevent the 
return of the sap, or by bending the 
branch to a horizontal position on an 
espalier, which answers the same pur- 
pose. 

643. The second period, or that of 
honeyfication, consists in tiie ripeness 
and flavour which fruits of all kinds 
acquire if plucked a few days before 
arriving at their first maturity, and 
preserved imder a proper degree of 
temperature. Apples may acquire or 
arrive at this second degree of maturity 
upon the tree, but it too often happens 
that^the flavour of the fruit is thus lost, 
for fruit over ripe is always found to 
have parted with a portion of its 
flavour. 

^ 644. The third stage, or of expecta- 
tion, as the theorist quaintly terms it, 
is that which la acquired by pnlpy 
fruits, which, though sufficiently npe to 



NEVER PUT OFF TILL TOXOBBOW WHAT TOU CAN DO TO-DAT. 



109 



drop off the tree are even then hard and 
sour. This is the case with 8evei*al 
kinds both of apples and pears, not to 
mention other finiits, which always im- 
prove after keeping in the confec- 
tionery, — but with respect to ihe 
medlar and the quince this maturity of 
expectation is absolutely necessary. 

645. The fourth degree of maturity, 
or of ooction, is completely aHificlal, 
and is nothing more nor less than the 
change produced upon fruit by the aid 
of culinary heat. 

646. We have already pointed out 
the first object necessary in the pre- 
servation of fruit, its maturity of vege- 
tation ; and we may apply the same 
principle to flowers or leaves which 
may be gathered for use. 

647. The Flowers ought to be 
gathered a day or two before the 
petals are ready to drop off spontane- 
ously on the setting of the fruit; and 
the leaves must be plucked before the 
season has began tp rob them of their 
vegetable juices. The degi'ee of heat 
necessary for the purpose of drying 
must, next be considei'ed, as it differs 
considerably with respect to different 
substances. 

648. Flowers or Aromatic Plants 
require the smallest increase of heat 
beyond the temperature of the season, 
provided that season be genial : some- 
thing more for rinds or roots, and a 
greater heat for fruits ; but this heat 
must not be carried to excess. 

649. Philosophic Confectioners 
may avail themselves of the thermo- 
meter; but practice forms the best 
guide in this case, and therefore we 
shall say, without speaking of degrees 
of Fahrenheit or Reaumur, that if the 
necessary heat for flowers is one, that 
for rinds and roots must be one and a 
quarter, that for fruits one and three 
quarter^ or nearly double of what one 
may be above the freezing-point. 

650. BATHING.— If to preserve 
health be to save medical expenses, 
without even reckoning upon time and 
comfort) there is no part of the house- 



hold arrangement so important to the 
domestic economist as cheap conveni- 
ence for personal ablution. For this 
purpose baths upon a large and expen- 
sive scale are by no means necessary ; 
but though tempoi'ary or tin baths may 
be extremely useful upon pressing occa- 
sions, it will be found to be finally as 
cheap, and much more readily conve- 
nient, to have a permanent bath con- 
structed, which may be done in any 
dwelling-house of moderate size, with- 
out interfering with other general pur- 
poses. As the object of these remarks 
is not to present essays, but merely 
useful economic hints, it is imnecessary 
to expatiate upon the architectural ar- 
rangement of the bath, or, more pro- 
perly speaking, the bathing-place, which 
may be fitted up for the most retii'ed 
establishment, differing in size or shape 
agreeable to the spai^e room that may 
be appropiiated to it, and serving to 
exercise both the fancy and the judg- 
ment in its preparation. Nor is it par- 
ticularly necessary to notice the salu- 
brious effects resulting from the bath, 
beyond the two points of its being so 
conducive both to health and cleanli- 
ness, in keeping up a free circulation or 
the blood, without any violent mus- 
cular exertion, thereby really affording , 
a saving of strength, and producing its . 
effects without any expense either to . 
the body or to the purse. 

651. Whoever fits up a bath in a . 
house already built must be guided by 
circumstances ; but it will always be 
proper to place it as near the kitchen 
fire-place as possible, because from, 
thence it may be heated, or at least, 
have its temperature preserved by 
means of hot air through tubes, or by 
steam prepared by the culinary fire-, 
place, without interfering with its ordi- 
uaiy uses. 

652. A SMALL BOHiER may be erected., 
at a very small expense, in the bath- 
room, where circumstances do not per- 
mit these arrangements. Whenever a . 
bath is wanted at a short warning, to 
boil the water necessary will always be 
the shortest mode ; but where it is loa 



no 



PLEASURE IS PRECA.RIOITS, BUT VIRTUl IS IMMORTAL. 



general daily use, the heating the water 
by steam will be found the cheapest 
and most convenient method. 

653. As A GUIDE FOR PRACTICE, we 

may observe it has been proved by ex- 
periment that a bath with five feet 
water at the freezing point, may be 
raised to the temperature of blood heat, 
or 96 degrees, by 304 gallons of water 
turned into stetmi, at an expense of 
^Olbs. of Newcastle coal; but if the 
door be kept closed, it will not lose 
above four degrees of temperature in 
twenty-four hours, by a daily supply of 
3lbs. of coal. This is upon a scale of a 
bath of 5,000 gallons of water. 

654. WASHING. — The most im- 
portant department of domestic eco- 
nomy naturally includes the wash- 
house, into which philosophy has found 
its way for the application of many 
useful principles, and much useful 
practice. 

665. When Water is Hard, and 
will not readily imite with soap, it will 
always be proper to boil it before use ; 
which will be found sufficiently effica- 
cious, if the hardness depends solely 
upon the impregnation of lime, in the 
form of what modern chemistry desig- 
nates as a subcarbonate. The philoso- 
phical reason for this is, that the lime, 
by some secret process of nature, is 
imited to a portion of carbonic acid, 
which causes it to be suspended in the 
water ; but, in the process of boiling, 
the carbonic acid unites with the ac- 
quired caloric, and is carried off with 
it into the atmosphere. Even exposure 
to the atmosphere will produce this 
effect in a great degree upon spring 
water so Impregnated, leaving it much 
fitter for lavatory purposes. In both 
cases the water ought to be carefhlly 
poured off from the sediment, as the 
neutralised lime, when freed from its 
extra quantity of carbonic acid, falls to 
the bottom by its own gravity. Boil- 
ing, however, has no effect, when the 
hardness of the water proceeds . from 
lime unlEed with the sulphuric acid, or 
sulphate of lime of the modem 



chemistry ; and it must be neutralised, 
or brought to its proper state, by the 
application of common wood ashes 
from the kitchen grate, or of barilla, 
now called soda, or the Dantzic ashes, 
or pearl-ash ; or by the more scientific 
process of dropping in a solution of 
subcarbonate of potash. Each of these 
unite with the sulphuric acid, and 
separate it from the lime, which 
gravitates, as in the former case, 
to the bottom. Having thus philo- 
sophically explamed the arcana of 
the washing-tub, we may offer a saving 
hint in order to economise the use of 
soap, which is to put any quantity of 
pearl ash into a large jar, covered from, 
the dust ; in a few days the alkali will 
become liquid, "which must hd diluted 
in double its quantity of soft water 
with its equal quantity of new-slacked 
lime. Boil it balf-an-hour, frequently 
stirring it ; adding as much more hot 
water, and drawing off the liquor, when 
the residuum may be boiled afresh, and 
drained, until it ceases to feel acrid 
to the tongue. 

656. Soap and labour mat bb 
SAVED by dissolving alum and chalk in 
bran-water, in which the linen ought to 
be boiled, then well rinsed out, and ex- 
posed to the usual process of bleaching. 

657. Soap mat be disused, or 
nearly so, in the getting up of muslins 
and chintzes, which should always be 
treated agreeable to the oriental man- 
ner; that is, to Wash them in plain 
water, and then boil them in congee or 
rice water : after which they ought not 
to be submitted to the o]^ration of the 
smoothing iron, but rubbeid smooth with 
a polished stone. 

658. The economy which must re- 
sult from these processes renders their 
consideration important to every pri- 
vate family , in addition to which we 
must state that the improvements in 
philosophy extend to the laundry as 
well as to the wash-house. 



659. EXERCISE.— Three principal 
points in the manner of taking exercise 
are necessary to be attended to: — 1. The 



PUNCTUALITY BEGETS CONPIDEKCB. 



HI 



kind of exercise. 2. The proper time 
for exercise. 3. The duration of it. 
"With respect to the kinds of exercise, 
the various species of it may be divided 
into active and passive. Among the 
first, which admit of being considerably 
diversified, may be enumerated walk- 
iiig, running, leaping, swimming, riding, 
fencing, the military exercise, different 
sorts of athletic games, &c. Among 
the latter, or passive kinds of exercise, 
may be comprised riding in a car^dage, 
sailing, friction, swinging, &c. 

660. The first, or active exercises, 
are more beneficial to youth, to the 
middle-aged, to the i-obust in general, 
and particularly to the corpulent and 
the plethoric. 

661. The second, or passive kinds of 
exercise, on the contrary, are better 
calculated for children ; old, dry, and 
-emaciated persons of a delicate and de- 
bilitated constitution ; and particularly 
:to the asthmatic and cousumptive. 

662. The time at which exercise is 
most proper, depends on such a vaiiety 
of concurrent circumstances, that it 
does not admit of being regulated by 
any general rules, and must therefore 
be collected from the observations made 
on the effects of air, food, drink, &c. 

663. With respect to the duration 
OF EX&BCISE, there are other particulars, 
relative to a greater or less degree of 
fatigue attending the different species, 
and utility of it in certain states of the 
mind and body, which must determine 
-this consideration as well as the pre- 
ceding. 

664. That exercise is to be pre- 
7EBBED which, with a view to brace 
and strengthen the body, we are most 
accustomed to, as any unusual one may 
be attended >vith a contrary effect. 

665. Exercise should be begun and 
finished gradually, never abruptly. 

666. £x£RCisE IN the open air has 
many advantages over that used within 
doors. 

667. To continue exercise until a 
profuse perspiration or a great degree 
of weariness takes place, is far from 
being wholesome. 



668. In the forenoon, wh^i the 
stomach ia not too much dist^ided, 
muscular motion is both agreeable and 
healthful ; it strengthens digeslaon, and 
heats the body less than with a full 
stomach ; and a good appetite after it 
is a proof that it has not been carried to 
excess. 

669. But, at the same time, it should 
be understood, that it is not advisable to 
take violent exercise immediately before 
a meal, as digestion might thereby be 
retarded. 

670. Neither should we sit down to 
lA substantial dinner or supper imme- 
diately on i*etuming from a fatiguing 
walk, at a time when the blood i» 
heated, and the body in a state of per- 
spiration from previous exertion, as the 
woi*st consequences may arise, especially 
where cooling dishes, salad, or a glass 
of cold drink is begun with. 

671. Exercise is always hurtfui; 
after meals, from its impeding diges- 
tion, by propelling those fluids too much, 
towards the surface of the body, which 
are designed for the solution of the food 
in the stomach. 



672. CARPETS.— In buying a carpet; 
as in everything else, those of best 
quality are cheapest in the end. As it 
is extremely desirable that they should 
look as clean as possible, avoid buying' 
cai'pet that has any white in it. Even 
a vei-y small portion of white intersper- 
sed through the pattern will in a short 
time give a duiiy appearance to the 
whole ; and certainly no carpet can be 
worse for use than one with a white 
ground. 

678. A carpet in which all the 
colours are light, never has a clecm^ 
bright, effect, from the want of dark 
tints to contrast and set off the light 
ones. 

674. For a similar reason, carpets 
whose colours are all of what artists 
call middle tint (neither dark nor light), 
cannot fail to look duU and dingy, evea 
when quite new. 

675. The caprices of fashion at 
times bring these iU-coloured carpets 



112 



NEVER OPEN THE DOOB TO A LITTLB VICE, 



into vogue ; but in apartments where 
elegance is defiirable, they always have 
a bad effect. 

676. Fob a Carpet to be beallt 
BEAUTIFUL and in good taste, there 
should be, as in a picture, a judicious 
disposal of light and shadow, with a 
gradation of very bright and of very 
dai'k tints; some almost white, and 
others almost or quite black. 

677. The most truly chaste, rich, 
and elegant carpets are those where the 
pattern is formed by one colour only, 
but arranged in every variety of shade. 
For instance, we have seen a Brussels 
carpet entirely red ; the pattern formed 
by shades or tints, varying from the 
deepest crimson (almost a black), to 
the palest pink (almost a white). Also 
one of gi<een only, shaded from the 
darkest bottle-green, in some parts of 
the figure, to the lightest pea-green in 
others. Another, in which there was 
no colour but brown, in all its various 
gradations, some of the shades being 
nearly black, others of a light buff. 
All these carpets had much the look 
of rich cut velsret. 

678. The Curtains, Sofas, &c., of 
course, were of corresponding colours, 
and the effect of the whole was noble 
and elegant. 

679. Carpets of many gaudy colours 
are much less in demand than formerly. 
Two coloura only, with the dai'k and 
light shades of each, will make a very 
handsome caipet. 

680. A very light blue ground, 
with the figure of shaded crimson or 
purple, looks extremely well ; so does 
a salmon-colour or buff ground, with 
a deep green figure ; or a light yellow 
groimd, with a shaded blue figure. 

681. If you cannot obtain a 
Hearth-rug that exactly coiTcsponds 
with the carpet, get one entirely dif- 
ferent; for a decided contrast looks 
better than a bad match. 

682. We have seen very hand- 
some Hearth-rugs with a rich, black, 
velvet-looking ground, and the figure 
of shaded blue, or of various tints of 
yellow and orange. 



683. No Carpet decidedly light- 
coloured throughout, has a good effect- 
on the floor, or continues long to look 
clean. 

684. CLEANSING OF FURNI- 
TURK. — The cleaning of furniture 
forms an lmpoi*tant pai-t of domestic 
economy, not only in regard to neat- 
ness, but also in point of expense. 

685. The beadiest mode indeed 
consists in good manual rubbing, or tho 
essence of elbows, as it is whimsically 
termed; but our finest cabinet work, 
requires something more, where bril 
liancy of polish is of importance. 

686. The Italian cabinetwobk 
in this respect excels that of any other 
country. To produce this effect, the. 
workmen first saturate the surface with 
oHve oil, and then apply a solution of 
gum ai-abic in boiling alcohoL This 
mode of varnishing is equally biilUiant^ 
if not superior, to that employed by 
the French in their most elaborate 
works. 

687. But another mode may be 
substituted, which has less the appear- 
ance of a hard varnish, and may sJways 
be applied so as to restore the pristine 
beauty of the furniture by a little 
manual labour. Heat a gallon of water, 
in which dissolve one pound and a-half 
of potash ; add a pound of vii'gin wax,. 
boiling the whole for half-an-hour, then 
suffering it to cool, when the wax will 
float on the surface. Put the wax 
into a mortar, and triturate it with a 
marble pestle, adding soft water to it 
until it forms a soft paste, which laid 
neatly on furniture, or even on paint- 
ings, and carefully rubbed when dry,. 
with a woollen rag, gives a polish of 
great brilliancy without the harshness 
of the drier varnishes. 

688. Marble chimney-pieces may 
also be rubbed with it, after cleaning 
with diluted muriatic acid, or warm 
soap and vinegar; but the iron or 
brass work connected with them re> 
quires other processes. 

689. Polished iron work may be 
preserved from rust by a mixture not 
very expensive, consisting of copal var- 



LEST A GBSAT ONE SHOULD EKTEB ALSO. 



iia 



nish intimately mixed with as mnch 
olive-oil as mil give it a degree of 
greasiness, adding thereto nearly as 
mnch spirit of turpentine as of varnish. 

690. Cast ibon work is best pre- 
served by the common method of nib- 
bing with black lead. 

691. If BTJBT16AS kade its appear- 
ance on grates or fire-irons, apply a 
mixture of tripoli, with half its quan- 
tity of sulphur, intimately mingled on 
a marble slab, and laid on with a piece 
of soft leather. Or emery and oil may 
be applied with excellent effect; not 
laid on in the usual slovenly way, but 
with a spongy piece of the fig-tree fully 
saturated with the mixture. This will 
not only clean but polish, and render 
the use of whiting unnecessary. 

692. Brass ornaments, when not 
gilt or lackered, may l)e cleaned the 
same way, and a fine colour given to 
them by two simple processes. 

693. The first is to beat sal ammo- 
niac into a fine powder, then to moisten 
it with soft water, rubbing it on the 
ornaments, which must be heated over 
charcoal, and rubbed dry with bran and 
whiting. 

694. The second is to wash the 
brass work with roche alum boiled in 
strong ley, in proportion of an ounce to 
a pint ; when diy, it must be rubbed 
with fine tripolL Either of these pro- 
cesses T<^ give to brass the brilliancy 
of gold. 

695. PRECAUTIONS IN CASE OF 
FIRE. — The following precautions 
should be impressed upon the memo- 
ries of all our readers : 

696. Should a fire break out, send 
off to the nearest engine or police-sta- 
tion. 

697. Fill buckets with water, carry 
them as near the fire as possible, dip a 
mop into the water, and throw it in 
showers on the fire, until assistance 
arrives. 

698. If a fire is violent, wet a blan- 
ket, and throw it on the part which is 
in flames. 

699. Should a fire break out in the 
kitchen-chimney, or any other, a blan- 



ket wetted should be nailed to the 
upper ends of the mantel-piece, so as 
to cover the opening entirely, the fire 
will then go out of itself; for this pur- 
pose! two knobs should be permanently 
fixed in the upper ends of the mantel- 
piece on which the blanket may be. 
hitched. 

700. Should the bed or window- 
curtains be on fire, lay hold of any 
wooUen-garment, and beat it on the- 
flames until extinguished. 

701. Avoid leaving door or window 
open in the room where the fire has 
broken out, as the current of air in- 
creases the force cf the fire. 

702. Should the staircase be burn- 
ing so as to cut off all communications^ 
endeavour to escape by means of a 
ti-ap-door in the roof, a ladder leading 
to which should always be at hand. 

703. Avoid hurry and confusion ; 
no person except a fire-policeman,, 
fiiend, or neighbour, should be ad- 
mitted. 

704. If a lady's dress takes fire. 
she should endeavour to roll heraelf in 
a rug, cai'pet, or the first woollen gar» 
ment she meets with. 

705. It is a good precaution to 
have always at hand a large piece o£ 
baize, to throw over a female whose 
dress is burning, or to be wetted and 
thrown over a fire that has recently 
broken out. 

706. A SOLUTION OF pearlash in 
WATER, thrown upon a fire, extin- 
guishes it instantly. The proportion 
is a quarter of a pound, dissolved in 
some hot water, and then poured into 
a bucket of common water. 

707. It is recommended to house- 
holders to have two or three fire- 
buckets, and a caniage-mop with a 
long handle near at hand ; they will be 
found essentially useful in case of fire. 

708. All householders, but par- 
ticularly hotel, tavern, and innkeepers,, 
should exercise a wise precaution by 
directing that the last person up should 
perambulate the premises previous to 
going to rest, to ascertain that all firea 
are safe and lights extinguished. 



114 



MONEY Id A GOOD SERVANT, BUT A BAD MASTER. 



709. A WINTER SALAD. 
Two laargo potatoes, passed through kitchen- 
sieve. 
Unwonted softness to the salad gire. 
Of mordant mustard add a single spoon-— 
Distrust the condiment which bites so soon ; 
Bu!t deem it not, thou man of herbs, a fault, 
To add a double quantity of salt ; 
Three times the spoon with oil of Lucca 

crown, 
And once with vinegar procured from town. 
True flavour needs it, and your poet begs, 
The pounded yellow of two well-boUedeggs. 
Let onion atooos lurk within the bowl, 
Aod, scarce suspected, animate the whole ; 
And lastly on the favoured compound toss 
A magic teaspoon of anchovy sauce : 
Then, tho'Ugh green turtle fail, though veni- 
son's tough, 
And ham and turkey are not boiled enough, 
Serenely full, the epicure may say — 
'*'' Fate cannot harm me — ^I have dined to-day." 



7ia. ECONOMY.— If you have a 
afciip of land, do not throw away Boap- 
sudi. Both ashes and soap-suds are 
good manure for bushes and young 
plants. 

711. Woollen Clothes should be 
washed in very hot suds, and not rinsed. 
Lukewarm water shrinks them. 

712. Do NOT let coffee and tea stand 
in tin. 

7l3i Scald your wooden-ware often, 
;and keep your tin-waro dry. 

714. Preserve the baek& of old let- 
ters to write upon. 

715. Ip You have children who 
.are learning to write, buy coarse white 
paper by the quantity, and keep it 
lodged up, ready to be made into writ- 
lug books. It does not cost half so much 
■as it does to buy them at the sta- 
tioners. 

716. SSE THAT NOTHING IS THROWN 

AWAY which might have served to 
nourish your own family or a poorer 
ona 

717. As FAR AS POSSIBLE, have bits 
^ bread eaten up before they become 
hard; spread those ^that are not eaten, 
and let them dry, to be pounded for 
puddings, or soaked for brewis. 

718. Brewis is made of crusts and 
dry pieces of bread, soaked a good while 



in hot milk, mashed up, and eaten with 
salt. Above aU do not let crusts ac- 
cumulate in such quantities that they 
cannot be used. With proper care, 
there is no need of losing a particle of 
bread. 

719. All the mending in the house 
should be done once ^a week if pos- 
sible. ^ 

720. Never put out sewing. If it 
be not possible to do it in your own 
family, hire some one into the house, 
and work with them. 

721. A WARMING-PAN fuU of coals, or 
a shovel of coals, held over vaiiiished 
furniture, will take out white spots. 
Care should be taken not to hold the 
clothes near enough to scorch ; and the 
place should be rubbed with a flannel 
while warm. 

722. Sal-volatile or hartshorn will 
restore colours taken out by acid. It 
may be dropped upon any garment 
without doing harm. 

723. New iron should be very 
gradually heated at first. After it has 
become inured to the heat, it is not so 
likely to crack. 

724. Clean a brass kettle, before 
using it for cooking, with salt and 
vinegar. The oftener carpets are 
shaken, the longer they wear ; the dirt 
that collects under them grinds out the 
threads. 

725. Linen rags should be oarefnlly 
saved, for they are extremely useful in 
sickness. If they have become dirty 
and worn by cleaning silver, &c., wash 
them and scrape them into lint. 

726. Ip you are troubled to get 
soft water for washing, fill a tub or 
bari'el half full of wood ashes, and fill it 
up with water, so that you may have 
ley whenever you want it. A gallon of 
strong ley, put into a gi*eat kettle of 
hard water, will make it as soft as rain 
water. Some people use pearlash, or 
potash ; but this costs something, and 
is veiy apt to injure the texture of the 
cloth. 

727., Po NOT LET knives be dropped 
into hot dish-water. It is a good plan 
to have a large tin pot to waeh them in* 



DO A IJTTI.B WELLy AND YOD DO MUCH. 



116F 



just high enough to wash the blades 
without wetting the handles. 

728. It 18 BETrER to accomplish per- 
fectly a very small amount of work, 
than to half do ten times as much. 

729. Charcoal fowdsr will be 
found a very good thing to give knives 
a first-rate polish. 

730. A BONNET AND TRIMMINGS may 

be worn a much longer ^time, if the 
dflstbe brusbed well off after walking. 

731. Much knowledge may be ob- 
tained by the good housewife observing 
how things are managed in well-regu- 
lated £unilies. 

732. Apples intended for dumplings 
should not have the core taken out of 
them, as the pips impart a delicious 
flavour to the dumpling. 

733. A RICE pudding is most ex- 
cellent without either eggs or sugar, if 
haked gently ; it keeps better without 
eggs. 

734. "Wilful waste hakes wopul 
WANT." — Do not cook a fresh joint 
'whilst any of the last remains uneaten 
—hash it up, and with gravy and a 
little management eke out another day's 
dinna*. 

735. Tbe shanks of mutton make 
a good stock for nearly any kind of 
g»vy — and they are very cheap— a 
dozen may be had for a penny, enough 
to make a quart of delicious soup. 

736. Thick curtains, closely drawn 
around the bed, are very injurious, be- 
cause they not only confine the effluvia 
thrown off from our bodies whilst in 
W, but interrupt the current of pm-e 
air. 

737. Reqularitt in the payment of 
accounts is essential to housekeeping. 
All tradesmen's bills should be paid 
weekly, for then any errors can be 
detected whilst the transactions ara 
fresh in the memoiy. 

788» Allowing ohildrbn to talk 
incessantly is a mistaken intelligence ; 
we do not mean to say that th^ should 
^ restricted from talking in proper 
aeaions, but they should be leg^ji^ to 
^ow when it would be proper lorthem 
to cease. 



739. RULES OF THE GAME OF 
DRAUGHTS.-The nine laws for regula- 
ting the game of draughts are as 
follows : — 

740. Each player takes the first move 
alternately, whether the last game be 
won or drawn. 

741. Any action which prevents the 
adversary from having a full view of 
the men is not allowed. 

742. The player who touches a man 
must play him^ 

743. In. case of standing the huff/ 
which means omitting to take a man 
when an opportunity for so doing 
occurred, the other party may either 
take thei man, or insist upon his man, 
which has been so omitted by his 
adversary, being taken. 

744. If either party, when it is his 
turn to move, hesitate above three 
minutes, the other may call upon him 
to play ; and if, after that» he delay 
above five minutes longer, then he 
loses tbe game. 

746. In the losing game, the player- 
can insist upon his advei'sary taking all 
th& men, in case opportunitieft ahQuld 
present themselves ior their being sa^ 
taken. 

746. To prevent imnecessary delay, 
if one colour have no pieces, but two 
kings on the board, and the other no- 
piece but one king, the latter can call 
upon the former to win the game in 
twenty moves ; if he does not finish it 
within that number of moves^ the 
game to be relinquished as drawn. 

747. If there aie three kings to. two 
on the board, the subsequent moves 
are not to exceed forty. 



748. SEA PIE. — Make a thick 
pudding crust, line a dish with it, or 
what is better, a cake tin, put a layer of 
sliced onions, then a layer of salt beef, 
cut in slices, a layer of sliced potatoes, 
a layer of pork, and another of onions, 
strew pepper over all, cover with a 
crust, and tie down tightly with a cloth 
previously dipped in boiling water and 
floured. Boil for two hours, and serve 
hot in a dish. 



116 



USE A BOOK AS A BEE DOES A FLOWEB. 



749. THE YOUNG IADY*S 
TOILETTE. 

1^50. Setf'KnowUdge — Hie Enchanting Hfirror. 
This curious glass will bring your faults to 

light, 
And make your virtaes shine both strong and 

bright. 

751. Contenfynent — Wash to smooOi Wruikks. 

A daily portion of this essence use, 

'Twill smooth the brow, and tranquillity infuse. 

752. Truth — JFine Lipsalves. 
Use daily for your lips this precious dye. 
They'll redden, and breathe sweet melody. 

753. Prayer— Mixture, giving Stoeaness to the 

Voice. 
At morning, noon, and night, this mixture 

take. 
Your tpnes improved, will richer music make. 

754. Compassion — Bfst Eye-water. 
These drops will add great lustre to the eye ; 
When more you need, the poor will you supply, 

755. Wisdom — Solutions to prevent Eruptions, 
It calms the temper, beautifies the face, 
And gives to woman dignity and grace. 

756. Attention and Ob^Uence — UalcMess Pair qf 

Ear-rings. 
With these clear drops appended to the ear, 
Attentive lessons you ifill gladly hear. 

757. Neatness and Industry — Indispensable P(ur 

of Bracelets. 
Clasp them on carefully each day you live, 
To good designs they efficacy give. 

758. PaUence^An Elastic Girdle. 
The more you use the brighter it will grow, 
Though its least merit is external show. 

759. Principle— Ring of Tried Gold. 
Yield not this golden bracelet while yon live, 
*Twill sin restrain and peace of conscience 
give. 

760. Resignation — yecJtlace <tf Purest PearL 
This ornament embellishes the fiair. 
And teaches all the ills of life to bear. 

761. Love— Diamond Breast-pins. 
Adorn your bosom with this precious pin, 
It shines without, and warms the heart within. 

762. PoUtenesS'—A Graceful Bandeau. 
The foreliead neatly circled with this band, 
Will admiration and respect command. 

763. Piety — A Precious Diadem. 
Whoe'er this f racioui diadem shall own, 
Secures herself an everlasting crown. 



764. Good Temper — Cttiversal Beauti/er. 
With this choice liquid gently touch the mouth. 
It spreads o^er aU the face the charms of youth. 



765. CAMP COOKERY.— The fol- 
lowing seven receipts are from our per- 
sonal friend, A. Soyer, forwarded from 
the Barrack Hospital, at Scutari : — 

766. Stewed Salt Beep and Pork 
A LA Omar Pasha. — Put into a can- 
teen saucepan about 21b. of well soaked 
beef, cut in eight pieces; half-pound 
of salt pork, divided in two, and also 
soaked; half-pound of lice, or six 
tablespoonfuls ; quarter-of-a-pound of 
onions, or four middle-sized ones, 
peeled and sliced; two ounces of 
brown sugar, or one large tablespoou- 
ful ; a quarter of an ounce of pepper, 
and five pints of water ; simmer gently 
for three hours, remove the fat from 
the top and serve. The first time I 
made the above was in Sir John Camp- 
beil's camp kitchen, situated on the top 
of his rocky cavern, facing Sebastopol, 
near Oathcart's-hill, and among the dis- 
tinguished pupils I had upon the occa- 
sion were Colonel Wyndham, Sir John 
Campbell, and Dr. Hall, Inspector- 
General of the army in the Crimea^ 
and other officers. This dish was much 
approved at dinner, and is enough for 
six people, and, if the receipt be closely 
followed, you cannot fail to have an ex- 
cellent food. The London salt meat 
will require only a four hours' soaking* 
having been only lightly pickled. 

767. Mutton Soup. — ^Put the rations 
of six into a pan (|lb. of mutton will 
make a pint of good family soup), 61b. 
of mutton, cut in four or six pieces ; 
fib. of mixed vegetables, or Soz. of pre- 
served, as compressed vegetables are 
daily given to the troops ; 34 teaspoons- 
ful of salt ; 1 teaspoonful of sugar, and 
I teaspoonful of pepper, if handy ; 6oz. 
of barley or rice, or 5 tablespoonsful of 
either ; 8 pints of water ; let it simmer 
gently for three hours and a-half, re- 
move the fat, and serve. Bread and 
biscuiVmay be added in small quanti- 
ties. 



OKE TO-DAY IS WORTH TWO TO-MORBOW. 



117 



768. Plain Pea Soup. — Put in a pan 
6lb. of pork, well soaked and cut into 
eight pieces ; pour six quarts of water 
over ; lib. of split peas ; 1 teaspoonful 
of sugar; i teaspoonful of pepper ; 4oz. 
of fresh vegetables, or 2oz. of pre- 
served, if handy; let it boil gently 
for two hours, or until the peas are ten- 
der. When'the pork is rather fat, as 
is generally the case, wash it only ; ^Ib. 
of broken biscuit may be used for the 
soup. Salt beef, when rather fat and 
soaked, may be used for pea soup. 

769 French Beef Soup, or Pot aufeu 
<Camp Fashion). — Put in the kettle six 
pounds of beef, cut into two or three 
pieces, bone included; one pound of 
mixed gi*een vegetables, or half-a-pound 
•of preserved, in cakes ; four teaspoons- 
ful of salt ; if handy, one teaspoonful 
of pepper, one of sugar, and three 
cloves ; and eight pints of water. Let 
it boil gently three hours ; remove some 
of the fat, and serve. The addition of 
a pound and a-half of bread, cut into 
slices, or one pound of broken biscuits, 
well soaked, will make a very nutritious 
soup. Skimming is not required. 

The three above receipts are ap- 
plicable to hospitals. 

770. How TO Stew Fresh Beep, Pork, 
Mutton, and Veal. — Cut or chop two 
pounds of fresh beef into ten or twelve 
pieces ; put these into a saucepan with 
one andahalf teaspoonsful of salt, one 
teaspoonful of sugu', half a teaspoonful 
of pepper, two middle-sized onions 
sliced, half-a-pint of water. Set on the 
fire for ten minutes until forming a 
thick gravy. Add a good tablespoonful 
of flour, stir on the fire a few minutes ; 
add a quart and a half of water ; let the 
whole simmer until the meat is tender. 
Beef will take from two hours and a 
half to three hours ; mutton and pork, 
about two hours ; veal, one hour and a 
quarter to one hour and a half ; onions, 
sugar, and pepper, if not to be had, 
must be omitted; it will even then 
make a good dish; half-a-pound of 
flliced potatoes or two ounces of pre- 
flerved potatoes ; ration vegetables may 
be added, also a small dumpling. 



771. — Plain Boiled Beef. — ^For six 
rations, put in a canteen saucepan 61b. 
of well-soaked beef, cut in two, with 
three quarts of cold water; simmer 
gently three hours, and serve. About 
a pound of either carrots, turnips, par- 
snips, greens or cabbages, or dumplmgs 
may be boiled with it. 

772. Cossack's Plumpuddino. — Put 
into a basin lib. of flour, }lb. of 
raisins (stoned, if time be allowed), fib. 
of the fat of salt pork (well washed, cut 
into small dies, or chopped), two table- 
spoonfuls of sugar or treacle ; and a- 
half pint of water ; mix all together ; 
put into a cloth tied tightly ; boil for 
four hours, and serve. If time will 
not admit, boil only two hours, though 
foui" are preferable. How to spoil the 
above : — Add anything to it. 

773. EARLY RISING.— The difier- 
ence between rising every morning at 
six and at eight, in the course of forty 
years, amounts to 29,200 hours, or 
three years one hundred and twenty- 
one days and sixteen hours, which are 
equal to eight hours a day for exactly 
ten years. So that rising at six will be 
the same as if ten years of life (a 
weighty consideration) were added, 
wherein we may command eight hours 
every day for the cultivation of our 
minds and the despatch of business. 



774. COMPOSITION.— If you would 
write to any purpose, you must be per- 
fectly free from without, in the first 
place, and yet more free from within. 
Give yourself the natural rein; think 
on no pattern, no patron, no paper, no 
press, no public ; think on nothing, but 
follow your own impulses. Give your- 
self as you are, what you are, and how 
you see it. Every man sees with his 
own eyes, or does not see at all. This 
is incontrovertibly true. Bring out what 
you have. If you have nothing, be an 
honest beggar ^ther than a respectable 
thief. Great care and attention should 
be devoted to epistolary correspond- 
ence, as nothing exhibits want of 
taste and judgment so much as a 



ai« 



SUBTLE IS BOT INDUGKTRT; 



i^oYenly letter. Since the establish- 
ment of the penny postage it is reeog- 
nised as a rule that all letters should 
be prepaid ; indeed, many persons make 
.« point of never taking in an unpaid 
■letter. The following hints may be 
•worthy of attention : — 

775. Always put a stamp on your 
renvelope at the top of the right hand 
comer. 

776. Let thb direction be written 
'very plain; this will save the postman 
^trouble, and facilitate business by pre- 
fenting mistakes. 

777. At the head op tour letter, 
in the right-hand comer, put your ad- 
dress in full, with the day of the month 
underneath ; do not omit this, though 
you may be writing to your most inti- 
mate friend three or four times a day. 

778. What you have to satin tour 
-i^TTER, say as plainly as possible, as if 
you were speaking : this is the best 
rule ; do not revert three or four times 
to one circumstance, but finish up as 
■you go on. 

779. Let tour sionatubb be written 
^iB plainly as possible, (many mistakes 
will be avoided, especially in writing to 
utrangers) and without any flourishes, 
as they tend not to add in any way to 
the harmony of your letter. We have 

-seen signatures that have been almost 
impossible to decipher, being a mere 
mass of strokes, without any form to 
indicate letters. This is done chiefly 
by the ignorant, and would lead one to 
suppose that they were ashamed of 
signing what they had written. 

780. Do NOT CROSS tour letters : 
surely paper is cheap enough now to 

.admit of your using an extta half-sheet, 
in case of necessity. (This practice is 

< chiefly prevalent amongst young ladies.) 
761. If tou write to a stranger 
for information, or on your own busi 

•neas, fail not to send a stsmiped envelope 
•with your address plainly written ; this 
will not fail to procure you an answer. 
782. Ip you are not a good writer 
U is advisable to use best ink, the best 
paper, and the best pens, ea, though 
thoy oi9^ not alter the character of 



your handwriting, yet they will assist 
to make your writing look better. 

783. The paper on which you write 
should be clean, and neatly folded. 

784. There should not BE^PAiirs 
on the envelope ; if otherwise, it is only 
an indication of your own slovenliness. 

785. Care must be taken in givii^ 
titled persons, to whom you writer 
tiieir pix>per directions. 



786. BITING THE NAILS.— This 
is a habit that should be immediately 
corrected in children, as, if persisted in 
for any length of time, it permanently 
deforms the nails. Dipping the finger- 
ends in some bitter tinctui'e will gene- 
rally prevent children from putting 
them to the mouth ; but if this fails, as 
it sometimes will, each finger-end ought 
to be encased in a stall until the pro- 
pennity is eradicated. 

787. TO FILL A DECAYED 
TOOTH. — Procure a small piece of 
gutta percha, drop it into boiling 
water, then, with the thumb and finger, 
take off as much as you suppose will 
fill up the tooth nearly level, and while 
in this soft state press it into the tooth ; 
then hold on that side of the mouth 
cold water two or three times, which 
will harden it. 

788. TO RESTORE HAIR WHEN 
REMOVED BY ILL HEALTH OR 
AGE. — Onions rubbed frequently on 
the part requiring it. The stimulating 
powers of this vegetable are of service 
in restoi-ing the t^^ne of the skin, and 
assisting the capillaiy vessels in sending 
forth new hair ; but it is not infallible. 
Should it succeed, however, the growth 
of these new hairs may be assisted by 
the oil of myrtle-berries, the repute of 
which, perhaps, is greater than its real 
efficacy. These applications are cheap 
and harmless, even where they do no 
good ; a character which cannot be said 
of the numerous quack remedies that 
meet the eye in every direction. 

789. BIRDS' EGGS.— In sdectiag 
eggs for a cabinet, always choose those 
which are newly laid ; make a medium 
sized hole at the sharp end with a 



nOR 18 IMPUDBNOS OOUIUkOS. 



lid 



pointed instramexit ; kaving made the 
hole at the sharp end, make one at the 
blunt, and let this last hole be as small 
as possible ; ihia done, apply your 
mouth to the blunt end, and blow the 
contents through the sharp end. If 
the yolk will not come freely, run a pin 
or wire up into the egg, and stir the 
yoke well about; now get a cupful of 
water, and, immersing the shturp end 
of the shell into it^ apply your mouth 
to the blunt end, and suck up some of 
the water into Uie empty shell; then 
put your finger and thumb upon the 
two holes, shake the water well within, 
and, after this, blow it out. The 
water will elear your ^g of any re- 
mains of yolk, or of white, which may 
stay in after blowing. If one suck up 
of water will not suffice, make a second 
or third. An egg, immediately after it 
is produced, is very (dear and fine ; but 
by staying in the nest, and coming in 
contact with the feet of the bird^ it 
80<m assumes a dirty appearance. To 
remedy this, wash it well in soap and 
water, and use a nail-brush to get the 
dirt off. Your egg-shell is now as it 
oug^t to b^ and nothing remains to be 
done but to prevent the thin white 
membrane (which is still inside) from 
oorrapting ; take a v^e-glass and fill it 
with the solution of corrosive sublimate 
in alcohol, then immerse the sharp end 
of the egg-shell into it, keeping your 
finger and thumb, as you hold it, just 
clear of the solution ; apply your mouth 
to the little hole at the blunt end, and 
suck up some of the solution into the 
sh^; you need not be fearful of get- 
ting the liquor into your mouth, for, 
as toon as it rises in the shell, the cold 
will strike your finger and thumb, and 
then you cease su(dung ; shake the shell 
just as you did when the water was in 
it, and then blow the solution back into 
the glass. Your egg-shell is now be- 
yond the reach of corruption ; the mem- 
brane for ever retains its pristine white- 
ness, and no insect for the time to 
oome will ever venture to prey upon it. 
If you wish your egg to i^pear ex- 
tremely brilliant, give it a coat of mas- 



tic varnish, put on very sparingly with 
a camel-hair pencil ; green or bl«e esg^gB 
must be done with gum-ambic; the 
mastic varnish is apt to injure the 
colour. 

790. PRESERVING EGGS.— The 
several modes I'ecommended for pre- 
serving eggs any length of time are nc^t 
always successful. The egg, to be 
preserved well, should be kept at a 
temperature so low that the air and 
fluids within its shell shall not b» 
brought into a decomposing condition.; 
and, at the same time, the air outside 
of its shell should be excluded, iu 
order to prevent its action in any way 
upon the egg. The following mixture 
was patented several years ago by Mr^ 
Jayne, of Sheffield. He alleged that 
by means of it he could keep eggs 
two years. A part of his composition 
is often made use of — perhaps the 
whole of it would be better. Put into- 
a tub or vessel one bushel of quick- 
lime, two pounds of salt, half a pound 
of cream-of-tartar, and mix the same 
together, with as much water as will 
reduce the composition, or mixture, ta 
that consistence that it will cause an 
e((g put into it to swim with its top 
just aibove the liquid; then put and 
keep the eggs therein. 

791. GOSSIPING.— K you wish to 
cultivate a gossiping, middling, cen- 
sorious spii'it in your children, be sure 
when they come home from church, a 
visit, or any other place where you d» 
not accompany them, to ply them with 
questions, concerning what everybody 
wore, how everybody looked, and what 
everybody said and did; and if yoQ 
find anything in this to censure, always 
do it in their healing. You may rest 
assured, if you pursue a course of this 
kind, they will not return to you un- 
laden with intelligence; and, rather 
than it should be uninteresting, they 
will by degi'ees learn to embellish, in 
such a manner as shall not fail to call 
forth remarks and expressions of wonder 
from you. You wUl, by this coutse, 
render the spirit of curiosity, which is 
so early visible in children^ aad whidi. 



120 



LOOK ON THE BRIGHT SIDE OF EVEBYTHINO. 



if rightly directed, may be made the 
instrument of enriching and enlarging 
their minds — a yehicle of mischief 
\^hich shall serve only to narrow them. 

792. WORDS. — Soft words soften 
the soul. — Angry words are fuel to the 
flame of wrath, and make it blaze more 
freely. Kind words make other people 
^ood-natured — cold words freeze peo- 
ple, and hot words scorch them, and 
bitter words make them bitter, and 
wrathful words make wrathful. There 
is such a rush "of all other kinds of 
words in our days, that it seems de- 
sirable to give kind words a chance 
among them. There are vain words, 
«md idle words, and hasty words, and 
spiteful words, and silly words, and 
•empty words, and profane words, and 
boisterous words, and warlike words. 
Kind words also produce their own 
image on men's souls, and a beautiful 
image it is. They smooth, and quiet, 
and comfort the hearer. They shame 
bim out of his sour, and morose, and 
unkind feelings. We have not yet be- 
gun to use kind words in such abund- 
ance as they ought to be used. 

793. PICKLING.— Do not keep 
pickles in common earthen-ware, as 
the glazing contains lead, and com- 
bines with the vinegar. Vinegar for 
pickling should be sharp, though not 
the sharpest kind, as it injures the 
pickles. If you use copper, bell-metal, 
or brass vessels, for pickling, never 
-allow the vinegar to cool in them, as it 
then is poisonous. Add a teaspoonful 
of alum, and a teacup of salt to each 
three gallons of vinegar, and tie up a 
bag with pepper, ginger-root, spices of 
all the different sorts in it, and you 
bave vinegar prepared for any kind of 
{sickling. Keep pickles only in wood 
or stone-ware. Anything that has held 
grease will spoil pickles. Stir pickles 
occasionally, and if there are soft ones 
take them out and soald the vinegar, 
-and pour it hot over the pickles. Keep 
enough vinegar to cover tiiem well. H 
it is weak, take fresh -vinegar and pour 
on hot. Do not boU vinegar or spice 
above five minutes. 



794. YULE CAKE.— Take one pound 
of fresh butter, one pound of sugar, 
one pound and a half of flour, two 
pounds of currants, a glass of brandy, 
one pound of sweetmeats, two ounces 
of sweet almonds, ten eggs, a quarter 
of an oimce of allspice, and a quarter of 
an ounce of cinnamon. Melt the butter 
to a cream, and put in the sugar. Stir 
it -till quite light, adding the allspice 
and pounded cinnamon ; in a quarter 
of an hour, take the yolks of the eggs, 
and work them two or three at a time ; 
and the whites of the same must by 
this time be beaten into a strong snow, 
quite ready to work in. As the paste 
must not stand to chill the butter, or 
it {will be heavy, work in the whites 
gradually, then add the orange-peel, 
lemon, and citron, cut in fine strips, 
and the currants, which must be mixed 
in well -with the sweet almonds ; then 
add the sifted flour and glass of brandy. 
Bake this cake in a tin hoop, in a hot 
oven, for three hours, and put twelve 
sheets of paper under it to keep it from 
burning. 

795. TO WASH CHINA CRAPE 
SCARFS, &c.— If the fiibric be good, 
these articles of dress can be washed 
as fr^uently as may be required, and 
no duninution of their beauty wUl be 
discoverable, even when the various 
shades of green have been employed 
among other colours in the patterns. 
In cleaning them, make a strong lather 
of boiling water; suffer it to cool; 
when cold, or nearly so, wash the scarf 
quickly and thoroughly, dip it imme- 
diately in cold hard water in which 
a little salt has been thrown (to pre- 
serve the colours), rinoe, squeeze, and 
hang it out to dry in the open air ; pin 
it at its extreme edge to the line, so 
that it may not in any part be folded 
together ; the more rapicUy it dries the 
clearer it will be. 



796. ADVICE TO YOtJNaLADIES. 

797. If you have blue eyes you need 
not languish. 

798. If black eyes you need not 
stare. 



THEBE IS NO OBI£F LIKE THE OBTSF WHICH DOES NOT 8FEAK. 



181 



799. If yoa have pretty feet there is 
no occasion to wear short petticoats. 

800. If you are doubtful as to that 
pointy there can be no harm in letting 
them be long. 

801. If you have good teeth, do not 
laugh for the purpose of showing 
them* 

802. If you have bad ones, do not 
laugh less than the occasion may 
justify, 

803. If you have pretty hands and 
arms, there can be no objection to your 
playing on the harp if you play well. 

804. If they are disposed to be 
clumsy, work tapestry. 

805. If you liave a bad voice rather 
speak in a low tone. 

806. If you have the finest voice in 
the world, never speak in a high tone. 

807. If you dance well, dance but 
seldom. 

808. If you dance ill, never dance 
at all. 

809. If you sing well, make no pi'e- 
vious excuses. 

810. If you sing indifferently, 
hesitate not a moment when you are 
asked, for few people are judges of sing- 
ing, but every one is sensible of a 
desire to |>lease. 

811. If you would preserve beauty, 
rise early. 

812. If you would preserve esteem, 
be gentle. 

813. If you would obtain power, be 
condescending. 

814. If you would live happy, endea- 
vour to promote the happiness of 
others. 

81 5. TO EXTRACT GREASE SPOTS 
FROM BOOKS OR PAPER.— Gently 
warm the greased or spotted part of the 
book or paper, and then press upon it 
pieces of blotting-paper, one after 
another, so as to absorb as much of the 
grease as possible. Have ready some 
fine dear essential oil of turpentine 
heated almost to a boiling state, warm 
the greased leaf a little, and then, with 
a soft clean brushy wet the heated tur- 
pentine both sides of the spotted part. 
By rejpeating this application, the grease 



will be extiucted. Lastly, with 
another brush, dipped in rectified 
spirits of wine, go over the place, and 
the grease will no longer appear, 
neither will the paper be dlBcoloui^ 

816. TO PRESERVE MILK.— Pro- 
vide bottles, which must be perfectly 
clean, sweet, and dry; draw the milk 
from the cow into the bottles, and a» 
they are filled, immediately cork them 
well up, and fasten the corks with pack- 
thread or wire. Then spread a littl» 
straw at the bottom of a boiler, on 
which place bottles with straw between 
them, until the boiler contains a suf- 
ficient quantity. FUl it up with cold 
water ; heat the water, and as soon a» 
it begins to boil, draw the fire, and let 
the whole gradually cool. When quite 
cold, take out the bottles and pack 
them in saw-dust, in hampers, and stow 
them in the coolest part of the house. 
Milk preserved in this manner, and al- 
lowed to remain even eighteen months 
in the bottles, will be as sweet as when 
first milked from the cow. 

817. GERMAN PASTE.— German 
paste for cage birds, which will be 
found of better quality and cheaper 
than what is sold in the shops. — ^Boil 
four eggs until quite hard, then throw 
them into cold water ; remove the white, 
and grate or poimd the yolks until quite 
fine, and add a pound of white peameal 
and a tablespoonful of olive oil. Mix 
the whole up together, and press the 
dough through a tin colander so as to 
foiTU into small grains like shot. Fiy 
them over a gentle fire, gradually 
stirring them until of a light brown 
colour, when they are fit for use. 

818. FRENCH POLISH FOR 
BOOTS AND SHOES.— Mix together 
two pints of the best vinegar and one 
pint of soft-water ; stir into it n quarter 
of a pound of glue, broken up, half a 
pound of logwood chips, a quarter of 
an ounce of finely powdered indigo, a 
quarter of an ounoe of the best soft- 
soap, and a quarter of an ounce of 
isinglass. Put the mixture over the 
firo, and let it boil for ten minutes, or 
more. Then strain the liquid, and 



122 



BEAD NOT BOOKS ALONE, BUT HEN; 



bottle and cork it. When cold, it is fit 
.ibr use. The polish should be applied 
"^th clean sponge. 

819. DAMP WALLS.— The follow- 
ing method is recommended to prevent 
the effect of damp walls on paper in 
rooms : — Line the damp part of the 
wall with sheet lead, rolled very thin, 
and fastened up with small copper nails. 
It may be immediately covered with 
paper. The lead is not to be thicker 
%han that which lines tea-chests. 

820. TEA-MAKING.— Dr. Kitchener 

.Tecom mends that all the water neces- 

ifjsary should be poured in at once, as 

the sacond drawing is bad. When 

much tea is wanted, it is better to have 

"two tea-pots instead of two drawings. 

821. RICE-FLOUR CEMENT.— An 
excellent cement may be made from 
*ice -flour, which is at present used for 
that purpose in China and Japan. It is 
only necessary to mix the rice flour in- 
timately with cold water, and gently 
«immei* it over a fire, when it readily 
forms a delicate and durable cement, 
<not only answering all the purposes 
-of Common paste, but admirably 
•ads^ted for joining together paper, 
.<card3, &c., in forming the various 

beautiful and tasteful ornaments which 
'^afford much employment and amuse- 
ment to the ladies. When made of 
the consistence of plaster clay, models, 
busts, bas relievos, &c., may be formed 
-of it, and the articles, when dry, are 
susceptible of high polish, and very 
•durable. 

822. RULES OF CONDUCT.— We 
cannot do better than quote the valu- 
able injunctions of that excellent woman, 
Iffrs. Fry, who combined in her charac- 
"ter and conduct all that is truly excel- 
lent in woman: — 1. I never lose any 
"time.; I do not think that lost which is 
4»pent in amusement or recreation some 
time every day ; but always be in the 
habit of being employed. 2. Never err 
the least in truth. 3. Never say an ill 
thing of a person when thou canst say a 
good thing of him; not only speak 
charitably, but feel so. 4. Nerver be 
irritable or unkind to anybody. 5. 



Never indulge thyself in luxuries that 
are not necessary. 6. Do all things 
with consideration ; and, when thy path 
to act right is most difficult, feel con- 
fidence in that Power alone which is able 
to assist thee, and exert thy own powers 
as far as they go. 

823. FOOD OF BLACKBIRDS.— 
The natural food of the blackbird is 
berries, worms, insects, shelled^snails, 
cherries, and other similar fruit ; and 
its artificial food, lean fresh meat, cut 
very small, and mixed with bread, or 
German paste. 

824. CRAMP IN BATHINa—For 
the cure of the cramp when swimming, 
Dr. Franklin recommends a vigorous 
and violent shock of the part affected, 
by suddenly and forcibly stretching out 
the leg, which should be darted out of 
the water into the air if possible. 

825. TO EXTINGUISH A FIRE 
IN A CHIMNEY.— Throw some pow- 
dered brimstone on the fire in the 
grate, or ignite some on the hob, and 
then put a board or something in the 
front of the fire-place to prevent the 
fames descending into the room. The 
vapour of the brimstone ascending the 
chimney will then effectually extinguish 
the soot on fire. {See 624, 695.) 

826. TO GET RID OF A BAD 
SMELL IN A ROOM NEWLY 
PAINTED. — Place a vessel full of 
lighted charcoal in the middle of the 
room, and throw on it two or three 
handfuls of juniper berries, shut the 
windows, the chimney, and th« door 
close; twenty-four hours afberwards, 
the room may be opened, when H will 
be found that the sickly unwholesome 
smell will be entirely gone. The snu^ 
of the juniper berry possesses this ad- 
vantage, tl^t should anything be left 
in the room, such as tapestry, &c.y none 
of it will be spoiled. 

827. RICE DUMPLINGS. — Pi<* 
and wash a pound of rice, and boil it 
gently in two quarts of water till it be- 
comes dry — ^keeping the pot well 
covered, and not stirring it. Then tftke 
it off the fire, and spread it outti> oool 
on ^e bottom of an inrorted' aicpre, 



AND, ABOYfi ALL, READ THTBSLF. 



12S 



looBi^uiig ihe gnune lightly with >a fork, 
that ail the moisture may evaporate. 
Pare a dozen pippins, or some large 
juicy apples and seoop out the core, 
then fill up the cavity with mai*malade, 
or with lemon and sugar. Cover every 
apple all over with a thick coating of 
the boiled rice. Tie up each in a sepa- 
rate cloth, and put them into a pot of 
cold water. They will require about 
an hour and a quarter after they begin 
to boil, perhaps longer. 

828. COUaHS.— It is said that a 
emiill piece of resin dipped in the water 
which is placed in a vessel on a stove 
(not an open fireplace), will add a 
peculiar property to the atmosphera of 
the room, which will give great relief 
to persons troubled with a cough. The 
heat of the stove is sufficient to throw 
off the aroma of the resin, and gives 
the same relief that is afforded by the 
combustion, because the evaporation is 
more durable. The same resin may be 
used for weeks. 

829. METHOD OF ASCERTAIN- 
ING THE STATE OF THE LUNGS. 
— Persons desirous of ascertaining the 
true state of their lungs, are directed to 
draw in as much breath as they con- 
veniently can ; they are then to count 
as far as they are able, in a slow and 
audible voice, without drawing in more 
breath. The number of seconds they 
can continue counting must be care- 
fully observed; in a consumption the 
time does not exceed ten, and is fre- 
quently less than six seconds ; in pleu- 
risy and pneumonia it ranges from nine 
to four seconds. When tbe lungs are 
in a sound condition, the time will 
range as high as from twenty to thirty- 
five seconds. 

830. TO PRESERVE STEEL 
GOODS FROM RUST.—After bright 
grates have been thoroughly cleaned, 
they should be dusted over with un- 
slaked time, and thus left until wanted. 
All the coils of piano wires are thus 
sprinkled, and will keep from rust for 
many years. Table-knives, which are 
not in constant use, ought to be put 
in a case 4n which idfted .quicklime is 



placed, about eight inches deep. They 
should be plunged to the top of the 
blades, but the lime should not touch 
the handles. 

831. HOW TO GET SLEEP.— How- 
to get sleep is to many persons a matter 
of high importance. Nervous per8onB> 
who are troubled with wakefulness and 
excitability, usually have a strong te»- 
dency of blood on the brain, with cold 
extremities. The pressure of the blood 
on the brain keeps it in a stimulated or 
wakeful state, and the pulsations in the 
head ai*e often painful. Let such rise 
and chafe the body and extremities 
with a brush or towel, or rub smartly 
with the hands, to promote oirculatian, 
and withdraw the excessive amount of 
blood from the brain, and they will 
fall asleep in a few moments. A cold 
bath, or a sponge bath and rubbing, wr 
a good run, or a rapid walk in the open 
air, or going up or down stairs a few 
times just before retiring, will aid in 
equalising circulation and pi*omoting 
sleep. These rules are simple and eaaf 
of application in castle or cabin^ and 
may minister to the comfort of thou- 
sands who would freely expend monegf 
for an anodyne to promote ''NaturoNt 
sweet restorer, balmy sleep !" 

832. TURKISH MODE OF MAK- 
ING COFFEE.--The Turkish way of 
making coffise produces a very different 
result from that to which we are ao- 
customed. A small conical aauoepa^, 
with a long handle, and calculated to 
hold about two table-spoonfuls of water, 
is the insti-ument used. The fresh 
roasted berry is pounded, not ground, 
and about a dessert-spoonful is put into 
the minute boiler; it is then nearly 
filled with water, and thrust among 
the embers. A few seconds suffice to 
make it boil, and the decoction, grounds 
and all, is poured out into a small cup, 
which fits into a brass socket, much like 
the cup of an acorn, and holding the 
china cup as that does the acorn it- 
self. The Turks seem to drink this 
decoction boiling, and swallow the 
grounds with the liquid. We allow 'it 
to remain a zninute, in order. tpio«ve 



124 



-WITHOUT BOOMOMY, NONJB CAN BE BICH ; 



the sediment at the bottom. It is 
always taken plain; sugar or cream 
would be thought to spoil it; and 
Europeans, after a little practice— 
(longer, however, than we had)— are 
said to prefer it to the dear infusion 
drunk in France. In every hut you 
will see these coffee-boilers suspendedi 
and the means for pounding the roasted 
berry will always be found ready at 
hand. 

883. HOW TO TREAT A WIFE. 
— ^First, get a wife ; secondly, be patient. 
You may have great trials and perplexi- 
ties in your business with the world, 
but do not carry to your home a 
clouded or contracted brow. Your wife 
may have many trials, which, though 
of less magnitude, may have been as 
hard to bear. A kind, conciliating 
word, a tender look, will do wonders in 
chasing from her brow all clouds of 
gloom. Tou encounter your difficulties 
in the open air, £umed by heaven's cool 
breezes ; but your wife is often shut in 
from these healthful influences, and her 
healtiti £Eula, and her spirits lose their 
elasticity. But oh ! bear with her ; she 
has trials and sorrows to which you are 
a stranger, but which your tenderness 
can deprive of all their anguish. No- 
tice kindly her little attentions and 
efforts to promote your comfort Do 
not treat her with indifference, if you 
would not sear and palsy her heart, 
which, watered by kindness, would, to 
the latest day of your existence, throb 
with sincere and constant affection. 
Sometimes yield your vrishes to hers. 
She has preferences as strong as you, 
and it may be just as trying to yield 
her choice as to you. Do you find it 
hard to yield sometimes ? Think you 
it is not difficult for her to give up 
always ? If you never yield to her 
wishes, there is danger ihsA she will 
think you are selfish, and care only for 
yourself, and with such feelings she 
cannot love as she might. Again, show 
yourself manly, so that your wife can 
look up at you and feel that you will 
act nobly, eaid that she can confide in 
yoiir jucigment. {See 191 to 202.) 



834. TO REMOVE WATER 
STAINS FROM BLACK CRAPE.— 
When a drop of water falls on a black 
crape veil or collar, it leaves a conspicu- 
ous white mark« To obliterate this, 
spread the crape on a table, (laying on it 
a large book or a paper-weight to keep 
it steady), and place underneath the 
stain a piece of old black silk. With 
a large camel's hair brush dipped in 
common ink, go over -the stain; and 
then wipe off the ink with a little bit of 
old soft silk. It will dry immediately, 
and the white mark will be seen no 
more. 

835. CLEANLINESS, it is said, has a 
powerful influence on ike health and 
preservation of the body. Cleanliness, 
as well in our garments as in our 
dwellings, prevents the pernicious 
effects of dampness, of bad smells, and 
of contagious vapours arising from sub- 
stances abandoned to putrefy ; cleanli- 
ness keeps up a free perspiration, re> 
news the air, refreshes the blood, and 
even animates and enlivens the mind. 
Whence we see that persons attentive 
to the cleanliness of their persons and 
their habitations, are in general more 
healthy, and less exposed to diseases 
than those who live in filth and nasti- 
ness ; and it may moreover be re^ 
marked, that cleanliness brings with it^ 
throughout every part of domestic disci- 
pline, habits of order and arrangement, 
which are among the first and best 
methods and elements of happiness. 

836. FIRST-WATCH STEW.— Cut 
pieces of salt b^f and pork into dice, 
put them into a stew-pan with six whole 
peppercorns, two blades of maoe, a few 
cloves^ a tea^spoonful of celery-seeds, 
and a faggot of dried sweet herbs ; cover 
with water, and stew gently for an hour, 
then add fragments of carrots, tumipa, 
parsley, or any other vegetables at hand, 
with two sliced onions, and some 
vinegar to flavour ; thicken with flour 
or rice, remove the herbs, and pour into 
the dish with toasted bread, or freshly 
baked biscuit broken small, and serve 
hot. When they can be procured, a few 
potatoes improve it very muuh* 



WITH ECONOMY, F£W NEBS BE POOR. 



125 



837. SEVEN-BELL PASTY.— Shred 
& pound of suet fine, cut salt pork into 
dice, potatoes and onions small, rub a 
sprig of dried sage up fine, mix with 
some pepper, and place in the comer 
o£ a square piece of paste, turn over the 
other corner, pinch up the sides, and 
bake in a quick oven. If any bones, 
&c., remain from the meat, season with 
pepper and sage, place them with a gill 
of water in a pan, and bake with the 
pasty ; when done, strain, and pour the 
gravy into the centre of the pasty. 

838. DIRECTIONS FOR TAKING 
LEAF IMPRESSIONS.— Hold oiled 
paper in the smoke of a lamp, or of 
pitch, until it becomes coated with the 
smoke ; to this paper apply the leaf of 
which you wish an impression, having 
previously warmed it between your 
hands, that it may be pliable. Place the 
lower surface of the leaf upon the black- 
ened surface of the oil paper, that the 
numerous veins which are so prominent 
on this side may receive from the paper 
a portion of the smoke. Lay a paper 
over the leaf, and then press it gently 
upon the smoked paper, with the 
fingers, or with a small roller (covered 
fi'ith woollen cloth, or some like soft 
material), so that every part of the leaf 
may come in contact with the sooted 
oil-paper. A coating of the smoke will 
adhere to the leaf. Then remove the 
leaf carefully, and place the blackened 
surface on a sheet of white paper, not 
ruled, or in a book prepared for the 
purpose, covering the leaf with a 
clean slip of paper, and pressing upon 
it with the fingers, or rofler, as be- 
fore. Thus may be obtained the im- 
pression of a leaf, showing the perfect 
outlines, together with an accurate ex- 
hibition of the veins which extend in 
every direction through it, more cor- 
rectly than the finest drawing. And 
this process is so simple, and the 
matenals so easily obtained, that any 
person, with a little practice to enable 
him to apply the right quantity of 
smoke to the oil-paper, and give the 
leaf a proper pressure, can prepare 
beautiful leaf impressions, such as a 



naturalist would be proud to possess. 
There is another, and we think a 
better method of taking leafimpreasiwiSf 
than the preceding one. The only 
difference in the process consists in the 
use of printinff inJc, instead of smoked 
oil-paper. 

839. LEAF PRINTING. — After 
warming the leaf between the hands, 
apply printing ink, by means of a small 
leather ball containing cotton, or some 
soft substance, or with the end of the 
finger. The leather ball (and the 
finger when used for that purpose), 
after the ink is applied to it, ^ould be 
pressed several times on a piece of 
leather, or some smooth surface, before 
each application to the leaf, that the 
ink may be smoothly and evenly ap« 
plied. After the imder surface of the 
leaf has been sufficiently inked, apply 
it to the paper, where you wish the im- 
pression ,* and, after covering it with a 
slip of paper, use the hand or roller to 
press upon it, as described in the former 
process. 

840. PLANT SKELETONS.— The 
leaves are to be put into an earthen or 
glass vessel, and a large quantity of 
rain-water to be poured over them ; 
after this they are to be left to the 
open air and to the heat of the sun, 
without covering the vessel. When the 
water evaporates so as to leave the 
leaves dry, more must be added in its 
place ; the leaves will by this means 
putrefy, but they require a different 
time for this : some will be finished in 
a month, others will require two months 
or longer, according to the toughness of 
their parenchyma. When they have 
been in a state of putrefaction for some 
time, the two membranes will begin to 
separate, and the green part of the leaf 
to become fluid : then the operation of 
clearing is to be performed. The leaf 
is to be put upon a flat white eaithen 
plate and covered with clear water ; 
and being gently squeezed with the 
finger, the membranes will begin to open, 
and the green substance will come out 
at the edges ; the membranes must be 
cnrafully taken off with the finger, aiid 



1» 



ONE WATCH SET BIOBT WILL DO TO SET MANY BY; 



9Peatoftation must be used in separatiiig 
them near the middle rib. When once 
there is an opening towards this separa- 
tion, the whole membrane always 
JbUows easily ; when both membranes 
are taken off, the skeleton is finished, 
and it has to be washed clean with 
water, and then dried between the 
leaves of a book. Fruits are divested 
of their pulp and made into skeletons 
in a different manner. Take, for an 
instance, a fine large pear which is soft, 
and not tough ; let it be neatly pared 
witiiout squeezing it, and without 
injuring either the crown or the stalk ; 
put it into a pot of rain-water, covered, 
set it over the fire, and let it boil gently 
till perfectly soft, then take it out and 
lay it in a dish filled with cold 
water ; then holding it by the stalk 
with one hand, rub off as much 
of the pulp as you can with the 
finger and thumb, beginning at the 
stalk, and rubbing it regularly towards 
the crown. The fibres are most tender 
towards the extremities, and therefore 
to be treated with great care there. 
When the pulp has thus been cleared 
pretty well off, the point of a fine pen- 
knife may be of use to pick away the 
pulp sticking to the core. In order to 
see how the operation advances, the 
soiled water must be thrown away from 
time to time, and clean poured on in 
its place. When the pulp is in this 
manner perfectly sepaitited, the clean 
skeleton is to be preserved in spirits of 
wine. This method may be pursued 
with the bark of trees, which afford 
interesting views of their constituent 
fibres. 

841. ROLLS.— Mix the salt with the 
flour. Make a deep hole in the middle. 
Stir the warm water into the yeast, and 
pour it into the hole in the flour. Stir 
it with a spoon just enough to make a 
thin batter, and sprinkle some flour 
over the top. Cover the pan, and set 
it in a warm place for several hours. 
When it is light, add half a pint more 
of lukewarm water, and make it, with 
a little more flour, into a dough. Knead 
it very well for ten minutes. Then 



divide it into small pieces, and knead 
each separately. Make them into round 
cakes or rolls. Cover them, and set 
them to lise about an hour and a half. 
Bake them, and, when done, let them 
remain in the oven, without the lid, for 
about ten minutes. 

842. EARLY RIStNG.— Dr. Wilson 
Philip, in his " Ti^eatise on Indigestion," 
says : — " Although it is of oonsequence 
to the debilitated to go early to bed, 
there are few things more hurtful to 
them than remaining in it too long. 
Qetting up an hour or two earlier, often 
gives a degree of vigour which nothing 
else can procure. For those who are 
not much debilitated and sleep well^ 
the best rule is to get out of bed soon 
after waking in the morning. This at 
first may appear too early, for the 
debilitated require more sleep than the 
healthy; but rising early will gradu- 
ally prolong the sleep on the succeed- 
ing night tUl the quantity the patient 
enjoys is equal to his demand for it. 
Lying late is not only hurtful> by the 
relaxation it occasions, but also by 
occupying that part of the day at which 
exercise is most beneficial." 

843. SUPERIOR CLEANLINESS 
sooner attracts our regard than even 
finery itself, and often gains esteem 
where the other fails. 

844. COFFEE A DISINFECTANT. 
— NumeiH>us experiments with roasted 
coffee prove that it is the most power- 



ful means, not only of 



rendering 



animal and vegetable e^uvia innocuous, 
but of actually destroying them. A 
room in which meat in an advanced 
degree of decomposition had been kept 
for some time, was instantly deprived 
of all smell on an open coffee-roaster 
being carried through it, containing a 
pound of coffee newly roasted. In 
another room, exposed to the effluvium 
occasioned by the clearing out of the 
dung-pit so that sulphuretted hydrogen 
and ammonia in great quantities could 
be chemically detected, the stench was 
completely removed in half a minute, 
on the employment of three ounces of 
fresh roasted coffee, whilst the other 



OKB THAT dOSa WBOKO HAT MJULBAD A WHOLB NKiaHBOUBHOOD. iSc? 



parts of the house were permanently 
cleured of the same smell by being 
simply traversed with the coffee-roaster, 
although the cleansing of the dung-pit 
continued for several hours after. The 
best mode of using the coffee as a 
disinfectant is to dry the raw bean, 
pound it in a mortar^ and then roast 
the powder on a moderately heated 
iron plate, until it assumes ads^k brown 
tinty when it is fit for use. Then 
sprinkle it in sinks or cess-pools, or lay 
it on a plate in Uie room which you 
wish to have purified. Coffee acid or 
coffee oil acts more readily in minute 
quantities. (See 320 J 

846. UTILITY OF SINGING.— It 
is asserted, and we believe with some 
truth, that singing is a corrective of the 
too commMk tendency to pulmonic 
ocMnplaints. Dr. Bush, an eminent 
physician^ observes on Ihis subject : — 
''The Germans are seldom afflicted with 
consumption ; and this, I believe, is in 
part occasioned by the strength which 
their lungs acquire by exercising them 
in vocal music, for this conetitutes an 
essential branch of their education. 
The music master of an academy has 
furnished me with a remai-k still more 
in favour of this opinion. He informed 
me that he had known several instances 
of persons who were strongly disposed 
to consumption, who were restored to 
health by the exercise of then* lungs in 
singing." 

846. DOMESTIC RULES. — Mrs. 
Hamilton, in her " Cottagers of Glen- 
bumie," gives three simple rules for 
the regulation of domestic affairs, which 
deserve to be remembered, and which 
would, if carried into practice, be the 
means of saving time, labour, and 
patience, and of making every house a 
"well-ordered" one. They are as fol- 
lows: — 1. Do everything in its proper 
time. 2. Keep everytlmig to its pro- 
per use. 3, Put everything in its pro- 
per place. 

847. THE CHEMICAL BARO- 
METER. — ^Take a long narrow bottle, 
such as an old-fashioned Eau-de-Co- 
logne bottle, and put into it two and a- 



half drachms of camf^r, and eleven 
drachms of spirits of wine ; when the 
camphor is dissolved, which it will 
readily do by slight agitation, add the 
following mixture : — Take water, nin» 
drachms : nitrate of potash (saltpetre),, 
thirty-eight grains ; and muriate of am- 
monia (sal ammoniac), thirty-ei^ h1^ 
grains. Dissolve these salts in the» 
water prior to mixing with the eam*> 
phorated spirit ; then shake the wholes 
well together. Cork the bottle well^ 
and wax the top, but afterwards make 
a very small apcirture in the cork with 
a red-hot needle. The bottle may ihenr 
be hung up, or placed in any stationary 
position. By observing the diffei'eni 
appearances which the materials assume^ 
as the weather changes, it becomes aa 
excellent prognosticator of a coming^ 
storm or of a simny sky. 

848. FRUGALITY.— The great phi- 
losoj^er, Dr. Franklin, inspired the- 
mouth-piece of his own eloquence, 
" Poor Richard," with "many a gem of 
purest ray serene," encased in the 
homely -garb of proverbial truisms. Oi^ 
the subject of frugality we cannot do 
better than take the worthy Mentor 
for our text, and from it address our 
remarks. A man may, if he knows not. 
how to save as he gets, '' keep his noso 
all his life to the grindstone, and di» 
not worth a groat at last. A fat kitchen, 
makes a lean will," and 

" Many estates are spent in getting. 
Since women for tea forsook spinning and 

knitting, 
And men for punch forsook hewing &nd- 
splitting." 

849. If tou would be wealthy,. 
think of saving as well as of getting. 
The Indies have not made Spain riuh,. 
because her out-goes are greater than 
her in-comes. 

850. Away then with your expensive 
follies, and you will not then have so- 
much cause to complain of hard t mes, 
heavy taxes, and chargeable familit s. 

861. " What maintains one vice would 
bring up two children." 

862. You may think, perhaps, that a 



128 



FLEASURE IS A PHANTOM; WEALTH A TANITT ; POWEB A BOAST. 



little tiea, or superfluities now and then, 
diet a little" more costly, clothes a little 
finer, and a little enteiiainment now 
and then, can be no great matter ; but 
remember, '^Many a little makes a 
mickle." 

863. Beware of little expenses: 
^ A small leak will sink a great ship," 
88 Poor Hichard says ; and again, " Who 
dainties love, shall beggars prove;" 
Hind moreover, '* Fools make feasts and 
wise men eat them." 

864. Here you are all got together 
to this sale of fineries and nick-nacks. 
You call them goods; but if you do 
not take care, they will prove evils to 
some of you. ' You expect they will be 
cold cheap, and, perhaps, they may for 
less than they cost ; but if you have no 
occasion for them they must be dear 
to you. 

866. Bemembeb what poor Hichard 
says, " Buy what thou hast no need of, 
and ere long thou shalt sell thy neces- 
saries.** 

866. And again, " At a great penny- 
worth, pause awliile." He means, per- 
haps, that the cheapness is apparent 
only, and not real ; or the bargain, by 
straitening thee in thy business, may 
do thee more harm than good ; for in 
another place he says, *^]VIany have 
been ruined by buying good penny- 
worths." 

857. Again, " It is foolish to lay out 
money in the purchase of repentance ;" 
and yet this folly is practised every day 
at auctions, for want of minding the 
almanack. 

858. Many, for the sake of finery on 
the back, have gone Avith a hungry 
stomach, and half starved theur families. 
** Silks and satins, scarlets and velvets, 
put out the kitchen fire," as i^oor 
Itichard says. These are not the neces- 
saries of life ; ' they can scarcely be 
called the conveniencies ; and yet, only 
because they look pretty, how many 
want to have them I 

859. Br these and other extrava- 
gances, the genteel are reduced to 
poverty, and forced to borrow of those 
whom they formerly despised, but who. 



through industry and frugality have 
maintained their standing; in which, 
case it appears plainly, thal^ " A plough- 
man on his legs is higher than a gentle- 
man on his knees," as Poor Richard 
says. Perhaps they had a small estate 
left them, which they knew not the 
getting of ; they think " It is day, and 
will never be night ;" that a little to be 
spent out of so much is not worth 
minding ; but *' Always taking out of 
the meal-tub, and never putting in, 
soon comes to the bottom," as Poor 
Richard says; and then "When the 
well is dry, they know the worth of 
water." 

860. But this they might have 
known before, if they had taken his 
advice : " If you would know the 
value of money, go and try to borrow 
some; for he that goes a borrowing 
goes a sorrowing," as Poor Richard 
says ; and, indeed, so does he that lends 
to such people, when he goes to get it 
in again. Poor Dick further advises : — 
" Fond pride of dress is sure a very curse ; 

Ere fancy you consult, consult your purse.** 

861. And again, " Pride is as loud 
a beggar as want, and a great deal more 
saucy." 

862. When you have bought one fine 
thing, you must buy ten more, that 
your appearance may be all of a piece ; 
but Poor Dick says, " It is easier to 
suppress the first desire than to satisfy 
all that follow it ;" and it is as truly 
folly for the poor to ape the rich, as 
for the frog to swell in order to equal 
the ox. 

" Vessels large may venture more. 
But little boats should keep near shore.^* 

862. It is, however, a folly soon 
punished ; for " Pride that dines on 
vanity, sups on contempt; pride break- 
fasted with plenty, dined with poverty, 
and supped with infamy." 

863. And, after all, of what use is 
this pride of appearance, for which so 
much is risked, so much is sufifered ? 
It cannot promote health, oor ease 
pain ; it makes no increase of merit in 
the person — it creates envy, it hastens 
misfortune. 



EVERY PEA HELPS TO FILL THE PECK. 



129 



864. CONVERSATION. 
' 865. There are many talkers, but 
few who know how to oonyerse agree- 
ably. (See 161 and 279.) 

866. Speak diatinctly, neither too 
rapidly nor too slowly. 

867. Accommodate the pitch of your 
voice to the hearing of the person with 
whom you are conversing. 

868. Never speak with your mouth 
full. 

869. Tell your jokes and laugh after- 
Avards. 

870. Dispense with superfluous words 
—such as, " Well, I should think." 

871. The woman who wishes her 
conversation to be agreeable will avoid 
conceit or affectation, and laughter, 
which is not natural and spontaneous. 
Her language will be easy and un- 
studied, marked by a graceful careless- 
ness, which, at the same time, never 
oversteps the limits of propriety. Her 
lips will readily yield to a pleasant 
smile; she will not love to hear her- 
self talk ; her tones will bear the im- 
press of sincerity, and her eyes kindle 
with animation, as she speaks. The 
art of pleasing is, in truth, the very 
soul of good breeding; for the precise 
object of the latter is to render us 
agreeable to all with whom we asso- 
ciate: to make us, at the same time, 
esteemed and loved. 

872. We need scarcely advert to the 
rudeness of interrupting any one who 
is speaking, or to the mipropriety of 
pushing, to its full extent, a discussion 
which has become unpleasant. 

87d. Some men have a mania for 
Greek and Latin quotations; this is 
peculiarly to be avoided. It is like 
pulling up the stones from a tomb 
wherewith to kill the living. Nothing 
is more wearisome than pedantiy. 

874. If- you feel your intellectual 
superiority to any one with whom you 
are conversing, do not seek to bear him 
down ; it would be an inglorious tri- 
umph, and a breach of good manners. 
Beware, too, of speaking lightly of sub- 
jects which bear a sacred character. 

875. Witlings occasionally gain a re- 



putation in society; but nothing is 
more insipid and in worse taste tiian 
their conceited harangues and self -suf- 
ficient air. 

876. It is a common idea that the 
art of writing and the art of conversa- 
tion are one ; this is a great mistake. 
A man of genius may be a very dull 
talker. 

877. The two grand modes of making 
your conversation interesting, ai'e to 
enliven it by recitals calculated to affect 
and impress your hearers, and to inter- 
sperse it with anecdotes and smart 
things. Rivasol was a master in the 
latter mode. {See 1338.) 

878. CLEANLINESS.— The want of 
cleanliness is a fault which admits of 
no excuse. Where water can be had 
for nothing, it is surely in the power of 
every person to be clean. 

879. The Discharge fboh cub 
Bodies, by perspiration, renders fre- 
quent changes of apparel necessary. 

880. Change op Apparel greatly 
promotes the secretion from the skin, 
so necessary to health. 

881. When that Matter which 
ought- to be carried off by perspii^tion 
is either retained in the body, or re-ab- 
sorbed by dirty clothes, it is apt to oc- 
casion fevers and other diseases. 

882. Most Diseases of the Skin 
proceed from want of cleanliness. These 
indeed may be caught by infection, but 
they will seldom continue long where 
cleanliness prevails. 

883. To the same cause must we im- 
pute the various kinds of vermin that in- 
fest the human body, houses, &^c. These 
may generally be banished by cleanli- 
ness alone. 

884. Perhaps the intention of natiu:e, 
in permitting such vermin to annoy 
mankind, is to induce them to the prac- 
tice of this virtue. 

885. One common cause of putrid 
and malignant fevers is the want of 
cleanliness. 

886. These fevers commonly begin 
among the inhabitants of close dirty 
houses, who breathe bad air, tako little 

F 



I 



130 



TO-DAY, lUN XJyiB0 IN PLSAS9SE, WEALT^ AUD FBIDE. 



exevoiBey ixse unwholesome food, and 
wear dirty <dothea. Tfaera the infec- 
tioB is generally haftched, which spreads 
far and wide to the destruction of 
many. Henoe deanliness may be con- 
sidered as an object of the public at- 
tention. 

887. It is not sufficient that I be 
clean myself, while the want of it in my 
neighbour affects my health as well as 
his own. 

888. If bibty fbopu: caknot be 
REHOYBD as a common nuisance they 
ought at least to be avoided as infec- 
tious. All who regard their health, 
should keep at a distance, even &om 
their habitations. 

889. In places where great numbers 
of people are collected, cleanliness 
becomes of the utmost importance. 

8d0. It is well known, that infec- 
tious diseases are caused by tainted air. 
Everyldiing, therefore, which tends to 
pollute the air, or spread the infection, 
ought, with the utmost care, to be 
avoided. 

891. Fob this reason, in great towns, 
no filth of any kind should be per- 
mitted to lie upon the streets. We 
are sony to say, that the importance of 
general cleanliness does by no means 
seem to be sufficiently understood. 

892. It were well if the lower 
classes of the inhabitants of Britain, 
would imitate their neighbours the 
Dutch, in the cleamiess of their streets, 
houses, &c 

893. Water, indeed, is easily ob- 
tained in Holland; but the situation 
of most towns in Britain is more £ar 
vourable to cleanliness. 

894. Nothing can be more agreeable 
to the senses, more to the honour of 
the inhabitants, or conducive to their 
health, than a clean town ; nor does 
anything impress a stranger sooner 
with a disrespectful idea of any people 
than its opposite. 

895. It is rekabkable, that, in 
most eastern countries, cleanliness 
makes a great part of their religion. 
The Mahometan, as well as^ the Jewish 
religion, enjoins various'^ bathings, 



washii^g^ and puzificaticms. No doubt 
tb^ese were designed to represent in- 
ward purity ; but they are at the same 
time calculated for the preservation of 
health. 

896. However whimsical these wash- 
ings may appear to some, few things 
would i^pear m<»:e to prevent diseases 
than a proper attention to many of 
them. 

897. Were evert person, fot ex- 
ample, after handling a dead body, 
visiting the sick, &c., to wash before he 
went into company, or sat down to meat, 
he would run less hazard either of 
catdhing the infection himself or com- 
municating it to olhers. 

898. Frequent washing not only 
removes the filth which adheres to the 
skin, but likewise promotes the per- 
spiration, braces the body, and enlivens 
iiie Eqsirits. 

899. Even washing the fsst tcuds 
greatly to preserve health. The sweat 
and durt w&h which these parts are fire> 
quently covered, cannot fall to obstruct 
their perspiration. This piece of clean- 
liness would often prevent colds and 
fevers, 

900. Were people to bathe their 
feet and hands in warm water at ni^t, 
after being exposed to cold or wet 
through the day, they would seldom 
experience any of the fatal effisets 
which often proceed from these causes. 

901. In places where great numbers 
of sick people are kept, cleanliness 
ought most religiously to be observed. 
The very smell in such places is often 
sufficient to make one sick. It is easy 
to imagine what effect that is likely to 
have upon the diseased. 

902. A PERSON IN health has a 
greater chance to become sick, than a 
sick person has to get well, in an hos- 
pital or infirmary where cleanliness is 
neglected. 

90S. The brutes themselves set us 
an example of cleanliness. Most of them, 
seem xmeasy, and thrive ill^ if they be 
not kept dean. A horse that is kept 
thoroughly dean, will thrive better 
on a smaller quantity of foodj than 



TO-MOBBOW^ POOB — OF LIFE ITSELF DENIED. 



181 



with a grea^^ where ojleajalinegs is 
Heglected. 

904. Even oub ovn FXBlings are a 
sufficient proof of *^e necessity of 
deanlineas. How refireshed^ how cheer- 
ful and agreeable does one feel on being 
shaved, washed, and dressed ; especially 
when these offices have been long 
neglected. 

905. Most people esteem cleanliness; 
and even those who do not practise it 
themselves, often admire it in others. 



906. DOMESTIC PHARMACOP(EIA. 

In compiling this part of our hints, we 
have fflideavoured to supply that kind of 
informatuxn that is so often wanted in 
the time of need, and cannot be obtained 
when a medical man or a druggist is not 
near. The doses are all fixed for adults, 
unless otherwise ordered. The various 
remedies are airanged in sections, ac- 
cording to their uses, as being more 
easy for refereaoe. 

907. — COLLTBIA, OB E IE- WASHES. 

908. Alum. — ^Dissolve half a drachm 
of alum in eight ounces of water. Use, 
as an astringent. When the strength of 
the alum is doubled, and only half the 
quantity of water used^ it acts as a dis- 
cutient. 

909. Common. — Add one ounce of 
diluted acetic acid to three ounces of 
decoetion of poppy heads. Use, as an 
anodyne wash. 

910. Compound A lum. — Dissolve alum 
and white vitriol, of each one drachm in 
one pint of water, and filter through 
paper. Use, as an astringent wash. 

911. Zinc cmd Lead. — ^Dissolve white 
vitriol and acetate of lead, of each seven 
grains, in four ounces of elder-flower 
watei, then add one drachm of lauda- 
num (tincture of opium), and the same 
quantity of spirit of camphor; then 
strain. Use, as a detergent wash. 

91 2. A cetate of Zinc. — Dissolve half a 
drachm of white vitriol in five ounces of 
water. Dissolve two scruples of acetate 
of lead in five ounces of water. Mix 
these solutions, then set aside for a 
short time, and afterwards filter. Use, 



as an astringent; this forms a most 
valuable collyrium. 

913. Siklphate of Zinc. — ^Dissolve ten 
grains of white vitriol in a pint of water 
or rose-water. Use, for weak eyes. 

914. Zinc and Camphor. — Dissolve a 
scruple of white vitriol in eight ounces 
of water, then add one drachm of spirit 
of camphor, and strain. Use, as a stimu- 
lant. 

915. Compownd Zinc. — Dissolve ten 
grains of white vitriol in eight Ounces 
of camphor wat«7 {Mistura ccMnphorat), 
and the same quantity of decoction of 
poppy-heads. Use, as an anodyne and 
detergent ; useful for weak eyes. 

916. — Confections and Electuabijbs. 

917. Confections are used as vehicles 
for the administration of more active 
medicines, and Electuaries are made for 
the purpose of rendering some remedies 
palatable. Both should be kept in 
closely covered jars. 

918. Almond Confection. — Remove 
the outer coat from an ounce of sweet 
almonds, and beat them well in a mor- 
tar with one drachm of powdered gum 
arable, and half an ounce of white su- 
gar. Use, to make a demulcent mixtm'e, 
known as almond emulsion. 

919. Alum Confection. — Mix two 
scruples of powdered alum with four 
scruples of treacle. Dose, half a drachm. 
Use, as an astringent in sore throat and 
relaxed uvula, and ulcerations of the 
mouth. 

920. Orange Confection. — Take one 
ounce of the freshly rasped rind of 
orange, and mix it with three ounces of 
white sugar, after it is well beaten. Dose, 
from one diuchm to one ounce. Use, as 
a gentie stomachic and tonic, and for 
giving tonic powders in. 

921. Block Pepper Confection. — Take 
of black pepper and elecampane-root 
each one ounce; fennel seeds, three 
ounces ; honey and sugar, of each two 
ounces. Rub the dry ingredients to a 
fine powder, and when the confection is 
wanted, add the honey, and mix well. 
Dose^ from one to two drachms. Use, 
in haemorrhoids. 



132 



TO-DAY; LAYS PLANS FOB MANY YEARS TO COllE; 



922. Cowhage. — ^Mix as much of the 
fine hairs or spiculse of cowhage into 
treacle as it will take up. Dose, a tea- 
spoonful every morning and evening. 
Use, as an anthelmintic. 

923. Senna Confection. — Take of 
senna four oimces, figs half a pound, 
cassia pulp, tamarind pulp, and the 
pulp of prunes, each four ounces ; co- 
riander seeds, two ounces; liquorice, 
one ounce and a half; sugar, one pound 
and quarter ; water, one pint and a half. 
Hub the senna with the coriander, and 
separate^ by sifting, five ounces of the 
mixture. Boil the water with the figs 
and liquorice added, until it is reduced 
to one half; then press out and strain 
the liquor. Evaporate the strained 
liquor in a jar by boiling until twelve 
'fluid ounces remain ; then add the sugar, 
and make a syrup. Now mix the pulps 
with the syrup, add the sifted powder, 
and mix well. Use, purgative. 

924. Castor OU and Senna Comfedvyn, 
— ^Take one drachm of powdered gum 
arable, and two ounces of confection of 
senna, and mix by gradually rubbing 
together in a mortar, with ha&an ounce 
of castor oil. Dose, from one to two 
drachms. Use, purgative. 

925. Suiphwr and Senna Confection. — 
Take of sulphur and sulphate of potash, 
each half an ounce; of confection of 
senna, two oimces ; and oil of aniseed^ 

' twenty minims ; mix well. Dose, from 
one to two drachms. Use, purgative. 

926. Cream of Tartar Confection. — 
Take one ounce of cream of tartar, and 
half a drachm of powdered ginger ; mix 
into a thick paste with treacle. Dose, 
two drachms. Use, purgative. 

927. Antispasmodic Electuary, — ^Take 
six drachms of powdered valerian and 
orange leaves, mixed and made into an 
Blectuary, with a sufficient quantity of 
syrup of wormwood. Dose, from one to 
two drachms, to be taken two or three 
times a day. 

928. — Decoctions. 
929. These preparations soon spoil, 
and therefore should only be made in 
small quantities, particularly in sum- 
mer. 



980. OfC^imapkikL'^TekeoneKnmce 
of pyrola (chimaphila or winter-green), 
and boil it in a pint and a half of water 
until it is only one pint; then strain. 
Dose, from one to two ounces, four times 
a day. Use, in dropsies, as a diuretic. 

931. Of Logwood. — ^Boil one ounce 
and a hidf of bruised logwood in two 
pints of water until it comes to one 
pint ; then add one drachm of bruised 
cassia, and strain. Dose, from one to 
two ounces. Use, as an astringent. 

9Z2. Of Dandelion, — Take two ounces 
of the freshly-sUoed root, and boil in 
two pints of water until it comes to one 
pint ; then add one ounce of compound 
tincture of horse-radish. Dose, from 
two to four ounces. Use, in a sluggish 
state of the liver. 

933. — ^Embrocations and Liniments. 

934. These remedies are used exter- 
nally as local stimulants, to relieve deep- 
seated inflammations when other means 
cannot be employed, as they are more 
easily applied locally. 

935. Anodyne and Discuiient, — Take 
two drachms of scraped white soap, half 
a drachm of extract of henbane, and dis- 
solve them by a gentle heat in six ounces 
of olive oiL Used in doses of two or three 
drachms at a time, for glandular en- 
largements which are painful and stub- 
bom. 

936. Strong Ammoniated. — ^Add one 
ounce of strong liquid ammonia {Li- 
qnoris ammonioB fortius) to two ounces 
of olive oil ; shake them well together 
until they are properly mixed. Use, 
Employed as a stimulant in rheumatic 
pains, paralytic numbnesses, chronic 
glandular enlargements, lumbago, scia- 
tica, &c. 

937. Compoy/nd Ammoniaied,-^ Add 
six teaspoonfuls of oil of turpentine to 
the strong ammoniated liniment above. 
Use, for &e diseases mentioned under 
the head of strong ammoniated lini- 
ment, and chronic aSfections of the knee 
and ankle-joints. 

938. Lime cmd Oil. — Take equal parts 
of common linseed-oil and lime-watei* 
{Liquor cal-cis), and shake well. Us^, 



, 



TO-MOBBOW; SINES INTO THE SILENT TOMB. 



13a 



Applied to bums, scalds, sun-peelings, 
&e. 

939. Camphorated,-— Tvke half an 
ounce of camphor, and dissolve it in two 
ounces of oHye oil. UsCy as a stimu- 
knt, soothing application, in stubborn 
breasts, glandular enlai^gements, dropsy 
of the bdly, and rheumatic paine. 

940. Soap Linimentwith Spanish Flies. 
—Take three ounces and a half of soap- 
liniment, and half an oimce of tincture 
of Spanish flies; mix and shake well. 
Use, as a stimulant to chronic bruises, 
sprains, rheumatic pains, and indolent 
swellings. 

941. Turpentine. — Take two ounces 
and a half of resin cerate {cerattmi re- 
since), and melt it by standing the vessel 
in hot water ; then add one ounce and 
a half of oil of turpentine, and mix. 
Use, as a stimulant application to ulcers, 
bums, scalds, &c. 

942. — Enemas. 

943. Are a peculiar kind of medicines, 
administered by injecting them into the 
rectum or outlet of the body. The in- 
tention is either to empty the bowels, 
kill worms, protect the lining membrane 
of the intestines from injury, restrain 
copious discharges, to allay spasms in 
the bowels, or nourish the body. These 
clysters, or glysters, are administered by 
means of bladders and pipes, or a proper 
apparatus. 

944. Laxative. — Take two ounces of 
Epsom salts, and dissolve in three- 
quarters of a pint of gruel, or thin 
broth, with an ounce of olive oiL Use, 
as all enemas are used. 

945. Nwtritive. — Take twelve ounces 
of strong beef tea, and thicken with 
hartshorn shavings or arrow-root. 

946. Twrpentine. — Take half an ounce 
of oil of turpentine, the yolk of one egg, 
and half a pint of gruel. Mix the tur- 
pentine and eg^, and then add the gruel. 
Use, as an anthelmintic. 

947. Common, — ^Dissolve one ounce of 
salt in twelve ounces of gruel. 

948. Castor OU. — Mix two oimces of 
castor oil with one drachm of starch, 
then rub them together, and add four- 



teen oimces of thin gruel. Use, pui^- 
tive. 

949. Opiwm. — Rub two grains of 
opium with two ounces of stcurch, then 
add two ounces of warm water. Use, as 
an anodyne, in colic, spasms, &c. 

950. Oil. — ^Mix four ounces of olive 
oil with half an ounce of mucilage and 
half a pint of warm water. Use, as a 
demulcent. 

961. Assafcetida. — Dissolve two 
drachms of the gum in a pint of barley- 
water. Ui^, as an anthelmintic, or in 
convtilsions from teething. 

952. — Gargles. 

953. Are remedies used to stimulate 
chronic sore throats, or a relaxed state 
of the swallow, or uvula. 

954. Acidulated, — Mix one part of 
white vinegar with three parts of honey 
of roses, and twenty-four of barley- 
water. Use, in chronic inflammations of 
the throat, malignant sore throat, &c. 

965. Astringent. — Take two drachms 
of roses and mix with eight ounces of 
boiling water, infuse for one hour, strain, 
and add one drachm of alum and one 
ounce of honey of roses. Use, in severe 
sore throat, relaxed uvula, &c. 

966. For salivation. — Mix from one 
to four drachms of bruised gall-nuts with 
a pint of boiling water, and infuse for 
two hours, then strain and sweeten. 

957. Tonic and stimvla/nt. — Mix six 
ounces of decoction of bark with two 
oimces of tincture of myrrh, and half a 
drachm of diluted sulphuric acid. Use, 
in scorbutic aflections. 

958. Alum. — ^Dissolve one drachm of 
alum in fifteen ounces of water, then 
add half an ounce of treacle and one 
drachm of diluted sulphuric acid. Use, 
astringent. 

959. Myri'h. — Add six drachms of 
tincture of myrrh to seven oimces of 
infusion of linseed, and then add two 
drachms of diluted sulphuric acid. Use, 
as a detergent. 

960. For slight inflammaJbion of the 
throat, — ^Add one drachm of sulphuric 
sether to half an ounce of syrup of 
marsh-mallows, and six ounces of bar- 



^ 



134 



TO-DAY, HIS POO»^ IS DRESS D IN DAINTY FORMS ; 



ley-water. Thia may be used fre- 
quently. 

9^1. Lotions. 

962. Lotions are usually applied to 
the parts required by means of a piece of 
linen ra^ wetted with them^ os by wet- 
ting the bandage itself. 

968. EmoUiemt. — Use deeootion of 
marsh-mallow or linseed. 

964. Elder-flowers. — Add two-drachms 
and a half of elder-flowers to one quart 
of boiling water, infuse for one hour, 
«nd strain. Use, as a discutient. 

966. Sedative. — ^Dissolve one drachm 
of extract of henbane in twenty-four 
drachms of water. 

966. Opium. — ^Mix two drachms of 
bruised opium with half a pint of boil- 
ing water, allow it to grow cold, and 
use for painful ulcers, bruises, &c. 

967. Stimulant. — ^Dissolve one drachm 
of caustic potash in one pint of water, 
and then gradually pour it upon 
twenty-four grains of camphor and one 
drachm of sugar, previously braised 
together in a mortar. Used as in fun- 
goid and flabby ulcers. 

968. Ordinarif. — Mix one drachm of 
salt with eight ounces of water. Used 
ipT foul ulcers and flabby wounds. 

969. CM evaporating. — Add two 
drachms of 9ulard's extract {Liquor 
phimM diacetatis), and the same quan- 
tity of sweet spirit of nitre (Spiritus 
cetheris nitrici) to a pint of cold water. 
Use, as a lotion for contusions, sprains, 
inflamed parts, &e. 

970. Hydrochlorate of dtmmonia. — 
Dissolve half an ounce of sal ammoziiac 
(Ammonia! hydrochloras) in six ounces 
of water, then add an ounce of distilled 
vinegar and* the same quantity of recti- 
fied spirit. Use, as a refrigerant. 

971. Yellow lotion. — Dissolve one 
grain of corrosive sublimate (Hydrar- 
gyri chloridum, a violent poison) in 
an ounce of lime-water, taking care to 
bruise the crystals of the salt in order 
to assist its solution. Use, as a deter- 
gent. 

972. Black wash. — ^Add half a drachm 
of calomel to four ounces of lime-water, 
or eight grains to an ounce of lime- 



water; shake well. Use, as a deter- 
gent. 

973. Acetate of lead with opium. — 
Take ten grains of acetate of lead, and 
a drachm of powdered opium, mix, and 
add an ounce of vinegas ajid four ounces 
of warm water, set aside for an hour, 
then filter. Use, as an astringent. 

974. Kreasote. — Add a drachm of 
ki'easote to a pint of water, and Tni-r by 
shaking. Use, as an application in tinm, 
capitis, or other cutaneous diseases. 

975. Galls. — Boil one drachm of 
bruised galls in twelve ounces of water 
until only half a pint remains, then 
strain, and add one ounce of laudanum. 
Use, as an astringent. 

976. Ointments and Cerates. 

9^77. These remedies are used as 
topical applications to parts, generally 
ulcers, and are usually spread upon 
linen or other materials. 

978. Camphorated. — Mix half an 
ounce of camphor with one ounce of 
lard, having, of course, previously pow- 
dered the camphor. Use, as a discutient 
and stimulant in indolent tumours. • 

979. ChaXk. — Mix as much prepared 
chalk as you can into some lard, so as 
to form a thick ointment. Use, as an 
application to burns and scalds. 

980. For Itch. — Mix four drachms of 
sublimed sulphur, two oimces of lard, 
and two drachms of sulphuric acid to- 
gether. This is to be rubbed into the 
body. 

981. For Scrofulous Ulcerations. — 
Mix one drachm of ioduret of zinc, and 
one ounce of lard together. Use, twice 
a day to the ulcerations. 

982. Ca^techu. — Mix one ounce of 
powdered catechu, two drachms and a 
half of powdered alum, one ounce of 
powdered white resin, and two OTznces 
and a half of olive oil together. Ute, 
to apply to flabby and indolent ulcera- 
tions. 

983. Tartar Emetic. — Mix twenty 
grains of tartar emetic and ten grains of 
white sugar with one drachm and a 
half of lard. Use, as a counter-irritant 
in white swellings, &c. 



TO-ICOBBOW, IS HOOBLr A VSAST FOB WOBMB. 



lU 



984. FiLi£. 

985. Strong PnrgaUvc-^TekeaipoiW' 
deied aloes, scammony, and gamboge 
each fifteen grains, mix and add soffi- 
cieat Yenice turpentine to make into a 
masBy then divide into twelve piUs. 
Ihm, one or two oocasionaily. 

986. Milder PwrgaHve.-^Take four 
gtainB of powdered 8camnK>ny and the 
same quantity of compound extract of 
coloeynth, and two grains of calomel; 
mix well, and add a few drops of oil of 
cioYeSy or thin gnm-water, to enaUe the 
ingredients to combine properly, divide 
into two pills. I>Q8e, one or twx> when 
necmaaiy. 

987. Common PwrgtUive. — Take of 
powdered jalap and compooad extract 
of colocynth each four grainsy of calo- 
mel two grains, mix aa usual, and 
divide into two pills. JDote, one or two 
oecasiooaily. 

988. Tonic. — Mix twenty-four grains 
of extract of gentian and the same of 
green vitriol (»ul/pkate of iron) together, 
and divide into twelve pills. J>ose, one 
to two when necessary. Use, in de- 
bility. 

989. Cough, — Mix one drachm of 
compouitd powder of ipecacuanha with 
one scruple of gum ammoaiacum and 
dried squill bulb, and make into a mass 
with macilage, then divide into twenty 
pills. Do9e — one, three times a day. 

990. AatringerU.-^'Hia sixteen grains 
of acetate of lead {Sugwr of Uad) with 
four grsdns of opium, and make into a 
mass with syrup, so as to make eight 
pills. Dozty from one to two. Uw, as 
an astringent in obstinate dkniicea, 
dysentery, and cholera. 

991. MiXTURBB. 

992. Fever, 8im^. — Add three ounces 
of spirit of mindereruB {Liquor am" 
monia actttUis) to five ounces of water, 
or medicated water, such as cinsamon, 
aniseed, &c. Vote for an adtilt, one 
ounce every three houxs. Ute, as a 
diaphoretic. 

993. Aromatic. — Mix two drachma of 
aromaiie coBfi9cti(»i with two dnwdims 
ot oottipound tincture of cardsmoms^ 



and eight ounces of pe^iermint water. 
Dose, from one ounce to one and a half. 
Use, in flatulent cholie and spasms of 
the bowels. 

994. CatharHe. — ^Dissolve one ounce 
of Epsom salts in four ounces of com- 
pound infusion of sezma, then add three 
ounces of pejqpermint water. Dote, 
from one and a half to two ounces. 
Use, as a warm stomachic and cathartic 

995. Diwetie. — ^Add half an ounce of 
sweet spirit of nitre, two drachms of 
tincture of squills,* and two ounces of 
liquid acetate of ammonia, to six ounces 
of decoction of broom. i><we^ one ounce 
every two hours. Use, in dropsiea. 

996. Cough. — Dissolve three grains 
of tartar emetic and Mteen grains of 
opium in one pint of boiling water, 
then add four ounoea of treacle^ two 
ounces of vinegar, and one pint more 
of boiling water. Dose, from two 
drachms to one ounce. Use, in com- 
mon catarrh, bronchitie^ and irritable 
cough. 

997. Cough, for Children, — Mix two 
drachms of ipecacuanha wine with half 
an ounce of oxymel of squHls,. and the 
same quantity of muei&ge, and two 
ounces of water. Dose, one tesapooin- 
ful for children under one year, two 
teaspoonfuls from one to five years, 
and a tablespoonful fron& five years, 
every time the cough is troublesome. 

998. iinH^pasmodic—Dissidve fifty 
grains of camphor in two dradmis oif 
chloroform, and then add two drachma 
of compoimd tincture of lavender, nx 
drachms of mucilage of gum arable, 
ei^^ ounces of amMed, cinnamon, or 
some other aromatic water, and two 
ounces of water; mix well. Dose, one 
tablespoonful every half hour if neoes* 
sary. Use, in cholera in the cold stagey 
when eramps are severe^ or exhaustion 
very great ; as a general anti-spaBmodic 
in deses of one dessert spoonful idien 
the spasms are severe. 

999. Tonic amd i8!e»m«2aict-*~DisBelve 
one drachm of extract of bark, and 
half a drai^m of powdered gnm anbic 
in six ounces of water, and then add 
one ounce of syrup of nunh-maUow, 



136 



TO-DAT, he's clad IN GAUDT, RICH ARRAY; 



and the same quantity of syrup of tolu. 
DMe, one tablespoonfiil every three 
hours. UtCf after fevers and catarrhs. 
1000. Stomachic. — Take twenty grains 
of powdered rhubarb, and dissolve it in 
thi^ ounces and a half of peppermint 
water, then add sal volatile and com- 
pound tincture of gentian, each one 
drachm and a half. Mix. Dose, from 
one to one ounce and a half. Use, as a 
tonic, stimulant, and stomachic. 

1001. Drinks. 

1002. Tatnarind. — ^Boil two oimces 
of the pulp of tamarinds in two pints 
of milk« then strain. Use, as a refrige- 
rant drink. 

1008. Tamarind. — Dissolve two 
ounces of the pulp in two pints of 
warm water, and allow it to get cold, 
then strain. Use, refrigerant. 

1004. Powders. 

1005. Comjiowid Soda. — Mix one 
drachm of calomel, five drachms of 
sesqui-carbonate of soda, and ten 
drachms of compound chalk powder 
together. Dose, five grains. Use, as a 
mild purgative for children during 
teething. 

1006. Tome.' — Mix one drachm of 
powdered rhubarb with the same quan- 
tity of dried carbonate of soda, then 
add two drachms of powdered Calumba 
root. Dose, from ten to twenty grains 
as a tonic after fevers, in all cases of 
debility, and dyspepsia attended with 
acidity. 

1007. Jihubarh and Magnesia. — Mix 
one drachm of powdered rhubarb with 
two drachms of carbonate of magnesia, 
and half a drachm of ginger. Dose, 
from fifteen grains to one drachm. Use, 
as a purgative for children. 

1008. Sidphur cmd Potash. — ^Mix one 
drachm of sulphur with four scruples 
of bicarbonate of potash, and two scru- 
ples of nitre. Dose, from half a drachm 
to one drachm. Use, as a puxgative, 
diuretic, and refrigerant. 

1009. Anti-Diarrhcsal.'-Jiix. one gnm 
of powdered ipecacuanha, and one 
grain of powdered opium, with the 



same quantity of camphor. Dose, one 
of these powders to be given in jam, 
treacle, &c., five or six lunes a day if 
necessary. 

1010. AntirSpcumodic. — Mix four 
grains of subnitrate of bismuth, forty- 
eight grains of carbonate of magnesia, 
and the same quantity of white sugar, 
and then divide in four equal parts. 
Dose, one-fourth part. Use, in obsti- 
nate pain in the stomach witb cramps, 
unattended by inflammation. 

1011. Anti'Pertnssal, or against 
Hooping Covugh. — Mix one drachm of 
powdei^d belladonna-root, and five 
drachms of white sugar, together. 
Dose, six grains morning and evening 
for children \mder one year; twelve 
grains for those under two and three 
years of age; twenty-four grains for 
those between five and ten ; and forty- 
eight grains for adults. CavtJtion, tins 
should be prepared by a chemist, as 
the belladonna is a poison, and occa- 
sional doses of castor-oil should be 
given while it is being taken. 

1012. Purgative (comm>on). — ^Mix ten 
grains of calomel, with one drachm of 
powdered jalap, and twenty grams of 
sugar. Dose, fifty grains for adults. 

1013. Sudorific. — ^Mix six grains of 
compound antimonial powder, and two 
grains of sugar, together. Dose, as 
mixed, to be taken at bed-time. Use, 
in catarrh and fever. 

1014. Miscellaneous. 

1016. Ethereal Tincture of Male 
Fern. — ^Digest one ounce mide fem 
buds in eight ounces of sulphuric 
aether, then strain. Dose, thirty drops 
eai*ly in the morning. Use, to kill tape- 
worm. 

1016. Emulsion, Laxative. — Rub 
down an ounce of castor oil in two 
drachms of mucilage of gum arabic, 
three ounces of dill water, and add a 
drachm of tincture of jalap gradually. 
Dose, as prepared thus, to be taken 
while fiusting in the morning. 

1017. Emulsion, Purgative. — Rub 
down six grains of scammony with six 
drachms of white sugar in a mortar. 



TO-MOBBOW. SHBOUDED FOB A BED OF CLAY. 



187 



and gradually add four ounces of al- 
mond emulsion, and two drops of oil 
of cloves. Do8e, as prepared, early in 
the morning. 

1018. To Prevent Pitting after Small- 
pox. — Spread a sheet of thin leather 
with the ointment of ammoniacimi with 
mercury, and cut out a place for the 
mouth, eyes, and nostrils. This forms 
what is called a mask, and, after an- 
ointing the eye-lids with a little blue 
ointment {wifftientum hydrargyri), it 
should be applied to ihe jbce, and 
allowed to remain for three days for 
the distinct kind, and four days for the 
running variety. Period to apply it : — 
Before the spots fill with matter, al- 
though it will answer sometimes even 
after they have become pustulous. It 
may be applied to any psui; in the same 
way. 

1019. Mucilage of Own Arabic. — ^Rub 
one ounce of gum arable in a mortar, 
with four ounces of warm water. Use, 
for coughs, &c 

1020. Mucilage of Starch. — ^Rub one 
drachm of starch with a little water, 
and gradusdly add five ounces of water, 
then boil imtil it forms a mucOage. 
Use, for enemas, topical application, 
and demidcent. 



1021. aARDENING OPERATIONS 
FOR THE YEAR. 

1022. Januaby. — Flower of the 
month, — Christmas Rose. 

1023. Oardening. — ^Indoor prepara- 
tions for future operations must be 
made, as in this month there are only five 
hours a-day available for out-door work, 
unless the season be unusiially mild. 
Mat over tulip-beds, begin tofforce roses. 
Pot over secale and plaiit dried roots of 
border flowers in mild weather. Take 
strawberries in pots into the green- 
house. Prune and plant gooseberry, 
cturant, fruit and deciduous trees and 
shrubs. Cucumbers and melons to be 
sown in the hot bed. Apply manures. 

1024. Febbuaby. — Flowers of the 
month, — Snowdrop and violet. 

1025. Gardening. — Transplant pinks, 
carnations, sweet-williams, canditufb, 



campanulas^ &c., sweet and garden 
peas and lettuce, for suecession of crops, 
covering the ground with straw, &c. 
Sow also savoys, leeks and cabbages. 
Prune and nail walnut trees, and to- 
wards the end of the month plant 
stocks for next year's grafting, also 
cuttings of poplar, elder, willow-trees, 
for ornamental shrubbezy. Sow fruit 
and forest tree seeds. 

1026. Mabch. — Flower of the m^mth. 
— Primrose. 

1027. Gardening operations. — 
" Spring flowers " to be sown. Border 
flowers to be planted out. Tender an- 
nuals to be potted out under glasses. 
Mushroom beds to be made. Sow arti* 
chokes, Windsor beans, and cauliflowers 
for autumn ; lettuces and peas for suc- 
cession of crops, onions, parsley, ra- 
dishes, savoys, asparagus, red and white 
cabbages, and beets; turnips, early bro- 
coli, parsneps and carrots. Plamt slips 
and parted roots of perennial herbs. 
Graft trees and protect early blossoms. 
Force rose-tree cuttings under glasses. 

1028. Apbil. — Flower of the Tnonth, 
— ^Cowslip. 

1029. Gardening Operations. — Sow 
for succession peas, beans and carrots ; 
parsneps, celery and secale. Sow 
" Spring flowers." Plant evergreens, 
daldias, chrysanthemums, and the like, 
also potatoes, slips of thyme, parted 
roots, lettuces, cauliflowers, cabbages, 
onions. Lay down tuif, remove 
caterpillars. Sow and graft Camellias, 
and propagate and graft fruit and rose 
trees by i3l the various means in use. 
Sow cucumbers and vegetable marrows 
for planting out. This is the most 
important month in ^e year for gar- 
deners. 

1030. May.— jFTower ofi the month.-^ 
Hawthorn. 

1031. Ga/rdening. — Plant out your 
seedling flowers as they are ready, and 
sow again for succession larkspur, 
mignionette, and other spring flowers. 
Pot out tender annuals. Remove 
auriculas to a N.E. aspect. Take up 
bulbous roots as the leaves decay. Sow 
kidney beans, brocoli for spring use, 

F 2 



188 



TO-OAT, BNJOYB HIS BAUJS, MJUS TO BEIS XINB; 



«ape for aatumn, oaoMo wers for Decem- 
ber ; Indian com, orees, onions, to plant 
out as bulbs nest year, radishes, aro- 
matic kerbs, turnips, cabbages, savoys, 
lettuces, &0. Plant celery, lettuces, 
and annuals ; thin spring crops. Stick 
peas, &c. Earth up potatoes, &c. 
Xoisten mushroom beds. 

1032'. JoNE. — Flovfers of the month, — 
Waterlily, Honeysudde. 

1083. Gardening Operations. ^- Sow 
giant stocks to flower next spring. Slip 
myrtles to strike, and kby pinks, carna- 
tions, roses, and evergreens. Plant 
annuals in borders, and auriculas in 
shady places. Sow kidney beans, 
pumpkins, cucumbers for pickling, and 
(late in the month) endive and lettuces. 
Plant out cucumbers, marrows, leeks, 
celery* brecoli, cauliflowers, savoys, and 
seedlings, and plants propagated by 
dips. Earth up potatoes, &c. Cut 
herbs tor drying when in flower. 

1034. July. — FUnoe/ts of the MowiL — 
Rose and carnation. 

loss. Qardening OperaUonB. — Part 
auricula and polyanthus roots. Take 
up summer bulbs as they go out of 
flower, and plant saffix>n crocus and 
autumn bulbs. Qather seeds. Clip 
evei^reen borders and hedges, strike 
myrtle slips under glasses. Net fruit 
trees. Finish budding by the end of 
the montii. Head down espaUem. Sow 
early dwarf cabbages to plant out in 
October for spring ; also endive, onions, 
kidney beans for late crop, and turnips. 
Plant celery, endive, lettuces, cabbages, 
leeks, strawberries, and cauliflowers. 
Stick peas. Tie up salads. Earth 
celery. Take up onions, &c., for diy- 

ing. 

1036. AuousT. — Flotoers of the Month. 
— Harebell and mallow. 

1037. Oardening Operatione, ^^ Sow 
Iflowers to flower in-doors in winter, 
and pot all young stocks raised in the 
greenhouse. Sow early red cabbages, 
oaulJAowers for spring and summer use, 
cos and cabbage lottuce for winter crop. 
Plant out winter crops. Dry herbs 
and mushroooi spawn. Plant out 
Atrawbeny roots, and net currant trees. 



to preserve the fruit through the 
winter. 

103S. Seftbuber. — Flouera of the 
Month. — Clematis, or traveller's j«y, 
arbutus, and meadow 8a&t>n. 

1039. Qairdmiing Operations. — Plant 
crocuses, scaly bulbs, and evergreen 
shrubs. Propagate by layers and cut- 
tings of all herbaceous pltuits, currant, 
gooseberry, and other fruit trees. Plant 
out seedling pinks. Sow onions for 
spring plantation, carrots, spinach, 
and Spanish I'adishes in warm spots. 
Earth up celery. House potatoes and 
edible bulbs. Gather pickling oucum* 
bers. Make tulip and mushroom beds* 

1040. Ocsomssu-^Plowers of the Month* 
•^^Ohina^eBter, holly, and ivy. 

1041. Qwdening Operation^. — Sow 
rose-tree seeds and fruit stones, also 
larkspurs and the hardier annuals to 
stand the winter, also hyadnths and 
smooth bulbs, in pots and glasaes. 
Plant young trees, cuttings of jasmine, 
honeysuckle, and eveigreois. Sow 
mignicmette for pots in winter. Plant 
cabbages, &o., for spring. Cut down 
asparagus, separate roots of daistes, 
irises, &c. IVench, di'ain, andmanoie. 

1042. November. — Flowers of the 
month. — ^Laurestine and Wych HazeL 

1043. Gcurdeiimg Operations. — Sow 
sweet peaa for an early crop. Take up 
dahlia roots. Complete beds fbr aspa- 
ragus and artichokes. Plant dried roots 
of border flowers, daisies, &c. Ts&e 
potted-mignionette in<doors. Set straw- 
berries. Sow peas, leeks, beans, and 
radishes. Plant rhubarb in ro«&. 
Prune hardy trees, and plant stocks of 
fruit trees. Store carrots, &o. Shelter 
from frost where it may be required. 
Plant shrubs for forcing. Continue to 
trench and manure vacant ground. 

1044. December. — Flowers of the 
month. — Cyclamen and Winter aoeniie.. 
(Holly berries are now available flor 
floral deooration.) 

1045. Oardening OpertUions. — Con- 
tinue in open weather to prepare vneant 
ground for spring, and to protect plaate 
from frost. Cover bulbous roots with 
matting. Drees flower borders. Fk«« 



TO-MpftBOW, IS A QOFVJK IS CONFINED. 



189 



pare forcing ground for cucumbers, and 
force asparagus and secale. Plant goose- 
berry, currant, apple and pear trees. 
Boll grass plats if the season be mild 
and not too wet. Prepare poles, atakes, 
pea-sticks, &c., for spring. 

1046. Kitchen Garden. — This is 
one of the most important parts of 
general domestic economy, whenever 
the situation of a house will permit a 
family to avail themselves of its assist- 
ance, in aid of butchers' bills. It is., 
indeed, much to be regretted that small 
plots of ground,. in the immediate vici- 
nity of the metropolis more especially, 
are too offcen frittered away into shrub- 
beries and baby gardens, when they 
might more usefully be employed in 
raising vegetables for the family, during 
the week-day residence in town, than 
wasting their sweetness on the smoky 
air in all the pride of lilac, hollyhock, 
and bachelors' buttons, to be mei'ely 
smelled to, by the whole immigrating 
household on the day of rest. With a 
little care and attention, a kitchen- 
garden, though small, might be ren- 
dered not only useful, but, in fact, as 
ornamental as a modem grass carpet ; 
and the same expense incurred to make 
the ground a labyrinth of sweets, might 
suffice to render it agreeable to the 
palate, as well as to the olfactory 
nerves, and that even without offending 
the most delicate optics. It is only in 
accordance with our plan to give the 
hint, and to record such novel points as 
may facilitate the proposed arrange- 
ment. It is one objection to the adop- 
tion of a kitchen-garden in fivnt of the 
dwelling, or in sight of the fanuly 
apartments, that its very nature makes 
it rather an eye-sore than otherwise at 
all seasons. This, however, is an ob- 
jection that may be r^ulily got over by 
a little attention to neatness and good 
order, whilst the plants themselves, if 
judiciously attended to, and the borders 
sown or planted with ranunculus, poly- 
anthus, mignionette, &c., in succession, 
will really be ornamental : but then, in 
cutting the plants for use, the business 
must be done neatly, all useless leaves 



cleared from the ground, the roots no 
longer wanted taken up, and the ravages 
of insects to be gusu:^ded against by 
sedulous extirpation. It will also be 
found a great improvement^ where space 
will admit of it, to suiTound the beds 
with neat espaliers, with fruit trees, or 
even gooseberry and currant bushes 
trained along them, instead of these 
being suffered to grow in a state of 
ragged wildness. 



1047. TEMPERANCE. — " K," ob- 
serves a writer, " men lived uniformly 
in a healthy climate, were possessed of 
strong and vigorous frames, were de- 
seended from healthy pai*ents, were 
eduoated in a hardy and active manner, 
wei'e possessed of excellent natui'al dis- 
positions, were placed in comfortable 
situations in life, were engaged only in 
healthy occupations, were happily con- 
nected in marriage, and kept their pas- 
sions in due subjection, there would 
be little occasion for medical rules." 
All this is very excellent and desirable ; 
butj unfortimately for mankind, uns^t- 
taixiable. 

1048. Han must be something more 
than man, to be able to connect the 
different links of this harmonious chain 
— ^to consolidate this summiim bonum 
of earthly felicity into one uninter- 
rupted whole ; for, independent of all 
regularity or irregularity of diet, pas- 
slonSf and other sublunary circum- 
stances, contingencies, and oonnections,- 
relative or absolute, thousands are 
visited by diseases and precipitated into 
the grave, independent of accident, to 
whom no particular vice could attach, 
and with whom the appetite never 
overstepped the boundaries of tem- 
perance. Do we not hear almost daily 
of instances of men living near to and 
even upwards of a century ? We can- 
not account for this either ; because of 
such men we know but few who h ave 
lived othei'wise than the world around 
them ; and we have known many who 
have lived in habitual intemperance for 
forty or fifkv years without interruption 
and with Uttle apparent Inconvenience. 



140 



TO-DAY HE FLOATS ON HONOUR'S LOPTT WAVE; 



1049. The assertion has been made 
by those who have attained a great age 
(Parr, and Henry JenMns, for instance,) 
that they adopted no particular arts for 
the preservation of their health ; con- 
sequently, it might be inferred that the 
duration of life has no dependence on 
manners or customs, or the qualities of 
particular food. This, however, is an 
error of no common magnitude. 

1050. Peasants, labourers, and other 
hai*d-working people, more especially 
those whose occupations require them 
to be much in the open air, may be 
considered as following a regulated sys- 
tem of moderation ; and hence the 
higher degree of health which prevails 
among them and their families. They 
also observe rules ; and those which it 
is said were recommended by Old Parr 
are remarkable for good sense; namely, 
" keep your head cool by temperance, 
your feet warm by exercise ; rise early, 
and go soon to bed ; and if you are in- 
clined to get fat, keep your eyes open 
and your mouth shut." In other words, 
sleep moderately, and be abstemious 
in cdet; —excellent admonitions, more 
especially to those inclined to carpu- 
lency. 

1051. The ADVANTAOEStobe derived 
from a regular mode of living, with a 
view to the preservation of health and 
life, are nowhere better exemplified 
than in the precepts and practice of 
Plutarch, whose rules for this purpose 
are excellent ; and by observing them 
himself, he maintained his bodily 
strength and mental faculties unim- 
paired to a very advanced age. Gktlen 
is a still stronger proof of the advan- 
tages of a regular plan, by means of 
which he reached the great age of 140 
years, without having ever experienced 
disease. His advice to the readers of 
his " Treatise on Health/' is as follows : 
— ** I beseech all persons who shall read 
this work, not to degrade themselves to 
a level with the brutes, or the rabble, 
by gratifying their sloth, or by eating 
and drinking promiscuously whatever 
pleases their palates, or by indulging 
their appetites of every kind. But 



whether they understand physic or not, 
let them consult their reason, and ob- 
serve what agrees, and what does not 
agree with them, that, like wise men, 
they may adhere to the use of such 
things as conduce to their health, and 
forbear everything which, by their own 
experience, they find to do them hurt ; 
and let them be assured that, by a dili- 
gent observation and practice of this 
rule, they may enjoy a good share of 
health, and seldom stand in need of 
physic or physicians." 

1062. CHILDREN.— Happy indeed 
is the child who, during the first period - 
of its existence, is fed upon no other 
aliment than the milk of its mother, or 
that of a healthy nurse. If other food 
becomes neoessary before the child has 
acquired teeth, it ought to be of a 
liquid form : for instance, biscuits or 
stale bread boiled in an equal mixture 
of milk and water, to the consistence of 
a thick soup ; but by no means even 
this in the first week of its life. 

1053. Flour or meal ought never 
to be used for soup, as it produces viscid 
humours, instead of a wholesome nutri- 
tious chyle. 

1054. After the first six months, 
weak veal or chicken broth may be 
given, and also, progressively, vegetables 
that are not very flatulent; for instance, 
carrots, endive, spinach, parsnips, with 
broth and boiled fruit, such as apples, 
pears, plums, and cherries. 

1055. When the inIpant is weaned, 
and has acquired its proper teeth, it is 
advisable to let it have small portions 
of meat, and other vegetables, as well 
as dishes prepared of flour, &c., so ihat 
it may gradually become accustomed to 
every kind of strong and wholesome 
food. 

1056. We ought, however, to be 
cautious, and not upon any account to 
allow a child pastry, confectionery, 
cheese, heavy dishes made of boiled or 
baked flours, onions, horse-radish, mus- 
tard, smoked and salted meat, especially 
pork, and all compound dishes ; for the 
moot simple food is the most salubrious. 



TO'HORROWy LEAYBS HIS TITLES FOE ▲ GBAV£. 



141 



1057. Potatoes should be allowed 
only in moderation, and not to be eaten 
with butter, bi^ rather with other 
vegetables, eith^ mashed up or in 
broth. 

1058. The time op taking food is 
not a matter of indifferenoe : very- 
young infants make an exception ; for, 
as their consimiption of vital power is 
more rapid, they may be more fre- 
quently indulged vnih aliment. 

1059. It is, however, advisable to 
accustom even them to a certain 
regularity, so as to allow them their 
victuals at stated periods of the day ; 
for it has been observed, that those 
children which were fed indiscri- 
minately through the whole day, were 
subject to debility and disease. The 
stomach should be allowed to re- 
cover its tone, and to collect the juices 
necessary for digestion, before it is 
supplied with a new portion of food. 

1060. The following order of giving 
food to children has been found proper, 
and conducive to their health : — ^Aiter 
nsingin the morning, suppose about 
six o'clock, a moderate poi'tion of luke- 
warm milk, with well baked bread, 
which should by no means be new ,* at 
nine o'clock, bread with some fruit, or, 
if fruit be scarce, a small quantity of 
fresh butter ; about twelve o'clock, the 
dinner of a sufficient quantity ; between 
four and five o'clock, some bread with 
fruit, or, in winter, the jam of plums, 
as a substitute for fruit. 

1061. On this occasion, children 
should be allowed to eat till they are 
satisfied, without surfeiting themselves, 
that they may not crave for a heavy 
supper, which disturbs their rest, [and 
is productive of bad humours : lastly, 
about seven o'clock, they may be per- 
mitted a light supper, consisting either 
of milk, soup, fruit, or boiled vegetables 
and the like, but neither meat nor 
mealy dishes, nor any article of food 
which produces flatulency ; in short, 
they ought then to eat but little, and 
remain awake at least for one hour 
after it. 

1062. It has often been contended 



that bread is hurtful to children ; but 
this applies only to new bread, or such 
as is not sufficiently baked ; for instance 
our rolls, muffins, and crumpets, than 
which nothing can be more hurtful and 
oppressive. Good wheaten bread is 
extremely proper during the first years 
of infancy; but that made of rye, 
or a mixture of wheat and rye, would 
be more conducive to health after the 
age of childhood. 

1063. With respect to drink, phy- 
sicians are decidedly against giving it 
to children in lai:>ge quantities, and at 
irregular periods, whether it consists of 
the mother's mUk, or any other equally 
mild liquor. 

1064.^ It is improper and pernicious 
to keep infants continually at the breasi>; 
and it would be less hurtful, nay even 
judicious, to let them cry for a few 
nights, mther than to fill them inces- 
santly with milk, which readily turns 
sour on the stomach, weakens the 
digestive organs, and ultimately gene- 
crates scrofulous affections. 

1065. In the latter part op the 
first year, pm'e water may occasion- 
ally be given; and if this cannot be 
procured, a light and well-fermented 
table-beer might be substituted. Those 
parents who accustom their children to 
di-ink water only, bestow on them a 
fortune, the value and importance of 
which will be sensibly felt through life. 

1066. Many children, however, ac- 
quire a habit of drinking during their 
meals; it would be more conducive to 
digestion, if they were accustomed to 
drink only after having made a meal. 
This useful rule is too often neglected, 
though it be certain that inundations 
of the stomach, during the mastication > 
and maceration of the food, not only 
vitiate digestion, but they may be 
attended with other bad consequences ; 
as cold drink, when brought in contact 
with the teeth previously heated, may 
easily occasion cracks or chinks tjl 
these usefid bones, and pave the way 
for their carious dissolution. 

1067. If we inquire into the causes 
which produce the crying of infani<i» 



142 



TO-DAY, HIB BEAUTEOUS VISAGE WB EXTOL; 



we shall find that it seldom originates 
from pain, or uncomfortable sensations ; 
for those who are apt to imiagine that 
such causes must always operate on the 
body of an infant, are egregiously mis- 
taken ; inasmuch as they conceive that 
the physijcal condition, together with 
the method of eic^pressing sensations, 
is the same in infants and adults. 

1068. It requires, however, no de- 
monstration that the state of the former 
is essentially different from that of the 
latter. 

1069. In the first year op Infancy, 
many expressions of the tender organs 
are to be considered only as efforts or 
manifestations of power. 

1070. We observe, for instance, 
that a child, as soon as it is undressed 
or disencumbered from swaddling 
clothes, moves its arms and legs, and 
often makes a variety of strong exei*' 
tions ; yet no reasonable person would 
suppose that such attempts arise from 
a preternatural or oppressive state of 
the little agent. 

1071. It is therefore equally absurd 
to draw an unfavourable Inference 
from every inarticulate cry ; because, 
in most instances, these vociferating 
sounds imply the effort which children 
necessarily make to display the strength 
of their lungs, and exercise the organs 
of respiration. 

1072. Nature has wisely ordained 
that by these very efforts the power 
and utility of functions so essential to 
life should be developed, and rendered 
Tttore perfect with every inspiration. 

1073. Hence it follows, that those 
-^ver-anxious pai'ents or nurses, who 
continually endeavour to prevent 
infants from crying, do them a ma- 
terial injury ; for, by such imprudent 
management, their children seldom or 
never acquire a perfect foim of the 
breast, while the foundation is laid in 
the pectoral vessels for obstructions, 
and other diseases. 

1074. Independently of any par- 
ticular causes, the cries of children, 
with regard to their' general effects, are 
highly beneficial and necessary. 



1075. In the first period of life, 
such exertions are the almost only- 
exercise of the infont i thus the circula- 
tion of the blood, a^d edl the other 
fluids, is rendered more imiform ; di- 
gestion, nutrition, and the growth of 
the body, are thereby promoted ; and 
the different secretions, together with, 
the very important office of the skin, 
or insensible perspiration, are duly 
perfoi-med. 

1076. HENtiE it is extremely im.- 
proper to consider every noise of an 
in&nt as a claim upon our assistance, 
and to intrude either food or drink, 
with a view to satisfy its supposed 
wants. By such injudicious conduct^ 
children readily acquire the injurious 
habit of demanding things, or nutri- 
ments, at improper times, and without 
necessity ; their digestion becomes im- 
paired ; and consequently, at this early- 
age, the whole mass of the fluids is 
gradually comipted. 

1077. If, however, the mother or 
nurse has no reooiu'se to the adminis- 
tration of aliment, they at least remove 
the child from its couch, carry it about, 
frequently in the middle of the night, 
and thus expose it to repeated colds, 
which are in their effects inflnitely 
more dangerous than the most violent 
cries. 

1078. We learn from daily expe- 
rience, that children who have been the 
least indulged thrive much better, im- 
fold all their faculties quicker, and 
acquire more muscular strength and 
vigour of mind than those who have 
been constantly favoured, and treated 
by their parents with the most soli- 
citous attention : bodily weakness and 
mental imbedMty are the usual attri- 
butes of the latter. 

1079. The first and piincipal rule 
of education ought never to be for* 
gotten ; that man is intended to be a 
&ee and independent agent; that his 
moral and physical powers ought to be 
spofUanwitdy developed ; and that he 
should as soon as possible be made ac- 
quainted with the nature and uses of 
1^1 his faculties, in- order to attain that 



TO-]fORBOW^ LOATHSOME IN THE SIGHT OF ALL. 



14S 



degree of perfection which is consi&tent 
wiih the atracture of his oigans ; and 
thftt he is not originally designed for 
what we endeavour to make of him 
hj attificial aid. 

lOSO. Hevcb the greatest art in edn- 
eating children consists in the continual 
vigilance oyer all their actions^ without 
ever giving them an opportunity of dis- 
covering that they are guided and 
watched. 

1081. Thxbe ABE, however, instances 
ia which the loud complaints of infants 

•deserve our attention. 

1082. Thus, if their cries be un- 
^ually violent and long continued, we 
may conclude that they are troubled 
with colic pains ; if, on such occasions, 
they move their arms and hands re- 
peatedly towards the face, painful teeth* 
ing may account for the cause ; and if 
other morbid phenomena accompany 
their cries, or if these expressions be 
repeated at certain periods of the day, 
we ought not to slight them, but en- 
deavour to discover the proximate or 
remote causes. 

108S. Infants cannot sleep too long ; 
and it is a favourable symptom, when 
they enjoy a calm and long-continued 
rest, of which they should by no meaois 
he deprived, as this is the greatest sup- 
port granted to them by nature. 

1084. A OHILD lives, comparatively, 
i&uch faster than an adult ; its blood 
flows more rapidly ; every stimulus 
operates more poweifully; and nftt 
only its constituent parts, but its vital 
z^ources also are more speedily con- 
sumed. 

1085. Sleep promotes a more calm 
and uniform circulation of ttie blood ; 
it facilitates the assimilation of the nu- 
triment received, and contributes to- 
vairds a more copious and regular 
deposition of alimentary matter, while 
the horizontal posture is the most fe- 
vourable to the growth and develop- 
oaent of the child. 

1086. Sleep ought to be in proporti ^n 
to the age of the in&nt. After the age 
of six months, the periods of sleep^ as 
^^Q as all other animal ftmctions^ may. 



in some degree be regulated ; yet, eveo 
then, a child should be suffered to sleep 
the whole night, and several hours 
both in the morning and in the after- 
noon. 

1087. Mothebs and nurees should 
endeavour to accustom infants^ from 
the time of their birth, to sleep in the 
night preferably to ihe day, and for 
this purpose they ought to i«move all 
external impressions which may disturb 
their rest, such as noise, light, ice,, 
but espedally not to obey every call for 
taking them up, and giving food at im- 
proper times. 

1088. Afteb the second teab of 
their age, they will not instinctively re- 
quke to sleep in the forenoon, though, 
after dinner it may be continued to 3ie 
third and fourth year of life, if the 
child shows a particular inclination to 
repose; because, till that age, the foil 
hidf of its time may safely be allotted 
to sleep. 

1089. Fbom that pbbiod, however, 
it ought to be shortened for the space 
of one hour with every succeeding year; 
so that a child of seven years old xaay 
sleep about eight, and not exceeding 
nine hours: this* proportion may be 
continued to the age of adolescence^ and 
even manhood. 

1090. To awaken childben flrom 
their sleep with a noise, or in an impetu- 
ous manner, is extremely injudicious 
and hurtful : nor is it proper to carry 
them from a dark room immediate^ 
into a glaring light, or against a daz- 
zling wall ; for the sudden impresmon 
of light debilitates the organs of vision, 
and lays the foundation of weak eyes, 
from early infancy. 

1091. A bed-boom, or nursery, ought 
to be spacious and lofty, dry, airy, and 
not inhabited through the day. 

1092. No SEBVANTB, if possible, 
should be suffered to sleep in ike same 
room, and no linen or washed clol^es 
should ever be hung there to dry, as 
they contaminate the air in which so 
considerable a portion of infantine life 
must be spent. 

109S. The consb<ktbn(^!S attending 



144 



TO-DAY, HE HAS DELUSIVE DREAMU OF HEAVEN ; 



a vitiated atmosphere in such rooms, 
are various, and often fatal. 

1094. Feather-beds should be ba- 
' nished from nurseries, as they are an 

unnatural and debilitating contrivance. 

1095. The windows should never 
be opened at night, but left open the 
whole day, in fine clear weather. 

1096. Lastly, the bedstead must 
not be placed too low on the floor ; nor 
is it proper to let children sleep on a 
couch which is made without any ele- 
vation from the ground ; because the 
most mephitic and pernicious stratum 
of air in an apartment, is that within 
one or two feet from the floor, while 
the most wholesome, or atmospheric 
air, is in the middle of the room, and 
the inflammable gas ascends to the 
top. 

1097. FAMILY TOOL CHESTS.— 
Much inconvenience, and considerable 
expense might be saved, if it was the 
general custom to keep in every house 
certain tools for the purpose of per- 
forming at home what are called small 
jobs, instead of being always obliged to 
send for a mechanic and pay him for 
executing little things that, in most 
cases, could be suffiMently well done by 
a man or boy belonging to the family, 
provided that the proper instruments 
were at hand. 

1098. The cost of these articles in 
very trifling, and the advantages of 
having them always in the house are far 
beyond the expense. 

1099. For instance, there should be 
an axe, a hatchet, a saw (a large wood- 
saw also, with a buck or stand, if wood 
is burned), a claw-hammer, a mallet, 
two gimlets of different sizes, two screw- 
drivers, a chisel, a small plane, one or 
two jack-knives, a pair of large scissora 
or shears, and a carpet fork or stretcher. 

1100. Also an assortment of nails of 
various sizes, from large spikes down to 
small tacks, not forgetting brass-headed 
nails, some larger and some smaller. 

1101. Screws, likewise, will be found 
very' convenient, and hooks on which 
to hang things. 

1102. The nails and screws should 



be kept in a wooden box, made with 
divisions to separate the various sorts, 
for it is very troublesome to have them 
mixed. 

1103. And let care be taken to 
keep up the supply, lest it should run 
out unexpectedly, and the deficiency 
cause delay and inconvenience at a time 
when their use is wanted. 

1104. It IB well to have some- 
where, in the lower part of the house, 
a deep light closet, appropriated entirely 
to tools and things of equal utility, for 
executing promptly such little repairs* 
as Convenience may require, without 
the delay or expense of procuring an 
artisan. This closet should have at 
least one large shelf, and that about 
three feet from the floor. 

1105. Beneath this shelf may be a 
deep drawer, divided into two compart- 
ments. This drawer may contain cakes 
of glue, pieces of chalk, and balls gf 
twine of different size and quality. 

1106. There may be shelves at the 
sides of the closet for glue-pots, paste- 
pots, and brushes, pots for black, white 
green, and red paint, cans of painting 
oil, paint-brushes, &c. 

1107. Against the wall, above the 
large shelf, let the tools be suspended, 
or laid across nails or hooks of proper 
size to support them. 

1108. This is much better than 
keeping them in ,a. box, where they 
may be injured by rubbing against 
each other, and the hand may be hur 
in feeling among them to find the thing 
that is wanted. 

1109. But when hung up against the 
back wall of the closet, of course each 
tool can be seen at a glance. 

1110. We have been shown on ex- 
cellent and simple contrivance for 
designating the exact places allotted to 
all these articles in a very complete 
tool closet. 

1111. On the closet wall, directly 
under the large nails that support the 
tools, is drawn with a small brash 
dipped in black paint or ink, an outline 
representation of the tool or instru- 
ment belonging to that particular place. 



TO-ICORROW, CRIES TOO hAXE TO BE fOBGIVEN. 



14& 



1112. Fob instance, under each saw 
is sketched the outline of that saw, 
under each gimlet a sketch of that gim- 
let> luider the screw-drivers are slight 
drawings of screw-drivers. 

1113. So that when bringing back 
any to6l that has been taken away for 
use, the exact spot to which it belongs 
can be found in a moment ; and all 
confusion in putting them up and find- 
ing them again is thus prevented. 

1114. Wbafpino paper may be piled 
on the floor imder the large shelf. It 
can be bought very low by the ream, 
at the large paper warehouses ; and 
every house should keep a supply of it 
in several varieties. 

1115. Fob instance, coai'se brown 
paper for common purposes, that de- 
nominated ironmonger's paper, which is 
strong, thick, and in large sheets, is 
useful for packing heavy articles ; and 
equally so for keeping silks, ribbons, 
blondes, &c., as it preserves their 
colours. 

1116. Printed papebs are unfit for 
wrapping anything, as the printing ink 
rubs off on the articles enclosed in them 
and also soils the gloves of the person 
that carries the parcel. 

1117. When shopping, if the person 
at the counter proceeds to wrap up 
your purchase in a newspaper (a thing 
rarely attempted in a genteel shop), 
refuse to take it in such a cover. 

1118. It is the business of every re- 
spectable shopkeeper to provide proper 
paper for this purpose, and printed 
paper is not proper. 

1119. Waste newspapers had best be 
used for lighting fires, singeing poultry, 
and cleaning windows and mirrors. 

1120. Waste-papeb that has been 
written on, cut into sUps, and croased 
and folded, makes very good allimiettes 
or Lunp-lighters. These matters may 
appear of trifling importance, but order 
and regularity aro necessary to happi* 
ness. 

1121. CHINA AND GLASS WARE. 
— The best material for cleansing 
either poroelain or glass-ware, is 
Fuller^s earth ; but it must be beaten 



into a fine powder, and carefully 
cleared fi*om all rough or hai*d particles, 
which might endanger the polish of the 
biilliant surface. 

1122. In cleaning poroelain it must 
also be observed that some species 
requiro more care and attention than 
others, as every person must have 
observed that china-wai'e in common 
use frequently loses some of its- 
colours. 

1123. The bed, especially of Ver- 
million, is the firat to go, because that 
colour, together with some others, i» 
laid on by the Chinese after burning. 

1124. The modern Chinese pobce- 
LAIN is not, indeed, so susceptible o| 
this rubbing or weaiing off, as vegetable 
reds are ^ow used by them instead of 
the mini^ral colour. 

1125. Much of the bed now used 
in China is actually produced by the 
anotto extracted from the cuttizigs of 
scarlet cloth, which have long formed 
an article of exportation to Canton. 

1126. It ought to be taken for 
granted that all china or glass-ware is 
well tempered; yet a little careful 
attention may not be misplaced, even 
on that point : for though ornamental 
china or glass-ware are not exposed to 
the action of hot water in common 
domestic use, yet they may be injudi- 
ciously immersed in it for the purpose 
of cleaning ; and, as articles intended 
solely for ornament, may not be so 
highly annealed as others, without any 
fraudulent negligence on the part of 
the manufacturor, it will be proper 
never to apply "water to them beyond 
a tepid temperature. 

1127. An ingenious and simple mode 
of annealing glass has been some time 
in use by chemists. It consists in 
immersing the vessel in cold water, 
gradually heated to the boiling point> 
and suffered to remain till cold, when 
it will be fit for use. Should the glass 
be exposed to a higher temperature 
than l^t of boiling water, it will be 
necessary to inmierse it in oil. 

1128. Haying thus guarded against 
fractures, we naturally come to the 



146 



TO-DAT, HE LIVEB US HOPES AS LIQHT AS AIB; 



best modes of repairing them when 
they easually take place, for which 
purpose various mixtures have been 
proposed; and it will here be suffi- 
cient to select only those which excel 
in neatness and facility,. 

1129. Perhaps the best cement, both 
for strength and invisibility, is that 
made from mastic. The process, indeed, 
may be thought tedious; but a suf- 
ficient quantity may be made at once to 
last a lifetime. To an ounce of mastic 
add as much highly rectified spirits of 
wine as will dissolve it. Soak an ounce 
of isinglass in water until quite soft, 
then dissolve it in pure rum or brandy, 
until it forms a strong glue, to which 
add about a quainter of an ounce of gum 
ammoniac, well rubbed and mixed. 
Put the two mixtures together in an 
earthen vessel over a gentle heat ; when 
well imited, the mixture may be put 
into a phial and kept well stopped. 

1130. When wanted for use, the 
bottle must be set in warm water, when 
the china or glass articles must be also 
warmed and the cement applied. 

1131. It will be proper that the 
broken surfaces, when careftilly fitted, 
shall be kept in close contact for twelve 
hours at least, until the cement is fully 
set; after which the fracture will be 
found as secure ka any part of the ves- 
sel, and scarcely perceptible. It may 
be applied successfully to marbles, and 
even to metals. 

1132. When not provii>ei> with this 
cement, and in a huiiy, the white of an 
egg well beaten with quicklime, and a 
small quantity of very old cheese, form 
an excellent substitute, either for 
broken china, or old omameitteJ glass- 
ware. 

1133. It is ALSO a pact well ascer- 
tained, that the expressed juice of garlic 
is an everlasting cement, leaving no 
mark of fracture, if neatly done. 

1134. These are fully suffident for 
every useful purpose ; but we may still 
further observe, in respect to the 
cement of quicklime, that it may be 
improved, if, instead of cheese, we sub- 
stitute the whey produced by boiling 



milk aad vinegar, separating the curd 
carefully, and beating up with half a 
pint of it, the whites of six eggs, adding 
the sifted quicklime imtil it fbrma a 
thick paste, which resists both fire and 
water. (See 139.) 



1135. ECONOMY OP FUEL.- 
There is no part of domestic economy 
whidi everybody profeiraes to under- 
stand better tham the management of 
a fire, and yet ihere is no branch in the 
household arrangement where there is 
a greater proportional and imneoessary 
waste thaii arises from ignraunce and 
mismanagement in this article. 

1136. It is an old adaob that we 
must stir no man's fire until we have 
known him seven years ; but we might 
find it equally prudent if we were care* 
ful as to the stirring of our own. 

1137. Anvbodt, indeed, can take up 
a poker and toss the coals about : but 
that is not stirring a fire ! 

1138. In short, the use of a poker 
applies solely to two paitierular points 
— the opening of a dying fire, so as to 
admit the free passage of the air into it, 
and sometimes, but not always, throttgh 
it — ^or else approximating the remaiiu 
of a half-burned fii'e, so as to concen- 
trate the heat, whi]st the parts still 
ignited are opened to the atmosphere. 

1139. The same obsebtatxon may 
apply to the use of a pair of bellows, 
the mere blowing of which, at random, 
nine times out often will fail ; the force 
of the current of air sometimes blowing 
out the fire, as it is caUed, that is, 
carrying off the caloric too rs^idly, and 
at others, directing the wanned cuireot 
from the imignited fuel, instead of into 
it. 

1140. To prove this, let any person 
sit down with a pair of bellow^ to a 
fire only partially ignited, or partially 
extinguished; let him blow, at fiis** 
not into the burning part, but into th« 
dead coals close to it, so that the air 
may partly extend to the buroingco^- 

1141. After a pbw blasts let to* 
bellows blow into the burning fuel, but 
directing the stream partly tawtids toe 



k 



TO-MORROW, DIES IN ANGUISH AND DESPAIR. 



147 



dead coal ; when it will be found that 
the ignition will extend much more 
rapidly than under the common method 
of blowing furiously into the flame at 
random. 

1142. If the consumer, instead of 
ordering a large supply of coals at once, 
will, at first, content himself with a 
sample, he may with very little trouble 
aacei'tain who will deal fairly with him ; 
and, if he wisely pays ready money, he 
will be independent of his doal mei^ 
chant ; a situation which few fiimilies, 
even in genteel life, can boast of. 

1143. Indeed we cannot too offceil 
repeat the truth, that to deal for ready 
money only, in all the departments of 
domestic arrangement, is the truest 
economy. 

1144. Ready money will always com- 
mand the best and cheapest of every 
article of consumption, if expended 
with judgment ; and the dealef, who 
intends to act fairly, .will always prefer 
it. 

1145. Trust not him who seems 
more anjrious to give credit than to re- 
ceive cash. 

1146. The former hopes to secure 
custom by having a hold upon you in 
his books ; and continues always to 
make up for his advance, either by an 
advanced price, or an inferior article ; 
whilst the latter knows that your cus- 
tom can only be secured by fair dealing. 

1147. There is, likewise, another 
consideration, as far as economy is con- 
cerned, which is not only to buy with 
ready money, but to buy at proper sea- 
sons ; for there is with every article a 
cheap season and a dear one ; and with 
none more than coals : insomuch that 
the master of a family who fills his coal 
cellar in the middle of the summer, 
rather than the beginning of the winter, 
will find it filled at half the expense it 
would otherwise cost him ; and will be 
enabled to see December's snows falling 
without feeling his enjoyment of his 
^eaide lessened by the consideration 
that the cheerful blaze is supplied at 
twice the rate that it need have done, 
u he had exercised more foresight. 



1148. We must now call to the re- 
collection of our readers, that diimneys 
often smoke, and Ihat ooalfl are often 
wasted by throwing too much fuel at 
once upon a fire. 

1149. To PROVE THIS observation, 

it is only necessary to remove the su- 
perfluous coal f^om the top of the grate, 
when the smoking instantly oeasee ; as 
to the WHste, that evidently proceeds 
from the frequent intemperate and 
injudicious use of the poker, which 
not only throws a great portion of the 
small coals among the cinders^ but often 
extingtdshes the fire it was intended to 

115*0. HEALTH IN" YOUTH.— Late 
hours, irregular habits, and want of 
attention to diet, are common errors 
with * most young men, and these 
gradually, but at first imperceptiWy, 
undermine the health, and lay the 
foimdation for various forms of ^sease 
in after life. It is a very difficult filing 
to make yoimg persons comprehend 
this. They frequently sit up as late as 
twelve, one, or two o'clock, without 
experiencing any ill effects; they go 
without a meal to-day, and to-morrow 
eat to repletion, with only temporary 
inconvenience. One night they will 
sleep three or four hours, and the next 
nine or ten; or one night, in their 
eagerness to get away into some i^gree- 
able company, they will take no food at 
all ; and the next, perhaps, will eat a 
heai-ty supper, and go to bed upon it. 
These, with various other irregulajrities, 
are common to the majority of young 
men, and are, as just stated, the cause 
of much bad health in mature life. 
Indeed, nearly all the shattered oonsti- 
tutions with which too many are cursed, 
are the result of a disregard to the 
plainest precepts of health in early 
life. 

1161. A WIFE'S POWER— The 
power of a wife for good or evil, is 
irresistible. Home must be the seat 
of happiness, or it must be for ever 
unknown. A good wife is to a man, 
wisdom, and courage, and strength, and 
endurance. A bad one is confusion, 



148 



WHEN ANOBT, COUNT TEN BEFORE YOU SPEAK; 



weakness, discomfiture, and despair. 
No condition is hopeless where the 
wife possesses firmness, decision, and 
economy. There is no outward pros- 
perity which can counteract indolence, 
extravagance, and folly at home. No 
spirit can long endure bad domestic 
influence. Man is strong, but his heart 
is not adamant. He delights in enter- 
prise and action; but to sustain him 
he needs a tranquil mind, and a whole 
heart. He needs his moral force in 
the conflicts of the world. To recover 
his equanimity and composm^e, home 
must be to him a place of repose, of 
peace, of cheerfulness, of comfort ; and 
his soul renews its strength again, and 
goes forth with fresh vigour to en- 
counter the labour and troubles of life. 
But if at home he finds no rest, and is 
there met with bad temper, sullenness, 
or gloom, or is assailed by discontent 
or complaint, hope vanishes, and he 
sinks into despair. 

1152. ADVICE TO WIVES. — A 
wife must learn how to form her hus- 
band's happiness, in what direction the 
secret lies; she must not cherish his 
weaknesses by working upon them; 
she must not rashly run counter to 
his prejudices; her motto must be, 
never to irritate. She must study 
never to draw largely on the small 
stock of patience in a man's nature, nor 
to increase his obstinacy by trying to 
drive him ; never, never, if possible, to 
have scenes. We doubt much if a real 
quarrel, even made up, does not loosen 
the bond between man and wife, and 
sometimes, tmless the afifection of both 
be very sincere, lastingly. If irritation 
should occur, a woman must expect to 
hear from most men a strength and 
vehemence of language far more than 
the occasion requires. Mild, as well as 
stem men, are prone to this exaggera- 
tion of language ; let not a woman be 
tempted to say anything sarcastic or 
violent in retaliation. The bitterest 
repentance must needs follow if she do. 
Men frequently forget what they have 
said, but seldom what is uttered by 
their wives. They are grateful, too, 



for forbearance in such cases; for, 
whilst asserting most loudly that the^ 
are right, they are often conscious that 
they are wrong. Give a little time, &.s 
the greatest boon you can bestow, t«:> 
the irritated feelings of your husband. 

1163. COUNSELS FOR THE 
YOUNG. — Never be cast down by 
tiifles. If a spider break his thi*ead 
twenty times, twenty times ' will he 
mend it again. Make up your minds 
to do a thing and you will do it. Feai* 
not if a trouble comes upon you ; keep 
up your spirits, though the day be a 
dark one. If the sun is going down, 
look up to the stars. If the earth is 
dark, keep your eye on Heaven ! With 
God's promises, a man or a child m.ay 
be cheerful. Mind what you run after I 
Never be content with a bubble that 
will burst, firewood that will end in 
smoke and darkness. Qet that which 
you can keep, and which is worth keep- 
ing. Fight hard {gainst a hasty temper. 
Anger will come, but resist it strongly. 
A fit of passion may give you cause to 
mourn all the days of your life. Never 
revenge an injury. If you have an 
enemy, act kindly to him and make 
him your friend. You may not win 
him over at once, but try again. 
Let one kindness be followed by an- 
other, till you have compassed your 
end. By little and little, great things 
are completed ; and repeated kindness 
will soften the heart of stone. What- 
ever you do, do it willingly. A boy 
that is whipped to school never learns 
his lessons well. A man who is com- 
pelled to work cares not how badly it 
is performed. He that pulls off his 
coat cheerfully, strips up his sleeves in 
earnest, and sings while he works, is 
the man of action. 

1164. SALLY LUNN TEA CAKES. 
— Take one pint of milk quite warm, a 
quarter of a pint of thick small-beer 
yeast : put them into a pan with flour 
sufficient to make it as thick as batter, — 
cover it over, and let it stand till it has 
risen as high as it will, i. e. about two 
hours : add two oimces of lump sugar, 
dissolved in a quarter of a pint of warm 



IP VERT ANGRY, A HUNDRED. 



149 



milk, a quarter of a pound of butter 
nibbed into your flour very fine, — then 
make your dough the same as for French 
rolls, &c. ; let it stand half an hour : 
then make up your cakes, and put them 
on tins : — ^when they have stood to rise, 
bake' them in a quick oven. Care should 
be taken never to put your yeast to 
water or milk too hot, or too cold, as 
either extreme will destroy the fermen- 
tation. In summer it should be luke- 
warm, — in winter a little warmer, — and 
in very cold weather, warmer still. 
When it has first risen, if you are not 
prepared, it will not hurt to stand an 
hour. 

1155. FRENCH BREAD AND 
ROLLS.— Take a pint and a half of 
milk ; make it quite warm ; half a pint 
of small-beer yeast ; add sufficient fiour 
to make it as thick as batter; put it 
into a pan ; cover it over, and keep it 
warm : when it has risen as high as it 
will, add a quarter of a pint of warm 
water, and half an ounce of salt, — ^mix 
them well together, — ^rub into a little 
fiour two ounces of butter ; then make 
your dough, not quite so stiff as for 
your bread ; let it stand for three quar- 
ters of an hour, and it will be ready to 
make into rolls, &c. : — ^let them stand 
till they have risen, and bake them in 
a quick oven. 

1156. RULES FOR THE PRE- 
SERVATION OF HEALTH. 

1157. PuRB ATMOSPHERIC AIR IS Com- 
posed of nitrogen, oxygen, and a very 
small proportion of carbonic acid gas. 
Air once breathed has lost the chief 
part of its oxygen, and acquired a 
proportionate increase of carbonic acid 
gas. 

1158. Ther^m^e, health requires that 
we breathe the same air once only. 

1159. The solid part of our bodies 
are continually wasting, and requires to 
be repaired by fresh substances. 

1160. Thtrefore, food, which is to 
repair the loss, should be taken with 
due regard to the exercise and waste of 
the body. 

1161. The fluid part of our bodies 



also wastes constantly ; there is but one 
fiuid in animals, which is water. 

1162. Therefore, water only is neces- 
sary, and no aiiifice can produce a 
better drink. 

1163. The fluid of our bodies is to 
the solid in proportion as nine to one. 

1164. Theref&re, a like proportion 
should prevail in the total amount of 
food taken. 

1165. Light exercises an unportant 
infiuence upon the growth and vigour 
of animals and plants. 

1166. Th^fiyre, our dwellings should 
freely admit the solar rays. 

1167. DBCOMPOfiONa animal and 
vegetable substances yield various 
noxious gases, which enter the lungs 
and corrupt the blood. 

1168. Thtrefwrey all impurities should 
be kept away from our abodes, and 
every precaution be observed to secure 
a pure atmosphere. 

1169. Warmth is essential to all the 
bodily functions. , ,., i. 

1170. Therefore, an equal bodily tem- 
perature should be maintamed by ex- 
ercise, by clothing, or by fire. 

1171. Exercise warms, invigorates, 
and purifies the body ; clothing pre- 
serves the warmth the body generates; 
fire imparts warmth externally. 

1172. Therefore, to obtain and pre- 
serve warmth, exercise and clothing are 
preferable to fire. 

1173. Fire consumes the oxygen of 
the air, and produces noxious gases. 

1174. Therefore, the air is less pure 
in the presence of candles, gas, or coal 
fire, than otherwise, and the deteriora- 
tion should be repaired by increased 
ventilation. , 

1175. The skin is a highly-organised 
membrane, full of minute pores, cells, 
blood-vessels, and nerves; it imbibes 
moisture or throws it oflF, according to 
the state of the atmosphere and the 
temperature of the body. It also 
« breathes," as do the lungs (though 
less actively). All the internal organs 
sympathise with the skin, 

1176. Therefore, it should be repeat- 
edly cleansed. 



150 



THB POOR MAN 7A&T8 BSCAU8V HJS HAJS NO MEAT; 



1177. Latb houqs and aQ;;uous pur- 
suits exhaust the nervous ^yvtemi and 
produce disease and premature death. 
, 1178. Therefore, the hours of labour 
and study should be short. 

117d. HfiNTAli AND BODU.X EXBBCIBE 

are equally essential to the general 
health and happiness. 

1180. Therefore, labour and study 
should succeed each other. 

1181. Man will live most healthily 
upon simple solids and fluids, of which a 
sufficient but temperate quantity should 
betaken. 

1182. Therefore, strong drinks, to- 
bacco, snuff, opium, and all mere in- 
dulgences should be avoided. 

1183. Sudden alternations of 
HEAT AND COLD are dangerous (es- 
pecially to the yoimg and the aged.) 

1184. Tlierefore, clothing, in quantity 
and quality, should be adapted to the 
alterations of night and day, and of the 
seasons. 

1185. And, therefore, aUo, drinking 
cold water when the body is hot, and 
hot tea and soups when cold, are pro- 
ductive of many evils. 

1186. Moderation in eating and 
drinking, short hours of labour and 
9tudy, regularity in exercise, recrea- 
tion, and rest, cleanliness, equanimity 
of temper and equality of temperature, 
these are the great essentials to that 
which siurpasses all wealth, health of 
mind and body. 



1187. USB OF LIME-WATER IN 
MAKING BREAD.— It has lately been 
foimd that water saturated with lime 
produces in bread the same whiteness, 
softness, and capacity of retaining mois- 
ture, m results from ihe use of alum ; 
whUe the former removes all acidity 
from the dough, and supplies an in- 
grediant needed in the structure of the 
bones, but which is deficient in the 
oerealUh The best proportion to use is, 
five pounds of water saturated with 
lime, to every nineteen pounds of flour. 
No change is required in the process 
of baking. The Ume most effectually 
coagulates the gluten, and the bread 



weighs well; bakers must therefore 
approve of its introduction, which is not 
injurious to the system, l^e alum, &c. 
A large quantity of this kind of bread 
is. now made in Munich, and is highly 
esteemed. 

1188. SPECIAL RULES FOR THE 
PREVENTION OF CHOLERA. 

1189. We urqe the necessity, in all 
cases of cholera, of an instant recourse 
to medical aid, and also under every 
form and variety of indisposition ; for 
all disorders are found to merge in the 
dominant disease. 

1190. Let immediate relief be 
sought under disorder of the bowels 
especially, however slight. The inva- 
sion of cholera may &uia be readily 
prevented. 

1191. Let every impuritt, animal 
and vegetable, be quickly removed to 
a distance from the habitations, such as 
slaughter-houses, pigsties, cesspools, 
necessaries, and all other domestic 
nuisances. 

1192. Let all uncovered drains be 
carefully and frequently cleansed. 

1193. Let the qrounds in and 
around the habitations be drained, so 
as effectually to carry off moisture of 
every kind. 

119i. Let all partitions be re- 
moved from within and without habi- 
tations, which unnecessarily impede 
ventilation. 

1195. Let evert rook be daily 
thrown open for the admission of fresh 
air; this should be done about noon, 
when the atmosphere is most likely to 
be dry, 

1196. Let dry scrubbino be used in 
domestic cleansing in place of water 

cleansing. 

1197. Let excessive fatigue, and 
exposure to damp and cold, especially 
during the night, be avoided. 

1198. Let the use of cold drinks 
and acid liquors, especially under 
fatigue, be avoided, or when the body 
is heated. 

1199. Let the use of cold acid 
fruits and vegetables be fivgided. 



THB BICH MAN JTASIS BBCAPSB H« WILL NOT BAT. 



151 



1200. Lwr xxcBSB in the use of ar> 
dent and fermented UquorB and to- 
bacco be avoided. 

1201. Lbt a poor Dim, and the use 
of impure water in cooking, or for 
drinking, be avoided. 

1202. Lsp THJS WEARmo of wet and 
insufGhcient Rothes be avoided. 

120S. IjBT a FLANNEL or wooUen 
belt be worn round the belly' 

1204. LbT FSB80NAL CLEANLINESS be 

carefully observed. 

1205. Let every caui& tending to 
depress the moral and physical ener- 
gies be carefully avoided. Let expo* 
sure to extremes of heat and cold be 
avoided* 

1206. Let OROwDiNa of persons 
within houses and apartments be 
avoided. 

1207. Let susepino in low or damp 
rooms be avoided. 

1208. Let fires be kept up during 
the night in 3leeping or adjoining apart- 
meata, the night being Uie period of 
most danger from attack, especially 
under ^posure to cold or damp.) 

1209. Let all bedding and cloth- 
izig be daily exposed during winter and 
spring to the fire, and in summer to the 
heat of the sun. 

1210. Let the dead be buried in 
plaees remote from the habitation of 
the living. By the timely adoption of 
simple means such as these, cholera, or 
other epidemic will be made to lose its 
?eiiom. N ■ ■ I 

1211. ETIQUETTE OF THE 
NEWLY MARRIED.— A newly mar- 
ried couple send out cards immediately 
afber the ceremohy to their friends 
and aoquaintanoe, who, on their part, 
letum either notes or cards of congra- 
tulation on the event. As soon as the 
^y is settled in her new home, she 
n^y expect the calls of her acquaint- 
^ce; for which it is not absolutely 
neoessary to remain at home, although 
politeness requires that they should be 
returned as soon as possible. But, 
having performed this, any further in- 
tsroouise may be avoided (where it is 
^med nee^esary) by a polite refusal 



of invitations. Whwe cards aa^ to be 
left, the number must be detenpined 
according to the various members of 
whioh the £imily called upon is com'» 
posed. For instance, where thepe are 
the mother, aunt, and daughters (the 
latter having been introduced to oo^ 
oiety), three cards should be lefb. 



1212.— DISEASES. 



For 



the proper Remedies and Vieir Doses see 
'* J*rescriptunu^" 1273. 

1213. It should be clearly understood^ 
that in all cases of disease, the advice of 
a skilful physician is of the first im- 
portance. It is not, therefore, intended 
by the following information to super- 
sede the important and neoessary prac* 
tice of the medical man ; but rather, by 
exhibiting the treatment required, to 
show in what degree his aid is impmu* 
tive. In cased, however, where the dis- 
order may be simple and transient, or 
in whioh remote residence, or other eiis 
cumstanee may deny the privilege of 
medical attendance, the following parti- 
cvdars will be found of the utmost value* 
Moreover, the hints given upon what 
should be avoided will be of great ser- 
vice to the patient — sinoe the pfiysUlo- 
gieal is no lees important than the 
medical treatment of disease. 

1214. Apoplexy. — Immediate and 
large bleedmg from the arm, cupping at 
the back of the neck, leeci^s to the 
temples, aperients No. 1 and 7, one or 
two drops of oroton oil rubbed or 
dropped on the tongue. Avoid excesses, 
intemperanee^ animal food. 

1216. Bile, Bilious, or Liver Com- 
plaints.— Abstinence from malt liquors, 
oool homoaopathic ooooa for drinks no 
tea or oofiee, few vegetables, and little 
bread; bacon in a morning, and well 
cooked fresh animal food once djdjky^ No* 
59 and 60. 

1216. Chicken Pox.— Mild apwients 
No. 4, suooeeded by No. 7 ; No. % if 
much fever aooompany the eruption. 

1217. Chilblains. — ^Warm, dry, wool- 
len clothing to exposed parts in oold 
weather, as a preventive. In the first 



152 



THE MISER FASTS WITH GBEEDY MIND TO SPARE; 



stage, frictions with No. 63, vise cold. 
When ulcers form they should be poul- 
ticed with bread and water for a day or 
two, and then dressed with calamine 
cerate. 

'1218. Common Continued Fever. — 
Aperients in the commencement No. 1, 
followed by No. 7; then l^fHgerants 
No. 8, and afterwards tonics No. 16, in 
the stage of weakness. Avoid all ex- 
cesses. 

1219. Common Cough. — The linctus 
No. 67 or No. 68, abstinenoa from malt 
liquor, and cold damp air. Avoid cold, 
damp, and draughts. 

1220. Constipation. — The observance 
of a regular period of evacuating the 
bowels, which is most proper in a morn- 
ing after breakfast. The use of mild 
aperients, No. 62, brown instead of 
white bread. Avoid too much dry and 
stimulating food, wine, and opium. 

1221. Consumption. — The disease 
may be complicated with various mor- 
bid conditions of the lungs and heart, 
which require appropriate treatment. 
To allay the cough No. 67 is an admi- 
rable remedy. Avoid cold, damp, ex- 
citement, and over exertion. 

• 1222. Convulsions (Children). — ^If 
during teething, free lancing of the 
gums, the warm bath, cold applications 
to the head, leeches to the temples, an 
emetic, and a laxative clyster, No. 24. 

1 223. Croup. — Leeches to the throat, 
with hot fomentations as long as the at- 
tack lasts, the emetic No. 19, afterwards 
the aperient No. 5. Avoid cold and 
damp. 

1224. Dropst. — Evacuate the water 
by means of No. 11. 

1225. Epilepsy. — If accompanied or 
produced by fulness of the vessels of 
the head, leeches to the temples, blis- 
ters, and No. 1 and No. 7. If from de- 
bility or confirmed epilepsy, the mixture 
No. 22. Avoid drinking and excitement. 

1226. Eruptions on the Face, — The 
powder No. 34 internally, sponging the 
face with the lotion No. 85. Avoid ex- 
eesses in diet. 

1227. Erysipelas. — ^Aperients, if the 
patient be strong. No. 1, followed by 



No. 7 ; then tonics No. 31. No. 31 
from the commencement in weak sub- 
jects. 

1228. Faintness. — Effusion of cold 
water on the face, stimulants to the 
nostrils, pure air, and the recumbent 
position, afterwards avoidance of the 
exciting cause. Avoid excitement. 

1229. Frost-Bite and Frozen Limbs. 
— No heating or stimulating liquors 
must be given. Rub the parts affected 
with ice, cold, or snow water, and lay 
the patient on a cold bed. 

1230. Gout.— The aperidhts No. 1, 
followed by No. 28, bathing the parta 
with gin and water; for drink, weak 
tea or coffee. Warmth by flannels. 
Avoid wines, spirits, and animal food. 

1231. Gravel.— No. 5, followed by 
No. 7 ,* the free use of magnesia as an 
aperient. The pill No. 26.^ Avoid 
fermented drinks, hard water. 

1232. HoopiNO Cough. — Hooping 
cough may be complicated with con- 
gestion, or inflammation of the lungs, 
or convulsions, and then becomes a 
serious disease. If uncomplicated, 
No. 58. 

1233. Hysterics. — The fit may be 
prevented by the adminisia«tion of 
thirty drops of laudanum, and as many 
of aether. When it has taken place 
open the windows, loosen the tight 
parts of the dress, sprinkle cold water 
on the face, &c. A glass of wine or 
cold water when the patient can swal- 
low. Avoid excitement and tight 
lacing. 

1234. Indigestion. — ^The pills. No. 2, 
with the mixture No. 22, at the same 
time abstinence from veaJ, pork, mac- 
kerel, salmon, pastry, and beer; for 
drink, homoeopathic cocoa, a glass of 
cold spring water the first thing every 
morning. Avoid excesses. 

1236. Inflammation op the Blad- 
der. — ^Bleeding, aperients No. 6 and 
No. 7, the warm bath, afterwards 
opium; the 'pill No. 12 three times 
a day till relieved. Avoid fermented 
liquors, &c. 

1236. Inflammation of the Bowew. 
— Leeches, blisters, fomentations, iced- 



THE GLUTTON FASTS TO EAT THE QRSATEB 8HABE. 



153 



drinks, the pills No. 23 ; move the 
bowels with clysters, if necessaiy, No. 
24. Avoid cold, indigestible food, &c. 

1237. Inflammation of the Brain. 
— ^Application of cold to the head, 
bleeding from the temples or back of 
the neck by leeches or cupping; ape- 
rients No. 1 followed by No. 7. Mer- 
cury to salivation No. 18. Avoid ex- 
citement, study, intemperance. 

1238. Inflammation of the Km- 
ITETS. — ^Bleeding from the arm, leeches 
over the seat of pain, aperients No. 5, 
followed by No. 7, the warm bath. 
Avoid violent exercise, rich living. 

1239. Inflammation of the Liveb. 
— ^Leeches over the right side, the seat 
of pain, blisters, aperients No. 1, fol- 
lowed by No. 7, afterwards the pills 
No. 23, till the gums are slightly ten- 
der. Avoid cold, damp, intemjterance, 
and anxiety. 

1240. Inflammation of the Lungs. 
— ^Bleeding from the ann, or over the 
painful part of the chest by leeches, 
succeeded by a blister ; the demulcent 
mixture No. 17 to allay the cough, 
with the powders No. 18. Avoid cold, 
damp, and draughts. 

1241. Inflammation of the Sto- 
mach. — Leeches to the pit of the 
stomach, followed by fomentations, 
cold iced water for drink, bowels to be 
evacuated by clysters ; abstinence from 
all food except cold gruel, loilk and 
water, or tea. Avoid excesses, and con- 
diments. 

1242. Inflammatory Sore Throat. 
— ^Leeches and blisters externally, ape- 
rients No. 1, followed by No. 7 gargle, 
to clear the throat No. 20. Avoid cold, 
damp, and draughts. 

1243. Inflamed Eyes. — The bowels 
to be regulated by No. 5, a small blis- 
ter behind the ear or on the nape of 
the neck — ^the eye to be bathed with 
No. 39. 

1244. Influenza. — No. 4, as an ape- 
rient and diaphoretic. No. 17) to allay 
fever and cough. No. 31, as a tonic, 
when weakness only remains. Avoid 
cold and damp, use clothing suited to 
the changes of temperature. 



1245. Intermittent Fever or Ague. 
— ^Take No. 16 during the intermission 
of the paroxysm of the fever; keeping 
bowels free with a wineglass of No. 7<» 
Avoid bad air, stagnant pools, &c. 

1246. Itch. — ^The ointment of No. 
32, or lotion No. 33. 

1247. Jaundice. — ^The pills No. 1, 
afterwards the mixture No. 7, drinking 
freely of dandelion tea. 

1248. Looseness of the Bowels, 
English Cholera. — One pill No. 23,. 
repeated if necessary; afterwards the 
mixture No. 25. Avoid unripe fruits, 
acid drinks, ginger beer; wrap flannel 
around the abdomen. 

1249. Measles. — A well ventilated 
room, aperients No. 4, with No. 17, to 
allay the cough and fever. 

1250. Menstruation (Excessive). — 
No. 47 during the attack, with rest in 
the recumbent position ; in the intervals. 
No. 46. 

1251. Menstruation (Scanty). — In 
strong patients, cupping the loins^ 
exercise in the open air, the feet in 
warm water before the expected period, 
the pills No. 45 ; in weak subjects, No. 
46. Gentle and regular exercise. Avoid 
hot rooms, and too much sleep. 

1252. Menstruation ^Painful). — 
No. 48 during the attack, m the inter- 
vals No. 45 twice a week, with No. 46^ 
Avoid cold, mental excitement, &c. 

1253. Mumps, — Fomeutation with a 
decoction of chamomile, and poppy 
heads ; No. 4, as an aperient, and No. 
9, dming the stage of fever. Avoid 
cold, and attend to the regularity of 
the bowels. 

1254. Nervousness. — Cheerful so- 
ciety, early rising, exercise iu the open 
air, particularly on horseback, and No. 
15. Avoid excitement, study, and late 
meals. 

1255. Palpitation of the Heart. — 
The pills No. 2, with the mixture No. 
15. 

1256. Piles.— The paste No. 38, at 
the same time a regulated diet. 

1257. QuiNSEY. — A blister applied all 
round the throat; an emetic No. 19, 
commonly succeeds in breaking the ab- 



154 



THE HTFOOBITJB WILL ?A8T TO SZEM MOB£ HOLT; 



8ces8, afterwards the gargle Ka 20. 
Avoid cold and damp. 

1258. Rheumatism. — ^Bathe the af- 
fected parts with Ko. 27, and tal:e in- 
ternally No. 28, with No. 29 at bed- 
time to ease pain, &c. Avoid damp and 
cold, wear fl^imeL 

1259. Rickets. — The powders No. 87, 
^ dry, pure atmosphere, a nonrishing 

diet. 

1260. Ringworm. — The lotion No. 86, 
with the occasional use of the powder 
No. 5. Fresh air and cleanliness. 

12611 Scarlet Fever. — ^WeU venti- 
lated room, sponging the body when 
hot with cold or tepid vinegar, or spirit 
•and water ; aperients, No. 4 ; refHger- 
^nts, No. 8. If dropsy succeed the 
^disappearance of the eruption, frequent 
purging with No. 6, succeeded by 
No. 7. 

1262. ScROPULA. — Pure air, light 
but warm clothing, diet of fresh animal 
food ; bowels to be regulated by No. 6 
and No. 30, taken regularly for a con- 
siderable time. 

1263. ScuBVT. —Fresh animal and 
vegetable food, and the free use of ripe 
frmts and lemon juice. Avoid cold 
and damp. 

1264. Small Pox. — ^A well venti- 
lated apartment, mild aperients, if fever 
be present. No. 7, succeeded by re- 
frigerants No. 8, and tonics No. 16, in 
the stage of debility, or decline of the 
eruption. 

1265. St. Virus's Baitce. — The occa- 
sional use in the commencement of 
No 5, followed by No. 7, afterwards 
No. 61. 

1266. Thrush. — One of the powders 
No. 6 every other night, in the inter- 
vals a dessert spoonful of the mixture 
No. 22 three times a day ; white spots 
to be dressed with the honey of borax. 

1267. Tic Doloreuz. — Regulate the 
bowels with No. 3, and take in the 
Intervals of pain No. 31. Avoid cold, 
damp, and mental anxiety. 

1268. Tooth-Ache. — Contmue the 
xtse of No. 3 for a few alternate days. 
Apply liquor anmionia to reduce me 
IMon, and when that is accomplished. 



fill the decayed spots with Brande's 
Enamel, without delay, or the pain 
will return. 

1269. Ttphus Fever. — Sponging the 
body with cold or tepid water, a well 
ventilated apartment, cold appHcations 
to the head and temples. Aperients 
No. 4, with refrigerants No. 9, tonics 
No. 16, in the stage of debility. 

1270. Water on the Brain.— Local 
bleeding by means of leeches, blisters, 
aperients No. 5, and mercurial medi- 
cmes No. 18. 

1271. Whites.— The mixture No. 43, 
with the injection No. 44. Clothing 
light, but warm, moderate exercise in 
the open air, country residence. 

1272. Worms in the Intestines.— 
The aperient No. 5, followed by No. 7, 
afterwards the free use of lime water 
and milk in equal parts, a pint daily- 
Avoid unwholesome food. 



1273.— PRESCRIPTIONS. 

To be wed in the Caset enumercUed vnder the 
head '' Disecues,** 1212. 

1274. The following prescriptions, 

originally derived from various Tre- 

scribers' Pharmacopoeias, embo<if the&- 

vourite remedies employed by the most 

eminent physicians : — 

1. Take of powdered rhubarb and 
chloride of mercury each four grains ; 
syrup of ginger, sufficient to make two 
pills ; at bedtime ; in feyera and inflam- 
mations. 

2. Powdered rhubarb, socotrine aloes, 
and gum mastiche, each one scrapie ; 
make into twelve pills ; one before and 
one after dinner. 

8. Compound extract of colocynth, 
extract of jalap, and Castile ao&Pt ^ 
each one scruple ; make into twelve 
pills. 

4. James's powder, five grains; cal^ 
mel, three grains ; in fevers. 

5. Calomel, three grains ; compojind 
powder of scammony, twelve graia*; 
in worms and tiunid belly in children. 

6. Powdered rhubarb, four graiflfl ; 
mercury and chalk, three grains ; fp^' 
ger in powder, one grain ; an alterattre 
aperient for ehOdreiL 



THE RIGBTXOaS MAN TO PUNISH BIN AND FOLLT. 



155 



7. Dried sulphate of magnesia^ six 
drams; sulphate of 9oda» three drains ; 
mfusioii of senna, seyen ounces ; tinc- 
ture of jalap, and compound tincture of 
cardamoms, each half an ounce ; in 
acute diseases generally ; take two 
tablespoonfuls every four hours, till it 
operates freely. 

8. Nitrate of potass, one dram and a 
half; spirits of nitric aether, half an 
ounce ; camphor mixture, and the 
spirit of mindererus, each four ounces ; 
in ferers, &c. ; two teblespoonfnls three 
times a day. 

9. Spirit of nitric sether, three drams; 
dilute nitric acid, two drains; syrup, 
three drams; camphor mixture, seven 
ounces; in fevers, &c., with debility, 
dose as last^ 

10. Spirit of mindererus and cam- 
phor mixture, of each three ounces and 
a half; wiue of antimony, one dram and 
ar half ; wine of ipecacuanha, one dram 
and a half ; syrup of Tolu, half an ounce ; 
dose as last. 

11. Decoction of broom, half a pint ; 
cream of tartar, one ounce ; tincture of 
squills, two drams; in dropsies, a third 
|)art three times a day. 

12. Pills of soap and opium, five 
graina for a dose, as directed. 

13. Compound powder of ipeca- 
cuanha, seven to twelve grains for a 
doee, as directed. 

14. Battley's solution of opium, from 
ten to forty drops; camphor mixture, 
an ounce and a half; in a draught at 
bedtime. 

15. Ammoniated tincture of valerian, 
six drami^ camphor mixture, seven 
ounces ; a fourth part three times a day ; 
in spasmodic and hysterical disorders. 

1 6. Disulphate of quina, half a dram ; 
dilute sulphuric acid, twenty drops ; 
compound infusion of roses, eight 
ounces ; two tablespoonfuls every four 
hours, in intermittent fever during the 
absence of the pai'oxysm. 

17. Almond mixture, seven ounces 
and a half ; wine of antimony and ipeca- 
euasha, of each one dram and a half ; 
a tablespoonful every four hours, in 
cough with fever, &c. 



18. Calomel, one grain; powdered 
white sugar, two grains; to make a 
powder to be placed on the tongue 
eveiy two or three hours. 

19. Antimony and ipecacuanha, wines 
of each an ounce ; a teaspoonfiil every 
ten minutes till it vomits. 

20. Compound infusion of roses, 
seven ounces ; tincture of myrrh, one 
ounce. 

21. Decoction of bark, six ounces ; 
aromatic confection, one dram; tincture 
of opium, five drops. 

22. Infusion of orange peel, seven 
ounces ; tincture of hops, half an 
ounce; and a dram of carbonate of 
soda — two tablespoonfuls twice a day. 

23. Blue pill, four grains ; opium, 
half a grain ; to be taken three times a 
day. 

24. For a Cltsteb. — A pint and a half 
of gruel or fat broth, a tablespoonful 
of castor oil, one of common ssJt, and 
a lump of butter ; mix, to be injected 
slowly. 

25. Chalk mixture, seven ounces; 
aromatic and opiate confection, of each 
one dram; tincture of catechu, six 
drams; two tablespoonfuls every two 
hours. 

26. Carbonate of soda, powdered 
rhubarb, and Castile soap, each one 
dram; make thirty -six pills; three 
twice a day. 

27. Lotion. — Common salt, one 
ounce ; distilled water, seven ounces ; 
spirits of wine, one ounce ; mix. 

28. Dried sulphate of magnesia, six 
drams ; heavy carbonate of magnesia, 
two drams; wine of colchicum, two 
drams ; water, eight ounces ; take two 
tablespoonfuls every four hours. 

29. Compound powder of ipeca- 
cuanha, eight grains ; powdered guaia- 
cum, four grains ; in a powder at bed- 
time. 

30. Brandishes solution of potash; 
thirty drops twice a day in a wine glass 
of beer. 

31. Disulphateof quina, half a dram; 
dilute sulphuric acid, ten dropsj com- 
pound infusion of roses, eight ounces ; 
two tablespoonfuls every four hours, 



166 



WHEN IN MOTION, TO PUSH ON IS IfiAST. 



and AS a tonic in the stage of weakness 
succeeding fever. 

32. Flowers of sulphur, two ounces 
hog's lard, four ounces ; white hellebore 
powder, half an ounce ; oil of lavender, 
sixty drops. 

83. Uydriodate of potass two 
drams, distilled water eight ounces. 

34. Flowers of sulphur half a dram ; 
carbonate of soda, a scruple ; tartaiised 
antimony, one-eighth of a grain ; one 
powder, night and morning, in eruptions 
of the skin or face. 

35. Milk of bitter almonds, seven 
ounces ; bichloride of mercury, four 
grains; spirits of rosemary, one ounce ; 
bathe the eruption with this lotion 
three times a day. 

86. Sulphate of zinc, two scruples ; 
sugar of lead, fifteen grains ; distilled 
water, six oimces ; the parts to be 
washed with the lotion two or three 
times a day. 

37. Carbonate of iron, six grains; 
powdered rhubarb, four gi*ains ; one 
powder night and morning. 

38. Elecampane powder, two ounces ; 
sweet fennel seed powder, three oimces ; 
black pepper powder, one ounce ; puri- 
fied hoijey, and brown sugar, of each 
two ounces ; the size of a nutmeg, two 
or three times a day. 

39. Sulphate of zinc, twelve grains ; 
wine of opium, one dram ; rose water 
six ounces. 

40. Common salt, one ouuce ; water 
four ounces ; spirits of wine and vine- 
gar, each two ounces ; the parts to be 
bathed or rubbed with this lotion fre- 
quently. 

41. Spirits of wine and distilled 
vinegar, each one ounce ; rose water, six 
oimces ; the parts to be kept constantly 
damp with the lotion. 

42. Linseed oil and lime water, 
equal parts ; anoint the injured parts 
frequently with a feather. 

43. Sulphate of magnesia, six drams ; 
sulphate of iron, ten grains ; dilute 
sulphuric acid, forty drops ; tincture of 
cardamoms, (compound), hsJf an oimce ; 
water, seven ounces ; a fourth part 
night and morning. 



44. Decoction of oak bark, a pint ; 
dried alum, half an ounce ; for an injec^ 
tion, a syringefiil to be used night and 
morning. 

45. Compound gamboge pill, and a 
pill of assafoetida and aloes, of each. 
half a dram ; make twelve pills, two 
twice or three times a week. 

46. Griffiths' mixture — one table. 
spoonful three times a day. 

47. El-got of rye, five grains ; in a 
powder, to be taken every four hours. 

48. Powdered opium, half a grain ; 
camphor, two grains ; in a pill, to be 
taken every three or four hours whilst 
in pain. 

49. Balsam of copaiba, half an ounce ; 
powdered cubebs, half an ounce ; solu- 
tion of potass, three drams ; powdered 
acacia, two drams ; laudanum, twenty 
drops ; cinnamon water, seven ounces 
one tablespoonful three times a day. 

50. Tartarised antimony, two grains ; 
sulphate of magnesia, six drams ; nitrate 
of potass, one dram ; compoimd tinc- 
ture of cardamoms, half an ounce; 
water, eight oimces. 

51. Lime water, two ounces ; calomel, 

one scruple ; make a lotion, to be 
applied by means of soft lint. 

62. Blue pill, five grains ; powdered 
opium, half a grain ; two pills at night 
and one in the morning. 

53. Biniodide of mercury, two grains : 
hydriodate of potass, one dram ; extract 
of sarsaparilla, one ounce; water, eight 
ounces ; one tablespoonful three times 
a day. 

54. Sulphate of zinc, twenty-four 
grains, in a wine glass of water, to be 
given for an emetic, and repeated if 
necessary. 

55. DUl water, one and a half oimces : 
volatile tincture of valerian, twenty 
drops ; tincture of carter, one dram ; 
spirits of sulphuric cether, twenty 
drops; make a draught to be taken 
three times a day. 

56. Syrup of poppies, oxymel of 
squills, of each one ounce ; solution of 
potash, two drams; a teaspooniul 
frequently. 

57. Syrup of balsam of Tolu, two 



KEVSB WALK ONE WAT AKD LOOK ANOTHER. 



167 



ounces; the muriate of morphia, two 
grsdns; muriatic acid, twenty drops; 
a teaspoonful twice a day. 

58. Salts of tartar, two scruples ; 
twenty grains of powdered cochineal ; 
\ lb, of honey; water, half a pint; 
^oil and giye a teaspoonful three times 
a day. 

59. Calomel, ten grains; castile soap, 
extract of jalap, extract of colocynth, 
of each one scruple ; oil of juniper, ten 
drops; make into eighteen pills and 
take two at bedtime occasionally. 

60. Infusion of orange pee^ eight 
ounces ; carbonate of soda, one dram ; 
and compound tincture of cardamoms, 
half an ounce ; take two large tea- 
spoonfols twice the day succeeding the 
pills. 

61. Carbonate of iron, three ounces; 
syrup of ginger, sufEicient to make an 
electiiaty, a teaspoonful three times a 
day. 

62. Take of castile soap, compound 
extract of colocynth, compound rhubarb 
pUly and the extract of jalap, of each 
one scruple ; oil of carraway, ten drops ; 
make into twenty pills, and take one 
after dinner every day whilst necessary. 

63. Spirits of rosemary five parts, 
spirits of wine, or spirits of turpentine, 
one part. ■ 

1275. USEFUL RECEIPTS. 

1276. Ointment for Scurf in the 
Heads OF Infants. — Lard, two ounces; 
sulphuric acid, diluted, two drachms ; 
rub them together, and anoint the head 
once a day. 

1277. Rancii]^ Butter. — This may be 
restored by meking it in a water 
bath, with sodie coarsely powdered 
animfkl charcqal (which has been 
thorough^ sifted from dust), and strain- 
ed through flannel. 

1278. Remedy for Blistered Feet 
from long walking. — Rub the feet, at 
going to bed, with spirits mixed with 
tallow dropped from' a lighted candle 
into the psdm of the hand. 

1279. An east method of Exter- 
minating Rats and Mice. — Mix pow- 
dered nux vomica with oatmeal, and 
lay it in their haunts, observing proper 



precaution to prevent accidents. An- 
other method is, to mix oatmeal with a 
little powdered phosphorus. 

1280. Wash for a Blotched Face. 
— ^Rose water, three ounces ; sulphate of 
zinc, one drachm. Mix. Wet tiie face 
with it, gently dry it, and then touch it 
over with cold cream, which also dry 
gently off, 

1281 Oil OF Roses — for the Hair. — 
Olive oil, two pints ; otto of roses, one 
drachm ; oil of rosemaiy, one drachm. 
Mix. It may be coloured red by steep- 
ing a little alkanet root in the Oil (with 
heat) before scenting it. 

1282. Curb for Chapped Hands. — 
Instead of washing the hands with soap 
employ oatmeal, and after each washing 
take a little dry oatmeal, and rub 
over the hands, so as to absorb any 
moisture. 

1283. To Prevent the smoking of 
A Lamp. — Soak the widk in strong 
vinegar, and dry it well before you use 
it; it will then bum both sweet and 
pleasant, and give much satisfaction for 
the trifling trouble in preparing it. 

1284. Dr. Birt Davies* Gout Mix- 
ture. — ^Wine of colchicum, »one ounce ; 
spirit of nitrous ether, one ounce ; iodine 
of potassium, two scruples; distilled 
water, two ounces. Mix. A tea spoon- 
ful in camomile tea two or three times 
a day. 

1285. To render Linen, &c., in- 
combustible. — All linen, cotton, mus- 
lins ; &c. &c., when dipped in a solution 
of the pure vegetable alkali at a gravity 
of from 124 to 130 (taking water at the 
gravity of 100) become incombustible. 

1286. To TAKE Grease out of Vel- 
vet OR Cloth. — Get some turpentine 
and pour it over the place that is 
greasy; rub it till quite dry with a 
piece of clean flannel; if the grease 
be not quite removed, i-epeat the 
application, and when done, brush 
the place well, and hang up the gar. 
ment in the open air to take away the 
smell. 

1287. Dr. Babington's Mixture 
FOR Indigestion. — Infusion of caltun- 
ba, six ounces ; carbonate of potassa, one 



158 



PLAIN WOBDS VAJKB T^E M06T OBNAXEirEAL SENTENCES. 



drachm ; compouad tincture of g«ntiaa, 
three drachms. Mix. Doae^ two or 
three tablespoonfuls daily at noon. 

1288. Lemonade. — Powdered sugar, 
four pounds ; citric or tartaric acid, one 
ounce ; essence of lemon two drachms ; 
mix well. Two or three teaspoonfuls 
make a very sweet and agreeahle glass 
of extemporaneous lemonade. 

1289. GiNaES Bebb. — White sugar, 
twenty pounds ; lemon or lime juice, 
eighteen (fluid) ounces; honey, one 
pound, bruised ginger, twenty-two 
ounces ; water, eighteen gallons. Boil the 
ginger in three gallons of watisr for half 
an hour, then add the sugar, the juice, 
and the honey, vtrith the remainder of 
the water, and strain through a cloth. 
When cold add the white of one egg, 
and half an ounce (fluid) of essence of 
lemon; affcer standing four days, 
bottle. This yields a very superior 
beverage, and one which will keep for 
many months. 

1290. To TAKE Stains of wine out 
OF Linen. — ^H<^d the articles in milk 
that is boiling on the fire, and the 
stains will soon disappear. 

1291. Db. Clabk's Pills for Nsby- 
ous Headache. — Socotnne aloes, 
powdered rhubarb, of each one drachm; 
compound powder of cinnamon, one 
scruple; hard soap, half a drachm ; syrup 
enough to form the mass. To be di- 
vided into fifty pills, of which two will 
be sufficient for a dose ; to be taken 
occasionally. 

1292. To TAKE Ink-stains out of 
Mahogany. — Put a few drops of spirits 
of nitre in a teaspoonful of water, 
touch the spot with a feather dipped 
in the mixture, and on the ink disap- 
pearing; rub it over unmediately witii 
a rag wetted in cold water, or there 
will be a whifce mark which will not be 
easily eSaced. 

1293. An effectual Lime fob the 
DE8TBU0TION OF Buos. — ^Two ounces of 
red arsenic, a quarter of a pound of 
white soap, half an ounce of camphor 
dissolved in a teaspoonful of spirits 
rectified, made into a paste of the con- 
sistency of cream: place this mixture 



in the openxags and cracks of the bed- 
stead. 

1294. Mixture for imstbotikg 
Flxbs. — ^Infusion of quassia, one pint ; 
brown sugar, four ounces; gi-ouad 
pepper, two ounces. To be well mixed 
together, and put in small shallow 
dishes when required. 

1295. Ebasmus Wuaon's Lotion to 

PROMOTE THE QBOVTH OF THE HaIB.— 

Eau de Cologne, two ounces ; tincture 
of cantharides, two drachms; oil of 
rosemary and oil of lavender ; of eadi, 
ten drops. 

1296. Db. Scott's Wash to whitsn 
THE Nails. — Diluted sulphuric acid, 
two drachms ; tincture of myiarh, one 
drachm; spiing water, four ouscee. 
Mix. First cleanse with white soap, 
and then dip the fingers into the wash. 

1297. Cube fob Cobns. — Take two 
ounces of gum-ammoniac, two ouBces of 
yellow wax and six drachms of verdi- 
gris, melt them together, and spread 
the composition on soft leather. Cut 
away as much of the com as you can, 
then apply the plaster, and renew it 
every fortnight till the c(»n is away. 

1298. Deafness fboh Defioieht 
Sbcbetion of Wax. — Take oil of tur- 
pentine, half a drachm ; olive oil, two 
drachms. Mix. Two drops to be in- 
troduced into the ear at bed-time. 

1299. To Eenoyate Black Cbape. 
— Skim-milk and water, with a little bit 
of glue in it, made scalding hoi, will 
restore old rusty black Italian crape. If 
clapped and pulled dry, like fine mueliu> 
it will look as good as new. 

1300. ScouBiNG Dbops fob bemov- 
iNO Spots, Gbease, &c., fbom Lin^ 0^ 
ANY otheb Substance. — Take spint« 
of turpentine and essence of leznone, u^ 
each, one ounce. The essence must be 
newly made, or it will leave a carei^ 
roimd the spot. 

1301. To Clean Mabblb.— Take two 

parts of common soda, one part of 
pumice-stone, and one part of fio^y 
powdered chalk ; sift it through a fine 
sieve, and mix it with water ; then rub 
it well all over the marble, and tbe 
stains will be removed ; then wash tbe 



UNOBBTAINTT WALKS ON BOTH SIOBS OF US. 



15» 



msMe oyer witii Boap and water, and 
it will be as oleaa as it was at first. 

1S02. PAINT.--T0 get* rid of the 
smell of oil paint plunge a handfal of 
hay into a pailfull of water, and let it 
stsmd in the room newly painted. 

1308. An Excbllent Jbllt. (Fob 
THE Sick Roou.) — Take rioe, aago^ pearl- 
barley, hartshorn shavings, eadi one 
ounoe; ocmzner with three pints of wa- 
ter to one, and strain it. When oold it 
win he a jelly, of which give, dissolved 
in wine, milk, or broth, in change with 
the other nourishment. 

18d4. Imprbssions pbo;m Coins. — 
Melt a Httle isinglass glue with brandy, 
and pour it lihinly over the medal, &c., 
so as to oover its whole surface ; let it 
remain on for a day or two, till it has 
thoroughfy dried and hardened, and then 
take it off, when it will be fine, clear, 
and as hard as a piece of Muscovy glass, 
and win have a very elegant impression 
of the coin. It will also resist the effects 
of damp air, which occasions all other 
kinds of glue to soften and bend if not 
prepared in this way. 

1805. Tbap vob Snails.- -Snails are 
particularly fond of bran ; if a little is 
spread on ^e ground, and covered over 
with a few cabbage-leaves or tiles, they 
will congregate under them in great 
numbers, and by examining them every 
moTsnig, and destroying them, their 
numbers will be materially decreased. 

1806. To Dbstbot Slugs. — Slugs are 
veiy voracious, and their ravages often 
do considerable damage, not only to 
the kitchen garden, but to the flower- 
beds also. If, now and then, a few slices 
of turnip be put about the beds, on a 
smnmer or autumnal evening, the slugs 
win congregate thereon, and may be 
destroyed. 

1807. To kbbf Moths, Bhetles, &c., 
PBox VH^ Clwheb. — ^Put a piece of 
camphor in a linen bag, or s(»ne aroma- 
tic herbs, in the drawers, among linen or 
woollen dothes, and neither moth nor 
worm will come near them. 

1808. To ouBiLB BoBB Tbxbb fbom 
BuQBT. — Take sulplhur and tobacco 
dust in e(|ual quontitieB, and strew it over 



the trees of « morning when the dew is- 
on them. Hie insects will disappear in a 
few days. The trees should then be 
syringed with a decoction of elder 
leaves. 

1809. To pbbvent Mildew on all 
8OBT8 OF Tbeks.— The best preventive 
against mildew is to keep the plant sub- 
ject to it occasionally syringed with a 
decoction of elder leaves, which will 
prevent the fungus growing on them. 

1310. To bbtbct Cofpeb in Picklbs 
OB Gbbbn Tea. — Put a few leaves of 
the tea, or some of the pickle, cut small, 
into a phial witili two or three drachms 
of Uquid ammonia, diluted with one 
half the quantity of water. Shake the 
phial, when, if the most minute portion 
of cof^r be present, the liquid will as- 
sume a fine blue colour. 

1311. Offensive BuEiiTH. — For this 
purpose, almost the only substance that 
should be admitted at me toilette is the 
concentrated solution of chloride of 
soda. From edz or ten drops of it in a 
wine glass full of pure spring water, 
taken immediately after the operations 
of the morning are completed. 

1312. In some cases, the odour aris- 
ing from carious teeth is combined with 
that of the stomach. If the mouth be 
well rinsed with a teaspoonful of the 
solution of the chloride in a tumbler of 
water, the bad odour of the teeth will 
be removed. 

1318. To Pbotect Dahlias fbom 
E abwigs. — ^Dip a piece of wool or cotton 
in oil, and slightly tie it round the staQ^, 
about a foot from the earth. The stakes 
which you will put into the groimd to 
support your plants must a£o be sur- 
rounded by the oiled cotton or Wool, or 
the insects will cHmb up them to the 
blossoms and tender tops of the stems. 

1314. To Fbee Plants fbom Leaf- 
lice. — ^M. Braun, of Vienna, gives the 
following as a cheap and easy mode of 
effecting it : — ^Mix one ounce of flowers 
of sulphur with one bushel of sawdust; 
scatter this over the plants infected 
with these insecte^ and they will soon 
be freed, though a second application 
may possibly be necessaiy* 



160 



PEBSEYEBAKCE OVERCOMES DIFFICULTIES. 



1315. Treatment of Warts. — ^Pare 
the hard and dried skin from their tops^ 
and then touch them with the smallest 
drop of string acetic acid, taking care 
that the acid does not run off the wart 
upon the neighbouring skin, for if it 
do, it will occasion inflanmiation and 
much pain. If this practice be con- 
tinued once or twice daily, with regula- 
Hty, paring the surface of the wart 
occasionally, when it gets hard and dry, 
the wart may be soon effectually cured. 

1316. To Fatten Fowls in a short 
TIME. — Mix together ground rice well 
scalded with milk, and add some coarse 
sugar. Feed them with this in the day- 
time, but not too much at once : let it 
be pretty thick. 

1317. To DISCOVER WHETHER BrEAD 

13 Adulterated with Alum. — The 
bread must be soaked in water, and to 
the water in which it has been soaked, 
a little of the solution of muriate of 
lime must be added, upon which, if any 
alum be present, the liquid will be per- 
vaded with mUkiness ; but if the bread 
be pure the liquid will remain limpid. 
Rationale : sulphuric acid has a stronger 
afi^ity for lime than for the alumina 
and potass, with which it forms alum ; 
it therefore quits those bodies to form 
sulphate of lime with the lime of the 
test^ which produces the milkiness. 

1318. To Make Impressions of 
Leaves upon Silks, Satin, Paper, or 
ANT other Substance. — ^Prepare two 
rubbers of wash-leather, made by tying 
up wool or any other substance in 
wash-leather ; then prepare the colours 
which you wish the leaves to be, by 
rubbing up with cold-drawn linseed oU 
the colours you want, as indigo for blue, 
chrome for yellow, indigo and chrome 
for green, &c. ; get a number of leaves 
the size and kind you wish to stamp, 
then dip the rubbers into the paint, and 
rub them one over the other, so that 
you may have but a small quantity of 
the composition upon the rubbers; 
place a leaf upon one rubber and 
moisten it gently with the other ; take 
the leaf off and apply it to the sub- 
stance you wish stamped,* upon the leaf 



place a piece of white paper, press 
gently, and there will be a beautiful 
impression of all the veins of the leaf. 
It will be as well if only one leaf be 
used one time. The leaves picked 
should be of one size, as otherwise the 
work will not look uniform. 

1319. To Exterminate Beetles.—!. 
Place a few lumps of unslaked lime 
where they frequent. 2. Set a dish or 
trap containing a little beer or syrup at 
the bottom, and place a few sticks 
slanting against its sides, so as to form 
a sort of gangway for the beetles to 
climb up by, when they will go head- 
long into the bait set for them. 3. 
Mix equal weights of red lead, sugar, 
and flour, and place it nightly near 
their haunts. This mixture made into 
sheets, forms the beetle wafers sold at 
the oil shops. 

1320. To Clean Hair Brushes.— 
As hot water and soap very soon soften 
the hairs, and rubbing completes their 
destruction, use soda., dissolved in cold 
water, instead ; soda having an affinity 
for grease, it cleans the brush with 
little friction. Do not set them near 
the fire, nor n the sun, to dry, but 
after shaking them well, set them on 
the point of the handle in a shady 
place. 

1321. To Clean French Kid Gloves. 
— Put the gloves on your hand and 
wash them, as if you were washing 
your hands, in some spirits of turpen- 
tine, imtil quite clean ; then hang them 
up in a warm place, or where there is a 
current of air, and all smell of the tur- 
pentine will be removed. This method 
is practised in Paris, and since its in- 
troduction into this country, thouands 
of pounds have been gained by it. 

1322. East method of Breaeino 
Glass to ant requpied Fiourb.— 
Make a small notch by means of a file 
on the edge of a piece of glass, then 
make the end of a tobacco-pipe, or of a 
rod of iron of the same size, red hot in 
the fire, apply the hot iron to the notch, 
and draw it slowly along the surface of 
the glass in any du'ection you please, a 
crack will follow th e direction of the iron. 



DESFBBA.TB GUTS MUST HAVE DESPEBATE CURES. 



161 



1323. ERRORS IN SPEAKING.— 

There are several kinds of errors in 
speaking. The most objectionable of 
them are those in which words are 
employed that are unsuitable to conyey 
the meaniiig intended. Thus, a person 
wishing to express his intention of 
gomg to a given place, says, " I propose 
going," when, in fact, he purposes going. 
An amusing illustration of this class of 
error was overheard by ourselves. A 
venerable matron was speaking of her 
sen, who, she said, was quite stage- 
Titruck. "In fact," remarked the old 
lady, "he is going to Aprematttre per- 
formance this evening ! " Considering 
that most amateur performances are 
prematwre, we can hardly say that this 
word was misapplied; though, evi- 
dently, the maternal intention was to 
convey quite another meaning. 

1324. Other errors arise from the sub- 
stitution of sounds similar to the words 
which should be employed. That is, 
•spurious woi*ds instead of genuine ones. 
Thus, some people say " renvmerativej* 
when they mean " remunertUive" A 
Qurse, recommending her mistress to 
have one of the newly - invented car- 
riages for her child, advised her to pur- 
chase & preamputator / 

1326. Other errors are occasioned by 
imperfect knowledge of the English 
grammar. Thus, many people say, 
" Between you and /," instead of " Be- 
tween you and tne." By the misuse of 
the adjective : " What beautiful butter," 
" What a nice landscape." They should 
say, "What a hecmtifvl landscape,** 
"What nice butter" And by numerous 
other departures from the rules of 
S^Mamar, which will be pointed out 
hereafter. 

1326. By the mispronunciation of 
words. Many persons say ^ronounczo- 
fion instead of pronunciation ; others 
«ay pro-nun'-she-a^hun, instead of pro- 
nun-c^i-arshun. 

1327. By the misdivision of words 
^^ syllables. This defect makes the 
words an ambassador sound like a 
'*<*'»-^«a<ior, or an adder like a 
»a<Wcr. 



1328. B^ imperfect enunciation, as 
when a person says hebben for heaven, 
ebber for ever, jockoUUe for chocolate, a 
hedge, a nedge, or an edge, a hedge. 

1329. By the use of provincialisms, 
or words retained from various dialects, 
of which we give the following ex- 
amples : — 

Cambridgeshire, Cheshire, Suffolk, &c. 

1330. Foyne, twoyne, for fine, twine; 
ineet for night ; S,-mon for man; poo for 
ptdl. 

Cumberland, Scotland, dbc. 

1331. Cuil, bluid, for cool, blood; 
spwort, scworn, whoam, for sport, scorn, 
home; a-theevs for thert; e-reed, seeven, 
for o*ed, seven; bleedin for bleeding; 
hawf for half; saumon for salmon. 

Devonshire, Cornwall, due. 

1332. F-vind for^wd; iei for fetch; 
wid for with ; zee for see ; tudder for 
the other ; drash, droo, for thrash, and 
through; gewse for goose; Toosday for 
Tuesday, 

Essex, London, *tc. 

1333. V-wiew for view; went for 
vent; vite for white; ven for when; 
vot for what, 

Hereford, <Ssc. 

1334. Clom for climb; hove for heave; 
puck for pick; rep for 9'eap; sled for 
sledge. 

Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Lancashire, 

dec, 

1335. Housen for houses; a-loyne 
for lane; monfor man ; thik for ^is; 
brig for bridge ; thack, pick, for thatch, 
pitch. 

Yorkshire, dec. 

1336. Foyt fov foot ; foight for fight ; 
o-noite, foil, coil, hoil, for note, foal, 
coal, hole; loyne for lane; ov-nooin, 
gooise, fooil, tooil, for noon, goose, fool, 
tool ; spwort, scworn, whoam, for sport, 
scorn, home ; g-yet for gate, 

1337. The following examples* of 



* From Halliwell's *' Dictionary of Archaic 
and ProTindal Words." 



162 



FAIB AND BaFTLY GO 8UBE AJSTD VAB. 



provincial dialects will be found very 
amusing : — 

Tke ComvxUl Schoolrboy, 
An ould man found, one day, a young 
gentleman's portmantle, as he were a 
going to es dennar ; he took'd et en and 
gived et to es wife, and said " Mally, 
here's a roul of lither, look, see, I sup- 
poase some poor ould shoemaker or 
other have los'en, tak'en, and put'en a 
top of the teaster of tha bed, he'll be 
glad to hab'en agin sum day, I dear 
say." The ould man, Jan, that was es 
neame, went to es work as before. 
Mally than opened the portmantle, and 
found en et three hunderd poimds. 
Soon arcer taes, the OV.I'l m-'uinot being 
very well, Mally said, *'Jan, I'ave 
saaved away a little money, by the bye, 
and as thee caan't read or write, thee 
shu'st go to scool " (he were then nigh 
threescore and ten). He went but a very 
short time, and comed hoam one day 
and said, "Mally, I waint go to scool no 
more, 'caase the childer do be laffen at 
me ; they can tell their letters, and I 
caan't tell my A, B, C, and I wud 
rayther go to work agen." " Do as thee 
wool," ses Mally. Jan had not been 
out many days, afore the young gentle- 
man came by that lost the portmantle, 
and said, " Well, my ould man, did'ee 
see or hear tell of sich a thing as a port- 
mantle ? " " Portmantle, sar, was't that 
un, sumthing like thickey?" (pointing 
to one behind es saddle). I vound one 
the to'thr day zackly like that." 
*' Where es et?" "Come along, I 
carr'den and gov'en to my ould 'ooman, 
Mally; thee sha't av'en, nevr vear. 
Mally, where es that roul of lither I 
broft en tould thee to put en a top of 
the teaster of the bed, afore I go'd to 
scoolt'* "Drat thee emperance," said 
the young gentleman, "thee art be- 
wattled, Uiat were afore I were born." 
So he druv'd off, and left all the three 
himderd pounds with Jan an Mally. 

Tke Middlesex ThimhUrigger. 
1838. Now, then, my jolly sportsmen, 
I've got more money than the parson of 
the parish. Those as don't play can't 



vin, and those as are here harat there I 
I'd hold any on you, from a taxmer to a 
sovereign, or ten, as you don't tell 
which thimble the pea is under." " It's 
there. Sir," " I barr tellings." "I'll 
go it again." " Vat you don't see don't 
look at) and vat you do see don't tell. 
I'll hould you a soveren, Sir, you don't 
tell me vitch thimble the pea is under." 
" Lay him. Sir, (in a whisper) it's imder 
the middle 'un. I'll go you halves." 
"Lay him another; that's right." "Fm 
blow'd but weve lost ; who'd a thought 
it ? " Smack goes the flat's hat over his 
eyes ; exit the confederates^ with a loud 
laugh. 

1339. The Harnet and the BitUe^— 

A harnet zet in a hollur tree, — 
A proper sptteftil twoad tras he ; 
And a merrily sung while he did set 
His stinge as shearp aa a bagganet; 
" Ob, who BO vine and bowld aa I, 
I Tears not bee, nor waspe, nor vly !" 

A bitUe up thuck tree did dim. 
And scornfully did look at him ; 
Zays he, " Zur harnet, who giv thee 
A right to zet in thuck there tree ? 

Yor ael you sengs zo nation vine, 

I tell *e 'tis a house o' mine." 

The hamet's conscience velt a twinge. 

But grawin' bowld wi his long stinge, 

Zays he, " Possession's the best laaw; 

Zo here th' sha'snt put a claaw ! 
Be off, and leave the tree to me, 
The mixen's good enough for thee! " 

Just then a yuckel passin' by. 
Was axed by them the cause to try : 
" Ha! ha ! I zee how 'tds ! " zays he, 
" They'll make a vamous munch vor me ! " 
His bill was shearp, his stomaofa lear, 
Zo up a snapped the caddlin pair t 

HOBAL. 

All you as be to laaw inclined. 
This leetle stowry bear in mind ; 
Vor if to laaw you aims to gwo, 
ToulU vind thy'U alius zar^e zo : 
You'll meet the vate o' these here two, 
They'll take your cwoat and carcass too I 

1340. Measter Goddin used to zay as 
how children costed a sight o' mooey 
to breng um up, and 'twas all very w«l| 
whilst um was leetle, and zucked th 



HALF ▲ LOAT IS KBTVSB THAIT KO BREAD. 



1«S 



mothier, but when nm begin to zuck 
the -vather, 'twaa nation Akkerd f 

Yorkshire. 

1341. Men an' women is like so monny 
cards, played wi* be two oppoanents, 
Time an* Eternity : Time gets a gam 
noo an* then^ and hez t'pleasure o* 
keepin* his cards for a bit, bud Eternity's 
be fjEU* t'better hand, an' proves, day 
be day, an* boor be hoor, 'at he's win- 
nin incalcalably fast. 

1342. "Hoo sweet, boo varry sweet 
is life I" as t' flee said when he wur 
stuck i* treacle ! 

1 343. Persons bred in these localities, 
and in Ireland and Scotland, retain 
more or less of these proyincialisms ; 
and, therefore, when they move into 
other distriots they become ooBSpiouous 
for the peculiarities of their speaking. 
In many cases they appear vulgar and 
uneducated, when they are not so. It 
is, therefore, very desirable for all per- 
sons to approach the recognised standard 
of correctness as nearly as possible. 

1344. To correct these errors by a 
systematic course of study, would in- 
volve a closer application than our 
readers generally could a£Pord; and 
would requh'e much more space than 
we can devote to the subject. We will 
therefore give numerous rules and hints, 
in a concise and simple form, which will 
be of great assistance to Enquirers. 

1345. These Rules and Hints will be 
founded upon the authority of scholars, 
the usages of the bar, the pulpit, and 
the senate, and the authority of societies 
formed for the purpose of collecting 
and difiPhsing Icnowledge pertaining to 
the language of this country. 

1846. Who and whom are used in re- 
latioil to persons, and which in relation 
to things. But it was once common to 
say "ti^e man which" This should 
now be avoided. It is now usual to 
say, " Our Father ivko art in heaven," 
instead of ** loitdi art in heaven." 

1347. Whose, isy however, sometimes 
applied to persona as to things. We 
may, therefore, say, '' the counlry whoae 
inhahitoots are firee." [Gkammaria&^t 



differ in opmion upon this mibjeet, Irat 
general usage justifies the above rule.] 

1348. Thou is employed in solemn 
discourse, and you in common language. 
Ye (plural) is also used in serious ad- 
dresses, and you, in familiar language. 

1349. The uses of the word It are 
various, and very perplexing to the un- 
educated. It is not only used to im.ply 
persons, but things, and even ideasy and 
therefore, in speaking or writing, its as- 
sistance is constantly required. The 
perplexity respecting this word arises 
from the fact that in using it in the 
construction of a long sentence, suffi- 
cient care is not taken to ensure tha£ 
when it is employed it really points out 
or refers to the object intended. For 
instance, " It was raining when John set 
out in his cai*t to go the market, and he 
was delayed so long that it was over be- 
fore he ai'rived." Now what is to be 
understood by this sentence ? Was the 
rain over ? or the market ? Either or 
both might be inferred from the con- 
struction of the sentence, which, there- 
fore, should be written thus : — " It was 
raining when John set out in his cart, 
to go to the market, and he was delayed 
so long that the market was over be- 
fore he arrived." 

1350. Rule. — After writing a sentence 
always look through it, and see that 
wherever the word It is employed, it 
refers to or carries the mind back to the 
object which it is intended to point out. 

1351. The general distinction be- 
tween This and That,, is, this denotes an 
object present or near, in time or place, 
thai to be absent. 

1352. These refers, in the same man- 
ner, to present objects, while those refers 
to things that are remote. 

1353. Who changes, under certain 
conditions, into whose and ivhom. But 
that and which always remain the same. 

1354. That may be applied to nouns 
or subjects of all 8oi*ts, as, the girl that 
went to school, the dog that bit me, 
the ship that went to London, the 
opinion that he entertains. 

1355. The misuse of these pronouns 



164 



IDLE FOLKS TAKE THE MOST PAIB8. 



gives rise to more errors in speaking 
and writing than any other cause. 

1356. When you wish to distinguish 
between two or more persons, say, 
** Which i" the happy man?" — not 
20^0 — " Which of those ladies do you 
admire?" 

1367. Instead of " Who^o you think 
him to be ? " — Say, **whom do you think 
him to be ? " 

1358. TT^om should I see ? 

1359. To whom do you speak ? 

1360. TTAosaidso? 

1361. Who gave it to you ? 

1362. Of whom did you procure 
them? 

1363. TFAo wasAu?" 

1364. Who do men say that / am ? 

1365. Whom do they represent me 
to be?* 

1366. But in the many instances in 
which who is used as an interrogative, 
it does not become whom; as '' Who 
do you speak to ? " " Who do you ex- 
pect?" **Who is she married to?" 
" Who is this resei-ved for?" " Who 
was it made by ? " Such sentences are 
found in the writings of our best 
authors, and it would be presumptuous 
to consider them as ungrammatical. If 
the word whom should be preferred, 
then it would be best to say, " For 
whom is this reserved ? " &c. 

1367. Mice which hour; say, "after 
ffiat hour." 

1868. Sdf should never be added to 
hi$f their, mine, or thine. 

1369. Each is used to denote every 
individual of a number. 

1370. Every denotes all the indivi- 
duals of a number. 

1371. Either and or denote an alter- 
native : " I will take either road, at 
your pleasure ;" *' I will take this or 
that." 

1372. Neither meajia not either; and 
nor means not other. 

* Persons who wish to become well ac- 
quainted with the principles of English Oram- 
mcTy by an eaqy process, are recommended to 
procure '^The UsefVd Grammar/* price 2d., 
publlshad by Houlston and Stooeman, and all 
bMkMillsri. 



1373. Either is sometimes used for 
each — " Two thieves were crucified, on 
either side one." 

1374. " Let each esteem others as good 
as themselves,** should be, " Let eadi 
esteem others as good as himsdfr 

1375. " There are bodies ea/ch of 
which are so small,** should be, " each 
of which is so small.** 

1376. Do not use double compara- 
tives, such as moit straightegt, mott 
highest, most finest. 

1377. The term worser has gone out 
of use ; but lesser is still retained. 

1378. The use of such words as 
chiefest, extremest, &c, has become ob- 
solete, because they do not give any 
superior force to the meanings of the 
primary words, chief extreme, &c. 

1379. Such expressions as moreitn- 
possible, more indispensable, more uni- 
versal, m,ore imcontroUable, more un- 
limited, &c., are objectionable, as they 
really enfeeble the meaning which it is 
the object of the speaker or writer to 
strengthen. For instance, impossiUe 
gains no strength by rendering it more 
impossible. This class of error is com- 
mon with persons who say, " A great 
large house," ** A great big animal," 
« A lUtU maZZ foot," " A tiny lUtk 
hand." 

1880. Mere, there, and where, origi- 
nally denoting place, may now, by com- 
mon consent, be used to denote other 
meanings ; such as, " There. I sgJ^ 
with you,*; " Where we diflTer," " We 
find pain where we expected pleasure, 
** Mere you mistake me." 

1381. Hence, whence, and thence, de- 
noting departure, ^q., may be used 
without the word /rom. The idea of 
from is included in the word whence— 
therefore it is unnecessary to say, 
" From whence** 

1382. Mither, thither, and whither, de- 
noting to a place, have generally been 
superseded by ?iere, there, and ichere- 
But there is no good reason why lihey 
should not be employed. If, ^^^^^fl 
they are used, it is unnecessary to add 
the word to, because that is implied— 
" Whither are you going ? " " Where are 



FKN.AND INK ABM THB BUT Wi T mOMiE B. 



165 



you going ? " Each of these sentences 
is complete. To say, " Where are you 
going to?" is rednndant. 

1383. Two negatines destroy each 
other, and produce an affirmatiTe. 
" Nor did he not observe them," con- 
veys the idea that he did observe them.'* 

1384. But negative assertions are 
allowable. " BUs manners are not un- 
polite," which implies that his mannei*s 
are, in some degree, marked by polite- 
ness. 

1385. Instead of *' I Juid rather 
walk," say " I would rather walk." 

1385.* Instead of " I had beUer go," 
say " It were better that I should go." 

1386. Instead of " I doubt not but 
1 shall be able to go," say " I doubt 
not that I shall be able to go." 

1387. Instead of " Let you and /," 
say " Let you and me." 

1388. Instead of " I am nqt so tall 
as him, say " I am not so tall as he." 

1389. When asked " Who is there ?" 
do not answer " Jf«," but " L" 

1390. Instead of " For you and /," 
say " For you and me." 

1391. Instead of " Says /," say « I 
said,'' 

1392. Instead of " You aretaller than 
wc," say ** You are taller than I." 

1393. Instead of " I ayn%" or, " I 
am*t," say " I am not." 

1394. Instead of "Whether I be 
present or «o," say " Whether I be 
present or not." 

1395. For " Not that I knows on," 
say " Not that I know." 

1396. Instead of " Was I to do so," 
say " Were I to do so." 

1397. Instead of " I would do the 
same if I was him" say " I would do 
the same if I were he." 

1398. Instead of " I had as lief go 
myself," say " I would as soon go my- 
aelf," or "I would rather." 

1399. It is better to say " Bred and 
bom," than "Born and bred." 

1400. It is better to say " Six weeks 
ago," than " Six weeks back." 

1401. It is better to say "Since 
which time," than " Since when." 



1402. It is better to say "I repeated 
it," than "I said so over again." 

1403. It is better to say " A physi- 
cian," or **A suigeon" (according to 
his degree), than " A medlual man." 

1404. Instead of ''He was too young 
to have suffered much," say " He was 
too young to suffer much." 

1405. Instead of " Less friends," say 
"Fewer friends." Less refers to 
quantify. 

1406. Instead of "A quarUitp of 
people," say "A number of people." 

1407. " Instead of "iTe and they we 
know," say " Him and them." 

1408. « Instead of «^« for as I can 
see," say " So far as I can see." 

1409. Instead of " If I am not mis- 
taken" say "If I mistake not." 

1410. Instead of " You aremistaken" 
say " You mistake." 

1411. Instead of "What beautiful 
tea," say " What good tea." 

1412. Instead of " What a nice pros- 
pect," say " What a beauHfid prospect." 

1413. Instead of "A new pair of 
gloves," say "A pair of new gloves." 

1414. Instead of saying " He belongs 
to the ship" say " The ship belongs to 
him." 

1415. Instead of saying "Not no 
such thing," say " Not any such thing." 

1416. Instead of " I hope you'll think 
nothing on it,' say " I hope you'll think 
nothing of it." 

1417. Instead of " Restore it badt to 
me," say " Restore it to me." 

1418. Instead of " I suspect the 
veracity of his story," say " I doubt the 
tioith of his story." 

1419. Instead of " I seldom or ever 
see him," say " I seldom see him." 

1420. Instead (if <' Rather warmish" 
or "A ^t^^Ztf warmish," say "Rather 
warm." 

1421. Instead of " I expected to have 
found him," say "I expected to find 
him." 

1422. Instead of "Shay," say 
"Chaise." 

1423. Instead of " He is a very rising 
person," say " He is rising rapidly." 

1424. Instead of " Who isams you 



166 



OUT or DEiv ouv or dahoml 



moBiQ," say ** Who teaches you 
music f 

1425. Instead of '' I never sing w%«9i- 
ever I can help it," say " I neyer sing 
when I can help it." 

1426. Instead of '< Before I do that I 
must first ask leave/' say " Before I do 
that I must ask leaye." 

1427. Instead of " To get over the 
difficulty," say " To overcome the diffi- 
culty." 

1428. The phrase, "get over,' is in 
many cases misapplied, as, to " get over 
a person," to "get over a week," to 
*' get over an opposition." 

1429. Instead of saying " The ohser- 
vatum of the inile," say "The ob- 
servance of the rule." 

1430. Instead of " A man of eighty 
years of age," say "A man eighty years 
old." 

1431. Instead of " Here lays his 
honoured head," say " Here lies his 
honoured head." 

1432. Instead of ''He died from 
tiegligence" say *'He died through 
neglect," or **in consequence of 
neglect." 

1433. Instead of " Apples are plenty," 
say " Apples are plentiftil." 

1434. Instead of " The latter end of 
the year," say " The end or the close of 
of the year." 

1435. Instead of '* The then govern- 
ment," say " The government of that 
age, or century, or year, or time." 

1436. Instead of " For ought I know," 
say, " For aught I know." 

1437. Instead of " A cowple of diairs," 
.'jay, " Two chairs." 

1438. Instead of *' Two couples" say 
** Four persons." 

1439. But you may say ** A married 
couple," or, " A married pair," or, "A 
couple of fowls," &c., in any case where 
one of each sex is to be understood. 

1440. Instead of "They are united 
together in the bonds of matrimony," 
say " They are united in matrimony," 
or, " They are married." 

1441. Instead of "We travel slow" 
say " We travel slowly." 

1442. Instead of " He Is noways to 



blame," say "He is notme to be 
blamed." 

1443. Instead of ''He plunged down 
into the river," jwy " He ^nnged into 
the river." 

1444. Instead of " He jumped from 
off of the scaffolding," say "He jumped 
oflf from the scaffi)lding." 

1445. Instead of "He came the last 
of all" say " He came the last." 

1446. Instead of "universal,** witt 
reference to things that have any limit, 
say "general;" "generally approved," 
instead of " universally approved; " 
" generally beloved," instead of "uni- 
versally beloved." 

1447. Instead of " They ruined one 
another,** say " They ruined each 
other." 

1448. Instead of "If in case I suc- 
ceed," say, " If I succeed." 

1449. Instead of "A large enov^ 
room," say "A room large enough." 

1450. Instead of " This villa to let;' 
say " This villa to be let." 

1451. Instead of "I am slight in 
comparison to you," say " I am slight 
in comparison with you. 

1462. Instead of " I went /or to see 
him," say " I went to see him." 

1453. Instead of " The cake is all ea< 
up,'* say " The cake is all eaten." 

1454. Instead of "It ia bad at tk 
best," say " It is very bad." 

1455. Instead of " HandBome is <u 
handsome does," say "Haadsome is 
who handsome does." 

1456. Instead of " As I take it»" say 
" As I see," or, " As I tmderstand it." 

1457. Instead of " The book fell on 
the floor," say " The book fell to the 
floor." 

1458. Instead of "His oj^onsare 
approved of by all," say " His opinions 
are approved by all." 

1459. Instead of "I will add one mor« 
argument," say " I will add one aigu- 
ment more," or, " another aigumeai" 

1460. Instead of "Captain BeiUy 
was killed by a bullet," say "Captain 
Reilly was killed with a buUet" 

1461. Instead of "A sad ouxse 'a 
war," 81^ " War is a tmd. curse." 



9VOIW BB0KONIira8 iUXX LOWO VWXSDB. 



167 



1462. Insiead o£ ** Bjo stxada six foot 
high/' say '* He meaaures six feet/' or, 
" His height is six feet." 

1468. Instead of " I go every now cuid 
titen" say " I go offcen, or frequently." 

1464. Instead of ''Who finds him in 
dothes/' say " Who provides him with 
clothes." 

1466. Say " The first two/' and '* the 
last two/' instead of the " two first/' 
" the two last /' leave out all expletives, 
such as "of all/' "first of all/' " last of 
aU/' " beet of aU/' &c., &c. 

1466. Instead of "His health was 
drank wUh enihMsidLsm** say " His health 
was drunk enthusiastioally." 

1467. Instead oi"Exc^t I am pre- 
vented/' say " Unless I am prevented." 

1468. Instead of " In its prima/ry 
sense," say " In its primitive sense." 

1469. Instead of " It grieves me to 
<jaae you," say "I am grieved to see 

you." 

1470. Instead of "Give me tJiem 
papers/' say " Give me those papers." 

1471. Instead of " Those papers I hold 
in my hand," say " These papers I hold 
in my hand." 

1472. Instead of " I could scarcely 
imagine but what," say " I could 
scarcely imagine but that." 

1473. Instead of " He was a man 
»o<oriau9 for his benevolence/' say " He 
was noted for his benevolence. 

1474. Instead of " She was a woman 
celebrated for her crimes/' say " She 
was notorious on account of her crimes." 

1476. Instead of *' What may yoor 
name be/' say " What is your name i" 

1476. Instead of " Bills are requested 
not to be stuck here/* say '''Billstiokers 
are requested not to stick bills here." 

1477. Instead of " By smoking it often 
'becomes habitual/' say " By smoking 
often it becomes habitual." 

1478. Instead of "I lifted it up," say 
^' I lifted it." 

1479. Instead of " It is equaUy of the 
MWie value," say it is of the same value," 
or "equal value." 

1480. Instead of " I knew it previous 
to your telling me," say " I knew it 
previously to your telling me." 



1481. Instead of " You vhm out when 
I called," say *' You were out when I 
called." 

1482. Instead of "I thought I should 
have won this game," say " I thought I 
should win this game." 

1483. Instead of " This much is cer- 
tain, " say "Thus much is certain," or 
" So much is certain." 

1484. Instead of " He went away as it 
may be yesterday week," say " He went 
away yesterday week." 

1485. Instead of " He came the Satur- 
day, as it may be before the Monday,** 
specify the Monday on which he came. 

1486. Instead of " Put your watch vn 
your podtet," say "Put your watch 
into your pocket." 

1487. Instead of " He has got riches," 
say " He has riches." 

148^. Instead of "WUl you set 
down/' say " Will you sit down f ' 

1489. Instead of " The hen iasettvng,** 
say " The hen is sitting." 

1490. Instead of " It is raining very 
hard," say " It is raining very fast." 

1491. Instead of " No, tfean^'ee," say 
" No, thank you." 

1492. Instead of "I cannot do it 
without fardier means," say " I cannot 
do it wittiout further means." 

1493. Instead of " No sooner but,** 
or " No other but,'* say " than" 

1494. Instead of "Nobody else but 
her," say " Nobody but her." 

1495. Instead of " He fell down from 
the balloon," say "He fell from the 
balloon." 

1496. Instead of " He rose up from 
the ground," say "He rose from the 
ground." 

1497. Instead of " These kind of 
oranges are not good," say " This kind 
of oranges is not good." 

1498. Instead of " Somehow or an- 
other,*' say " Somehow or other." 

1499. Instead of " Undeniable refer- 
ences required," say " Unexceptionable 
references required." 

1500. Instead of " I cannot rise auflBl- 
cient funds," say " I cannot raise suffi- 
cient fxmds." 

1501. Instead of "I cannot ra/ise so 



168 



THB ZAXLY BISD CAT0HB8 «CHJi WOBM. 



don't 



early in the morning/' say ''I cannot 
rise so early in the morning." 

1502. Instead of " Well, I 
know," say " I don't know." 

1603. Instead of " WiU I give you 
some more tea?" say "Shall I give 
you some more tea?" 

1504. Instead of '' 0, dear, that wiU 
I do," say " 0, dear, what shall I do." 

1505. Instead of ** I think indifferent 
of it," say " I think indiflferently of it" 

1506. Instead of '* I will send it con- 
formable to your orders," say " I will 
send it conformably to your orders." 

1507. Instead of "Qive me a few 
broth," say " Give me some broth." 

1508. Instead of "Her said it was 
hers," say " She said it was hers." 

1509. bistead of ** To be given cmay 
gratis" say " To be given away." 

1510. Instead of "Will you enter 
in?" say "Will you enter?" 

1511. Instead of " This three days, 
or more," say "These three days, or 
more." 

1512. Instead of "He is a bad gram- 
raarian," say " He is not a gram- 
marian." 

1513. Instead of "We cKCuse him 
for,'* say " We accuse him of." 

1514. Instead of "We acquit him 
from** say " We acquit him of." 

1515. Instead of "I am averse from 
that," say " I am averse to that." 

1616. Instead of " I confide on you," 
say " I confide in you." 

1617. Instead of "I differ witft you," 
say " I differ from you." 

1518. Instead of "As soon (u ever,** 
say " As soon as." 

1519. Instead of *' The very best,** or 
"The very worst,** say "The best or 
the worst." 

1520. "Instead of "A winter*s morn- 
ing,'* say " A winter morning," or, " A 
wintry morning." 

1521. Instead of " Fine morning, 
this morning," say "This is a fine 
morning." 

1522. Instead of "How do you dof 
say " How are you ?" 

1523. Instead of " Not so well as I 
pould wish," say " Not quite well," 



1524. Ayoid such phrases as "ISo 
great shakes," " Nothing to boast of^" 
" Down in my boots," " Suffering firom 
the blues." All such sentences indicate 
vulgarity. 

1525. Instead of " No one cannot pre- 
vail upon him," say "No one can prevail 
upon him." 

1526. Instead of "No one hasnt 
called," say " No one has called." 

1527. Avoid such phrases as "If 1 
was you," or even, " If I were you." 
Better say "I advise you how to 
act." 

1528. Instead of "You havean>A/ 
to pay me," say " It is right that you 
should pay me." 

1529. Instead of "I am going on a 
tour," say " I am about to take a tour," 



it * St 

or "gomg. 



1530. Instead of "I am going over 
the bridge," say " I am going tuross the 
bridge." 

1531. Instead of "He is coming 
here," say "JHe is coming hither." 

1532. Instead of " He lives opposite 
the square," say, " He lives opposite to 
the square." 

1533. Instead of " He belongs to the 
Reform Club," say " He is a member 
ofthe Reform Club." 

1534. Avoid such phrases as "I am 
up to you," " I'll be down upon you," 
"Cut," or "Mizzle." 

1535. Instead of " I should just think 
I could," say "I think I can." 

1536. Instead of " There has beens 
good deal,** say "There has been 
much." 

1537. Instead of "Following wp J 
principle," say " Guided by a principle." 

1538. Instead of "Your obedient, 
humble servant," say " Your obedient, 
or, " Your humble servant." 

1539. Instead of saying " The effort 
you are making for meeting the bill, 
say "The effort you ai-e making to 
meet the bill." 

1540. Instead of saying " It shaU be 
submitted to investigation and inquiiy> 
say "It shall be submitted to investi- 
gation," or " to inquiry." 

1541. Dispense with the phrase 



A GOOD WOBD IS AB SOON SAID AS AN ILL ONE. 



169 



It 



" Conceal from thenuelvet IhefacC 
liuggeata a gross anomaly. 

1542. Never say "Pure and tmad- 
dulterated" because the phrase embodies 
a repetition. 

1543. Instead of saying ''Adequate 
for," say "Adequate to." 

1644. Instead of saying "Kswrplua 
over and above, say " A surplus." 

1545. Instead of saying "A lasting 
andpermcment peace/' say "A perman- 
ent peace." 

1546. Instead of saying " I left you 
hehind at London," say "I left you 
behind me at London." 

1547. Instead of saying "Mas been 
followed by immediate dismissal," say 
" Was followed by immediate dismissal." 

1 548. Instead of saying ** Charlotte 
was met toiih Thomas," say " Charlotte 
waa met by Thomas." But if Charlotte 
and Thomas were walking together, 
" Charlotte and Thomas were met by," 

1549. Instead of "It is strange that 
no author should never hare written," 
say "It is strange that no author 
should ever have written." 

1560. Instead of "I won't never 
write, say " I will never write." 

1551. To say "Do not give him 
no Tnore of your money," is equivalent to 
saying " Give him some of your 
money." Say "Do not give '^^m any 
of your money." 

1552. Inst^d of saying "They are 
not what nature designed them," say 
" They are not what nature designed 
them to be." 

1553. Instead of "By this meam" 
say "By these means." 

1554. Instead of saying " A beauti- 
ful secU and gardens" say " A beauti- 
ful seat and its gai*dens." 

1555. Instead of "All that was 
wanting" say "All that was wanted." 

1556. Instead of saying "I had not 
the pleasure of hearing his sentiments 
when I wrote that letter," say "I had 
not the pleasure of having heard," &c. 

1557. Instead of "The quality of 
the apples were good," say "The 
Tjuality of the apples wt^ good/' 



1558. Insteadof" The want of learn- 
ing, coui'age, and energy are more visi- 
ble," say "is more visible." 

1559. Instead of " We are conversant 
about it," say "We are conversant 
with it." 

1560. Instead of "We called at 
WiUiam," say "We called on William." 

1561. Instead of " We die /(w want," 
say " We die of want." 

1562. Instead of "He died 6y fever," 
say " He died of fever." 

1568. Instead of "I enjoy bad 
health," say "My health is not good." 

1564. Instead of "Either of the 
three," say "Any one of the three." 

1565. Instead of "Better nor that/' 
say "Better than that." 

1566. Instead of "We often think 
on you," say "We often think of 
you." 

1567. Instead of " Though he came, 
I did not see him," say " Though he 
came, yet I did not see him." 

1568. Instead of "Mine is so good as 
yours," say "Mine is as good as 
yours." 

1569. Instead of "He was remark- 
able handsome," say " He was remark- 
ably handsome." 

1570. Instead of "Smoke ascends 
vp the chimney," say " Smoke ascends 
the chimney." 

1571. Instead of " You will some 
day be convinced/' say " You will one 
day be convinced." 

1572. Instead of saying "Because I 
don't chose to," say " Because I would 
rather not." 

1573. Instead of ''Because why?" 
say "Why?" 

1574. Instead of "That there boy/' 
say "That boy." 

1575. Instead of " Direct your letter 
to me," say " Address your letter to 
me. 

1576. Instead of "The horse is not 
much worth" say "The horse is not 
worth much." 

1577. Instead of " The subject-matter 
of debate/' say "The subject of de- 
bate." 

1578. Instead of saying "When he 

02 



172 



NBYEB QUIT CEBTAINTT FOB HOPE. 



v>, and vice versa, is, we belieye, pretty 
generally abandoned. Such seDtences 
as *^ Are you going to Vest Vickham ? " 
" This is werry good weal/* &c., were 
too intolerable to be retained. More- 
over, there has been a very able school- 
master at work during the past thirteen 
years. This schoolmaster is no other 
than the loquacious Mr. Punch, from 
whose works we quote a few admirable 
exercises : — 

1. Low Cockney, — " Seen that party 
lately ? " " What ! the party with the 
wooden leg, as come with — ** "No, 
no — not that party. The party, you 
know, as— " "Oh ! Ah ! I know the 
party you mean, now." " Well, a party 
told me as he can't agree with that 
other party, and he says that if another 
party can't be found to make it all 
square, he shall look out for a party as 
wilL" — (And 80 on for half-an-htmr. ) 

2. Police, — ^''Lor, Soosan, how's a 
feller to eat meat such weather as this ? 
Now, a bit o' pickled salmon and cow- 
cumber, or a lobster salid migM do." 

8. Cockney Yachtsman. — (Example of 
affectation.) — Scene : the Regatta Ball. 
— -" I say, Tom, what's that little craffc 
with the black velvet flying at the fore, 
close under the Ice scuppers of the 
man-of-war ? " " Why, from her fore 
and aft rig, and the cut of her mainsail, 
I should say she's down from the port 
of London ; but I'll signal the commo- 
dore to come and introduce us ! " 

4. Omnibtu Driver. — Old Acqutaint- 
ance : **' A* ve a drop, Bill ? " Driver : 
'* Why, yer see, Jim, this 'ere young 
hoBS has only bin in 'amess once afore, 
and he's such a beggar to bolt, ten to 
one if I leave 'im he'll be a-runnin' hoff, 
and a smashin' into suthun. Howso- 
ever — here — (handing reins to a timid 
passenger) — lay hold, sir; I'll chance 
it!" 

5. Costermonger (to extremely gen- 
teel person). — " I say,guv'ner, give us a 
hist with this 'ere bilin' o' greens ! " (A 
lai^e hamper of market stuff). 

6. Genteel Cockney (by the sea-side). 
— Blanche : " How grand, how solemn, 
dear Frederick, this is ! I really think 



the ocean is more beautiful under thitt 
aspect than under any other ! " — Frede- 
rick : " Hm — ah ! Per-waps. By-the- 
way, Blanche — ^There's a fella shwimp- 
ing. IS' pose we ask him if he can get 
us some pwans for breakfieust to-morwaw 
mawning ? " 

7. Stuck-up Cockney. — {Small Swdf 
enters a tailor* s shop.)—*' A — Brown, 
A — want some more coats ! " Snip : 
Yes, sir. Thank you, sir. How many 
would you please to want ? " Small 
Swell: "A — let me see; A — ^11 have 
eight. A — no, I'll have nine; and 
look here I A — shall want some 
trousers." Snip : Yes, sir, thank you, 
sir. How many would you like?" 
SmAjdl SweU: "A— I don't know 
exactly. S'pose we say twenty-four 
pairs ; and look here 1 Show me. some 
patterns that won't be worn by any 
snobs ! " 

8. Cocknty Flunkey. — ( Cowitiy Foot- 
man meekly enquires of London Foot- 
man) — " Pray, sir, what do you think 
of our town ? A nice place, ain't it ? ' 
London Footman (condescendingly): 
" Veil, Joseph, I likes your town well 
enough. It's clean ; your streets ai« 
hairy ; and you've lots of rewins. But 
I don't like your champagne, it's all 
gewsberry ! " 

9. Cockney Cabby (polUely).—^" Beg 
pardon, sir ; please don't smoke in the 
keb, sir; Ladies do complain o' the 
' bacca uncommon . Better let me smoke 
it for yer outside, sir !" 

10. Military Cockney.— hieui^nsjai 
Blazer (of the Plungers).—" Gwood 
gwacious ! Here's a howible go ! The 
Infantwy's going to gwow a mouF- 
tache !" Comet Huffey {whose fact if 
whiskerless.) "Yaw don't mean that ! 
Wall ! there's only one alternative for 
us. We must shave !" 

11. Juvenile low Cockney. — "Jack. 
Whereabouts is ' Amstid-am ?' Jach— 
Well, I can't say exackerly, but I know 
it's somewhere near 'Ampstid-'£ath [' 

12. Cockney Domestic servant ffi^^- 
" Well, mam — ^Heverythink considered, 
I'm afraid you von't suit me. 1*^* 
always bin brought up genteel ; ad^ ^ 



LITTUB BOATS KU8T KEEP NBAR THE 6HOBB. 



173 



oould'nt go nowheres where there ain't 
no footman kep'/' 

Another, — Lady. — " Wish to leave! 
why I tl ought, Thompson, you were 
very comfortable with me !" (Thompson^ 
who if extremely refined. ) '* Ho yes, mum ! 
I don't find no fault witii you, mum — 
nor yet with master — ^but the truth his, 
mum — ^the hother servants is so 'orrid 
vulgar and hignorant, and speaks so 
hungrammatical, that I I'eely cannot live 
in the same 'ouse with 'em — and I should 
like to go this day month, if so be has 
it won't illconvenieuce you !" 

13. Cockney Waiter.—" 'Am Sir ? 
Tessir ? Don't take anything with your 
'am, do you, sir ?* G:ntleman. — ^* Yes, 
I do ; I take the letter H !" 

14. Cockney Hairdresser. — " They 
say, sir, the cholera 'is in the Hair, sir !" 
Qent (very wieasy). -** Indeed ! ahem I 
Thtti I hope you're very particular 
about the brushes you use." Hair- 
dreuer. — "Oh, I see, you don't Aun- 
derstand me, sir ; I dont mean the 'air 
of the 'eel, but the fudr hoi the Aatmo- 
sphere !" 

15. Cochiey Stoeep {seated upon a 
donkey ). — " Fitch us out another 
pen'north o' strawberry hice, with a 
dollop o* lemon water in it." 

IQ. Feminine Cockney (by the sea side) 
*' Oh Harriette, dear, put on your hat 
and let us thee the stheamboat come in. 
The thea is tho rough ! — and the people 
will be so abthurdly thick !" 

1613. Londoners who desire to cor- 
rect the defects of their utteranca cannot 
do better than to exercise themselves 
frequently upon those words respecting 
which they have been in error. 

1614. H[NT3 FOR THE CORRECTION OF 

THE Irish Brogue. — According to the 
directions given by Mr. B. H. Smart, an 
Irishman wishing to throw ofi^ tho 
brogue 'of his mother country, should 
avoid hurling out his words witii a super- 
fli^ouB quantity of breath. It is not 
broadher and tcidker that he should say, 
but the d, and every other consonant 
should be neatly delivered by the 
tongue, with as little riot, clattering, or 
breathing as possible. Next let him 



drop the roughness or rolling of the 
r in all places but the beginning of 
syllables : he must not say storrum and 
far-rum, but let the word be heard in 
one smooth syllable. He should exer> 
cise himself until he can couYert plaee 
into pleoMf plinty into plenty ^ Jasus into 
Jesus f and so on. He should modulate 
his sentences, so as to avoid directing 
his accent all in one manner — from the 
acute to the grave. Keeping his ear on 
the watch for good examples^ and ex- 
ercising himself frequently upon them, 
he may become master of a greatly im- 
proved utterance. 

1615. HlNT3 FOR CORREOTINa THE 

Scotch Brogue. — ^The same authority 
remarks that as an Irishman uses the 
closing accent of the voice too much, so 
a Scotchman has the contrary habit, 
and is continually drawling his tones 
from the grave to the acute, with an 
effect which, to southern ears, is sus- 
pensive in character. The smooth gut- 
teral r is as little heard in Scotland as 
in Ireland, the trilled r taking its place. 
The substitution of the former instead 
of the latter must be a matter of prac- 
tice. The peculiar sound of the u, 
which in the north so often borders on 
the French u, must be compared with 
the several sounds of the letter as they 
are heard in the south ; and the long 
quality which a Scotchman is apt to 
give to the vowels that ought to be es- 
sentially short, must be clipped. In 
fact, aural observation and lingual ex- 
ercise ai'e the only sure means to the 
end ; so that a Scotchman going to a 
well for a bucket of water, and finding 
a countryman bathing therein would 
not exclaim, " Hey, Colin, dinna ye ken 
the watter's for drink, and nae for 
bathin f 

1616. Op Provincial Bbooues it Is 
scarcely necessary to say much, as the 
foregoing advice applies to them. One 
militia man exclaimed to another, " Jim, 
you hain't in step." "Bdn't I," ex- 
claimed the other, " Well, change 
youm !" Whoever desires knowledge 
must strive for it. It must not be dis- 
pensed with after the fashion of Turn- 



174 



AN H02715BT WOBD IB BBRBB VUAM A <UBW<1WB OATH. 



mus and Jim, who held the following 
dialogue upon a vital question : — Tum- 
muf — "I zay, Jim, be you a purteo- 
tioni»t r Jim—" E'a* I be." Tummm— 
" Wall I zay, Jim, what be purtection?" 
Jim — "Loa'r, Tummus, do' ant *ee 
knaw V* TumtMis — " Naw, I doan't." 
Jim — "Wall, I doan't knaw aa I can 
tell 'ee, Tummus, vur I doan't ezaJcerly 
Icnaw 7ivyid' /" 



1G17. RULES OF PRONUNCIA- 
TION. 

1618. C before a> o, and u, and in 
some other Fituations, is a close u^icu- 
lation, like h. Before e i and y, c is 
precisely equivalent to 8 in %am^f tJiis, 
as in cedarj civil, cypress, capacity. 

1619. E final indicates that the pre- 
ceding vowel is long, as in hate, mete, 
«*ire, robe, lyre, abate, recede, invite, re- 
mote, intrude. 

1620. £ final indicates that c preced- 
ing has the sound of «, as in lace, lance ; 
and that g preceding has the sound 
<ii j, as in charge, page, challenge. 

1621. E final, in proper English 
.words, never forms a syllable, and in 
the most used words, in the terminating 
unaccented syllable, it is silent. Thus, 
motive, genuine, examineyjwvenile, reptile, 
granite, are pronoimced motiv, genuin, 
examin, juvenil, reptil, granit. 

1622. E final, in a few words of 
foreign origin, forms a syllable, as ayii- 
cope, simile. 

1623. £ final is silent after I in the 
following terminations, ble, cle, die, fie, 
gle, Ue,ple, tie, zle; aa in able, manacle, 
cradle, ruffle, mangle, wrinkle, supple, 
rattle, pvazLe, which are pronounced 
ub'l, mau'cLcl, cra'dl, rtif'jl, nian'gl, 
wrinkl, sup' pi, puz'zl. 

1624. E is usually silent in the ter- 
mination en, as in token, broken ; pro- 
nounced t(^n, brokn, 

1625. 0(JS in the termination of ad- 
jectives and then* derivatives is pro- 
nounced vas, as in gracious, pious, pomp- 
ously. 

1626. CE, CI, TI, before a vowel, 
have the sound of <^/ as in cetaeanu, 
graciimSf motion, partial, ingratiate, 



pronounoed ceta^m, graokiu, woiftwi, 
parshal, ingrctshiate. 

1627. TI, after a eonsotnani, ksnre the 
sound of c^, as in Christian, btution ; 
pronounced (7AmcAa», baiuhmsH 

1628. SI, after an accented vowel, are 
pronounced like sA, asin £pheaia/n, eon- 
fu>sion; pronounced Ephezhan, confn- 
zhcm. 

1629. When CI or TI precede auni- 
lar combinations, as in pronwaeiatioa, 
ue^o^ia^ion, they m^ be pronounced 
ce, instead of she, to prevent a repeti- 
tion of the latter syllable ; aa proiMM- 
ceaskon, instead oi pronwnsheashon. 

1630. GH, both in the middle and at 
the end of words are silent ; as in 
caught, bought, fright, nigh, sigh; pro- 
nounced caut, baut, frite, ni, si. In the 
following exceptions, however, GH arc 
pronounced as F: — oough, chough, 
clough, enough, nough, laugh, rough, 
slough, tough, trough. 

1631. When WH begin a word, the 
aspirate h precedes w inx^ronunciatioii; 
aa in whaJt, whiffy whale; pix)nounced 
hwat, hwiff, hwale, w having precisely 
the sound of oo ; French ou. In the 
following words w is silent : — ufho, 
wliom, whose, whoop, whole. 

1632. H s^ter r has no soundor use ; 
aa in rlicum, rhyme ; pronounced revm, 
ryme. 

1633. H should be sounded in the 
middle of words ; as in forehead, ab^r, 
beAold, ex/uiust, inAabit, uuAorse. 

1634. H should always be sounded 
except in the following words : — ^heir, 
herb, honest, honour, hospital, hostler, 
hour, humour, and humble, and all 
their derivatives ; — (See 161)— HBUch as 
humourously, derived from humour. 

1635. K and G are silent before fi; 
as know, gnaw ; pronounced no, now. 

1636. W before r is silent; aa in 
vrring, wreath; pi*onounced ring, rtati' 

1637. B after m is ailent; 9&'m(kaib, 
wwmb ; pronounoed dum, nam>. 

1638. L before k ia silent; aa in 
baulk, walk, talk; pronounced ba^kf 
wauk, tank. {See 1663.) 

1639. PH have the sound of /; tf »^ 
philowphy; pronounced >EJ«MpAf« 



FUT |L man buat 9o jl <mnmB hill. 



176 



1640. NG hw two soimdB ; dim as 
in singer — ^the other aa ki finrger, 

1641. N after m, and closing a sylla- 
ble, is silent, as in hymn, condemn. 

1642. P before a and t ia mute, as in 
p8€Um,p8€vdOfptarmig<m ; pronounced 
mnhf »udo, tarinigaa^, 

1643. R ha« two aeimde, one strong 
and Tibrating, aa at the beg^inning of 
words and syllables, suoh as vohbevy 
reckon, error ; the other as at the ter- 
minations of words, or when it is suc- 
ceeded by a consonant, as farmer, 

1644. Before the letter R there ia a 
alight sound of e between the yowel 
and the consonant. Thus, bare, parent, 
apparent, mere, mire, more, p%re, pyre, 
are pronounced nearly baer, paerent, 
appaerent, me-er, -mier, moer, puer, pyer. 
This pronuneiaidon pi:t>oeeds from the 
peculiar articulation r, and it occasions 
A slight change of the soimd of a, 
which can only be learned by the ear. 

1645. There are other rules of pro- 
nunciation affecting the combinaticms of 
vowels, &e. ; but a£ they are more 
difficult to describe, and as they do not 
ralate to errors which are commonly 
prevalent, we shall content ourselves 
with giving examples of them in the 
following list of words. 

1646. Words with thjsib Pbonu»- 
ciations. 

Again, a-<i!en, not aa apeUad. 

AUen, ale-yen, not ar-lye-n. 

Antipodes, an-l^o-deaa, 

Apoatle, MlUioat the t 

Aroh, nrtek in oomponnds of trar own Ian- 
gMage, aa in archbiahop, arohduke ; but arJt 
in words derived from the Greek, as 
archaic, ar-ia-ik; ardMBoiogy, ar-ke-o/- 
o-gy; archangel, ark->a<n>gel ; archetype, 
AT-ke-typc; archiepiscopal, ar*ke-e^f»<«-eo- 
pol; avehipelago, ar-ke-;f«^a-go ; ai<<itaiTe8, 
or-kiyz; ko. 

Asia, asha. 

Aaparagua, not aaparagrasa 

Awkward, awk^ifHril, not awk-ard 

Bute, had. 

Because, tM'eawXy not be-eo«. 

Be«B, Un. 

Belored, as a verb, be-/ueJ ; aa an adjective, 



maiaad, ouvaad, fca, aMiOlilatt 

to the aaiae sole. 
Beneath, with the A In braatCh, afft'Wilih the 

th in breathe. 
Biog'raphy, as qMlled, not baograiihy. 
Buoy, bwoy, not bcqr. ' 

By and Bay, in convaraation, b'e, wfe. When 

emphatic, and in poetic i«ading, Iqr andaner. 
Canal', aa spelled, not ea<nd. 
Caprice, capreece. 
Catch, as spelled, nokksfcoh. 
Chaos, iba-oss. 
Charlatan, sharlatan. 
Chasm, kazm. 
Chasten, chasn. 
Chivalry, shivalry. 
Chemistry, Atm-is-trey. 
Choir, kwire. 
Cleric, klork. 
Combat, tem-bat 
Conduit, fon-dit. 
Corps, core ; plural, coraa. 
Covetous, euv-e-tus, not cuT-e-chiis. 
Courteous, curt-jva. 
Courtesy (politeneaa) oiir-'te-sey. 
Courteqr (a lowering of the body), omi-iey. 
Creaaea, as spelled, not crenes. 
Cu'riosity, cu-re-«»-e-ty, not cuxMity, 
Cushion, oooi*>iin, not oooeh-<n. 
Daunt, d&nt, not doimt. 
Design and deaiflt have the sound ^ f not 

oft. 
Desire should have the sound of c. 
Despatch, de-«pa^, not (ife-pateti. 
Dew, due, not doo. 
Diamond, as spelled, not ift'-mond. 
Diploma, de-i^fo-ma, not dip-'lo-ma. 
Diplomacy, de-j>ft>-ma-oy, not <i(|>-lo-ina<'Cy. 
Direct, de-reofc^, not dlf-rect. 
Divers (several), di-verz ; but diverse (ififf^- 

ent), d»-Terse. 
Dome, as spelled, not doom 
Drought, drowt, not drawt. 
Duke, as spelled, not dook. 
Dynasty, cfyn^aa-te,. not (fy-^nas'ty. 
E^ct, «-dickt, not ed-lckt. 
£*en and e*er, een and air. 
EgotiMn, ef^-O'tixm, not e-goHlAii. 
Either, e-ther, not t'-ther. 
Engine, eiHJin, not A>-Jin. 
Ensign, en-sign ; ensigncy, en-sin-cey. 
Epistle, withoat the t 
Eldtome, e-pif-o-me. 
Epoch, q>-ock, not «-pock. 
Bqolnaz, «9-lnre-aoz, not e-qni-noK. 
Europe, {T-rope, not U-rvtp, Euro-jpe^an, not 

Eu-ro-pean. 
Every, ev-er-tfj-ttot^v-ry. 



176 



KNOWLBDOB MA2UEB HUMBLB! 



Exeootor, egx-ec-ntc»% not with the sound of x. 
Extraordinary, ez-Hror-de-nar-ey, not ez-tra- 

ordinary, nor eztronarey. 
February, as spelled, not Febnary. 
Finance, fe-nonee, not finance. 
Foundling, as speUed, notybnd-Iing. 
Garden, ^or-dn, not gar-den, nor gard<>ing. 
Gauntlet, ^cnU-let, not gawnt-let. 
Geography, as spelled, not /ogvaphy, norge- 

hography. 
Geometry, as spelled, not>Mn-etry. 
Haunt, hant, not hawnt 
Height, hite, not higth. 
Heinous, Aay-nus, not Aee-nus. 
Highland, M-land, not heeAaxA. 
Horizon, ho-tvzn, not Aor-i-zon. 
Housewife, Attf-wif. 

Hymeneal, hy-men-«-a], not hy-menal. 
Instead, Sn-tted, not instid. 
Isolate, tr-o-late, not t<zo-late, nor u-olate. 
Jalap, >ttf-ap, notjolup. 

January, as spelled, not Jenuaiy, nor Janewaiy. 
Leave, as spelled, not lea£ 
Legend, Zed-gend, not fe-gend. 
Lieutenant, lev-fen-ant, not leu-tei»-ant. 
Many, «n«i>-ney, not man-ny. 
Marchioness, mofHihun-ess, not as spelled. 
Massacre, f?uu-sa-cur, not mas-sa-cre. 
Mattress, as spelled, not mot-trass. 
Matron, mo-trun, notma-tron. 
Medicine, med-e-dn, not nuii-ein. 
Biinute (sizty seconds) f?im-it. 
Minute (small) wi-nute. 
Miscellany, mi>-cellany, not mis-eeMxuiy. 
Mischievous, mts-chiv-us, not vcaB-cheev-yx%. 
Ne*er, for never, nare. 
Neighbourhood, noy-bur-hood, not nay-hvac- 

wood. 
Nephew, n«o-u, not n^-u. 

New. no, not noa 

Notable, worthy of notice, no-ta-bl. 

Notable, thrifty, nol^XA. 

Oblige, as spelled, not obleege. 

Oblique, oh-luk, not Q-bUkt. 

Odorous, o-dur-us, not od;ur-us. 

Of, ov, ezcept when compounded with there, 
here, and where, which should be pro- 
nounced here-42^ there-<2^ and whare-qf. 

Off; of, not awf. 

Organization, or-gan-e-«a-shun, not or-ga-ni- 
za-shun. 

Ostrich, (w-tritch, not os-tridge. 

Pageant, pod-Jant, not />a-Jant 

Parent, /Kwv-ent, notjpor-ent 

Partisan, jMir-te-zan, notpar-te-Mff, norjDor- 
ti-zan. 

Patent, J}a^ent, notjN»-tent. 

Physiognomy, not phyiionaoiiny. 



Pincers, i^cn-oers, not pineh-ers. 
Plaintiff, as spelled, not plan-iiff. 
Pour, pore, not so as to rhyme with our. 
Precedent, (an example,) j7r«M-e-dent; prc- 

«e-dent is the pronunciation of the adjective 
Prologue, jwv^og, notjpro-loge. 
Quadrille, ka-drtZ, not quod-rll. 
Quay, key, not as spelled 
Radish, aa spelled, not red-ish. 
Railery, rtd-ler-ey., not as spelled. 
Bather, not rmather. 
Besort, resort 
Resound, resound. 
Respite, ra-pit, not as spelled. 
Rout (a party; and to rout,) should be pro- 
nounced rowt Route (a road), root 
Saunter, «an-ter, not sawn-ter. 
Sausage, soto-sage, not sos-sidge, nor sas-fioge. 
Schedule, sAed-ule, not shed-die. 
Seamstress, sem-stress. 
Sewer, soor, not shore, nor shure. 
Shire, sheer, not as spelled. 
Shone, sh&n, not shun, nor as spelled. 
Soldier, M2e-Jer. 

Solecism, w{-e-cizm, not w-le-dzm. 
Soot, as spelled, not sut 
Sovereign, «oo-er-in, not suv-er-in. 
Specious, ^w-shus, not tpah-va, 
StomaGher, fftim-a-cher. 
Stone, (weight,) as spelled, not stun. 
Synod, <y»-ud. not ty-noA. 
Tenure, fen-ure, not te-nure. 
Tenet, ten-^ not te-net. 
Than, as speUed, not thun. 
Tremor, trem-\xr^ not <rc-mor. 
Twelfth, should have the th sounded. 
Umbrel'la, as spelled, not um-ber-el-la,. 

Vase, vaze, not vawze. 

Was, woz, not wuz. 

Weary, tt«er-«y, not wary. 

Were, wer, not ware. 

Wont, wunt, not as spelled 

Wrath, rawth, not rath : as an adjective it u 
spelled wroth, and pronounced with t>io 
vowel sound shorter, as wr&th'-Ail, &c. 

Tacht yot, not yat 

Yeasty as spelled, not y&t 

Zenith, «m-ith, not «e-nitli. 

ZodiiUi, zo-de-iU(. 

Zoology should have both o*s sounded, as w- 
oJ-o-gy, not zoo-lo-gy. 

Pbonoukcb — 
— ace, not iss, as furnace, not ftimiM. 
— age, not idge, as cabbage, courage, postsjp^. 

Tillage. 
— ain, ane, not in, aa certain, cectaA«, not 

oerti'n. 



lOKOBAKOE MAKES PBOUD; 



177 



•— «te, Dot it, as moderofe, not modercC 

— ct, not c, u aspect, not aspec; subject, not 
Bubjec 

— ed, not id, or ad, as wicked^ not wickid, or 
.wickttd. 

—el, not 1, model, not modi ; mwel, not novl, 

—en, not n, as sudden, not suddti. — Burden, 
burtlien, garden,lengthen, seven, strengthen, 
often, and a few others, have the e silent. 

— ence, not tmce, as infLuence, not influ-unce. 

— es, not is, as please*, not pleasu. 

— lie, should be pronounced il, as ferttj; not 
fertile, in all words.ezoept chamomile {ecan)^ 
exile, gentile, infantile, reconcile, and se- 
nile, which should be pronounced He. 

— in, not n, as Latm, not Latn. 

— nd, not n, as husband^ not huaban; thou- 
sand^ not thousan. 

— nesB, not niiss, as carefhllneM, notcarefuhuas. 

— ng, not n, as singing, not singin ; speakinsr, 
notspeakin. 

— ^ngth, not nth, as 8treit<7th, not strenth. 

— son, the o should be silent, as in treason, 
tre-zHt not tre-wn. 

— tal, not tie, as capiiia^ not capiife ; metal, not 
metife; mortoj; not morlfe; periodicoJ^ not 
periodicfe. 

— xt, not X, as next, not near. 

1647. PUNCTUATION. — Punctim- 
tion teaches the method of placing 
P<nnt8, in written or printed matter, in 
such a manner as to indicate the pauses 
which would be made by the author if 
he were communicating his thoughts 
orally instead of by written signs. 

1648. Writing and printing are sub- 
stitutes for oral communication; and 
correct punctuation is essential to con- 
vey the meaning intended, and to give 
due force to such passages as the author 
may wish to impress upon the mind of 
the person to whom they are being 
communicated. 

1649. The Points are as follow : — 
The Comma , 
The Semicolon ; 
The Colon 

The Period, or ITull Point 
The Apostrophe ' 

The Hyplien, or Conjoiner . 
The Note of Interrogation | 
The Note of Exchimation ! 
The Farentheds ( ) 

The Asterisk, or Star * 

As these are all the points required in 
simple epietolary composition^ we will 



confine our explanations to the ruleR 
which should govern the use of them. 

1650. But we will first state that the 
other points are the paragraph % ; the 
section § ; the dagger + ; the double 
dagger :!:; the rule — ; the parallel |1 ; 
the bracket [ ] ; and some others. 
These, however, are quite unnecessary, 
except for elaborate works, and in these 
they are chiefly used for notes or mar- 
ginal references. 

1651. The comma , denotes the 
shortest pause ; the semicolon ; a little 
longer pause than the comma; the 
colon : a little longer pause than the 
semicolon; the period, or full-point, . 
the longest pause. 

1662. The relative duration of these 

pauses is described as — 

WkOe you count 

Comma One 

Semicolon Two 

Colon Three 

Period Four. 

This, however, is not an in&llible rule, 
because the duration of the pauscit 
should be regulated by the degree of 
rapidity with which the matter is being 
read. In slow reading, the duration of 
the pauses should be increased. 

1653. The other points are rather in- 
dications of expression, and of meaning 
ar.d connection, than of pauses, and 
therefore we will notice them sepa- 
rately. 

1654. The misplacing of even f>o 
slight a point, or pause, as the commu, 
^vill often alter the meaning of a sen- 
tence. The contract made* for lighting 
the town of Liverpool, during the year 
1819, was thrown void by the misplacm;.^ 
of a comma in the advertisements — 
thus : — " The lamps at preseut are about 
4050, and have in general two spoutj* 
each, composed of not less than twenty 
threads of cotton." The contractor 
would have proceeded to furnish eacli 
lamp with the said twenty threads; but 
this being but half the usual quantity, 
the commissioners discovered that the 
diflference arose from the comma fol- 
lowing instead of preceding the word 



178 



KlMnVUSIXUB TAIJCt LOWLT; 



took. The parties agreed to annul the \ 
^oatraot, and a new one was ordered. 

1655. The following sentence shows 
how difficult it is to read without the 
aid of the points used as pauses : — 

Doath walta not for ■term or Bunahine 
within a dwelling in one of the upper streets 
resi>ectable in appearance and furnished with 
such conveniences as distinguiah the habita- 
tions of those who rank among the higher 
classes of society a man of middle age lay on 
his last bed momently awaiting the final sum- 
mons all that the most akilful medical attend- 
ance all that love warm as the glow thai fires 
an angel's bosom could do had been done 
by day and night for many long weeks had 
ministering spirits such as a devoted wife and 
loving children are done all within their power 
to ward off the blow but there he lay his raven 
hair smoothed off ftom. hia noble brow his dark 
«yes lighted with unnatural brightness and 
contrasting strongly with the pallid hue which 
marked him as an expectant of the dread 
messenger. 

16,56. The same sentence, properly 
pointed, and with capital letters placed 
after full points, according to the adopted 
rule, may be easily read and under- 
stood : — 

Death waits not for storm or sunshine. 
Witiiin a dwelling in one of the upper streets, 
respectable in appearance, and furnished with 
such conveniences as diaUnguish ttie habita- 
tioDS of thoM who rank among the higher 
classes of society, a man of middle age lay on 
his last bed, momently awaiting the final sum- 
mons. All that the most skilful medical at- 
tendance — all that love, warm as the glow that 
fires an angel's bosom, could do, had been 
done ; by day awi night, for many long weeks, 
had ministering spirits, such as a devoted wife 
m/ad loidag children are, done all within th^r 
power to wacd off the Mow. But there he 
lay, his raven hair smoothed off from his 
noble brow, his dark eyes liglkted with unna- 
tural brightness, and contrasting strongly with 
the pallid hue which marked liim as an ex- 
pectant of the dread messenger. 

1657. The apostrophe (' ) is used to in- 
dicate the combining of two words in one 
— as John 's book, instead of John, his 
l>ook ; or to show the omission of parts 
of words, as Glo'sler, for Gloucester — 
tho' for though. These abbreyiations 
should be avoided as much as possible. 
Cobbett says the apostrophe ** ought 



to be called the mark of laziness and 
Tulgarity.'* The first case, however, of 
which we gave an example, is a neces- 
sary and proper one. 

1658. The hyphen, or eonjoiner ( -) is 
used to unite words which, though ihey 
are separate and distinct, have so cliMe a 
connection as almost to become one 
word, as water-rat, wind-mill, &e. It 
is also used in writing and printing, at 
the end of a line, to show where a word 
is divided and continued in the next 
line. Look down the ends of the lines 
in this volume, and you will notice the 
hyphen in several places. 

1659. The note of interrogation (?) in- 
dicates that the sentence to whioh it is 
put asks a question, as " What is the 
meaniug of that assertion ? What am 

I to do r 

1660 The note of exclamation or of 
admiration ( ! ) indicates surprise, plea- 
sure, or sorrow, as " Oh ! Ah ! (Good- 
ness ! Beautiftd ! I am astonished ! 
Woe is me !" 

1661. The parenthesis ( ) is used to 
prevent confusion by the introduction 
to a sentence, of a passage not neces- 
sary to the sense thereof. '* I am going 
to meet Mr. Smith (though I am no 
admirer of his) on Wednesday next." 
It is better, however, as a rule, not to 
employ parenthetical sentences. 

1662. The asterisk, or star ( *) may 
be employed to refer from the text to a 
note of expianaition at the foot of a 
column, or at the end of a letter. 
*,* Three stars are sometimes used to 
call particular attention to a paragraph. 

1668. HINTS UPON SPELLIKG.— 
The following rules will be fdund of 
great assistance in writing, becanae they 
relate to a class of wosds about the 
spelling of which doubt and hesitation 
ai'e frequently felt : — 

1664. All words of one syllable end- 
ing in I, with a single vowel before it, 
have double I at the close : as, mill, 
sell. 

1665. All words of one syllable 
ending in I, with a double vowel before 
it, have one I only «t the close ; m^ iwnI, 
MuV. « 



lOIfOBAHCE VAUSB LOUD; 



179 



I4666. Wonis of one tillable ending 
in /, when eompounded, retain but one 
/ each ; aa, fy^, dcUfid. 

1667. Words of more than one 
syllfthle ending in I have one I only at 
the cloae; aa, deligkt/vbl, faithful; 
except h^aU, dofwnfoUl, recaU, unwell, 
&c. 

1668. All derivati<ms from words 
onding in I have one I only ; as eqiwlity, 
from equal ; fidness, from fidl; except 
they end in er or ^^; as mill, miller; 
fvU, fully. 

1669. All participles in ing from 
verbs ending in e lose Uie e final ; as 
hofve, having; aanuse, amusing ; miless 
they come from verbs ending in double 
■c, and then they retain both ; us, see, 
seeing ; agree, a^freeing. 

1670^ All adverbs in ly and nouns in ' 
merit retain the e final of the piimitives ; 
as, brave, bravely; refine, refinement; 
•except cKknovdedgment sjid jvidgnienf. 

lt>7l. All derivations from woi'ds 
'ending in er retain the e before the r ; 
as, refei', inference; except hindrance, 
from hinder ; remembrance from remem- 
ber ; disastrous, from disaster ; mon- 
iftrous, from monster; wondrous from 
wander ; ewmJbrous from cvmber, &c. 

1672. Compound words, if both end 
not in I, retain their primitive parts 
•entire; as, millstone, changetUtle, rcLce- 
less ; except always, also, deplorable, 
'although, almost, admirable, &c. 

1673. All monosyllables ending in a 
•consonant, with a sii^le vowel before 
it, double that consonant in deriva* 
tives; as, «m, giimerr ; ship, shipping ; 
big, bigger ; glad, gladder, &c. 

1674. Monosyllables ending in a 
consonant, with a double vowel before 
it, do not double the consonant in 
derivatives ; as, deep, sleepy ; troop, 
trooper, 

1675. All words of more than one 
syllable ending in a single consonant, 
preceded by a single vowel, and 
acoeated on tJae last syllable, double 
that consonant in derivatives ; as eom- 
nUt, committee; compel, compelled; 
iippal, a^aUimg ; diM, distillei-. 

1676. Nouns of one syllable ending 



in y, preceded by a consonant, change 
y into ies in the plural ; and vei'bs 
ending in y, preceded by a consonant, 
change y into ies in the third person 
singiUar of the present tense, and into 
ied in the past tense and past participle ; 
aS) fiy, flies ; I apply, he applies ; we 
reply, we replied or hcKfe replied. K 
the y be preceded by a vowel, this rule 
is not applicable ; as, Icey, keys ; I play, 
he plays ; we have enjoyed ourselves. 

1677. Compound words whose 
primitives end in y change y into i ; as 
bemity, beautiful ; lovely, loveliness. 



1678. QUADRILLES.— The Fikst Set. 

1679. Figure 1. Le Pantalon. — Right 
and left. Balancez to pai'tners : turn 
partners. Ladies chain. Half pro- 
menade : half right and left. (Four 
times.) 

1680. Figure 2. Vete. — ^Leading lady 
and opposite gentleman advance aud 
retire; chassez to right and left. Cross 
over to each other's places : chassez to 
right and left. Balancez and turn 
partners. (Four times.) 

1681. Or Double Vete. — ^Both couples 
advance and retire at the same time ; 
cross over ; advance and retire again ; 
cross to places, balancez and turn 
pai'tners. (Twice.) 

1682. Pigwre 3. La Pouk. — Leading 
lady and opposite g^itleman cross over, 
giving right hands ; recross, giving left 
hands, and fall in a line. Set, four in 
a line ; half promenade. Advance two, 
and retire (twice). Advance four, and 
retire : half right and left. (Four 
times) 

1683. Figure 4. IVc)w'«?.--The first 
couple advance and retire twice, the lady 
remaining on the opposite side, the two 
ladiw go round the first gentleman, 
who advances up the centre, balancez 
and turn hands. (Four times.) 

1684. Figure 6. La Pastorale. — ^The 
leading couple advance twice, leaving 
the lady opposite the second time. The 
three advance and re^re twice. The 
leading gentleman advance and set. 

* This or the TrenSse mnai be Maltted. 



180 



KNOWLEDGE IS MODEST, CAUTIOUS, AND PURE ; 



Hands four half round : half right and 
left. * (Four times.) 

1685. Figure 6. Galop Finale. — Top 
and bottom couples galopade quite 
round each other — ^advance and retire, 
four advances again and change the 
gentlemen — ladies' chain — advance and 
retire four, and regain your pai'tners in 
your places — the foui*th time all galop- 
ade for an unlimited period. (Four 
times.) 

Ovy all galopade or promenade eight 
bars, advance four en galop oblique, and 
retire, then half promenade, eight bars, 
advance four, retire and return to 
places with the half promenade, eight 
bars. Ladies' chain, eight bars. 
Hepeated by the side couples, then by 
the top and bottom, and lastly by the 
side couples, finishing with grand pro- 
menade. 

1686. Lancebs. — La ItoH. — First 
gentleman and opposite lady advance 
and set — turn with both hands, retiiing 
to places — ^return, leading outside — set 
and turn at comers. 

1687. La Lodoiska. — First couple 
adv.uicc twice, leaving the lady in the 
centre. Set in the centre — turn to 
places — all advance in two lines — all 
tuni partners. 

1688. La Dorset. — Firat lady advance 
iuid stop, then the opposite gentleman — 
both retire, turning round — ladies' 
hands across half round, and turn the 
opposite gentleman with left hands — 
repeat back to places and 'turn partners 
with left hands. 

1689. /.'iF^oi/c.— First couple set to 
couple at right — set to couple at left — 
change places with partners and set, 
and pirouette to places — right and left 
with opposite couple. 

1 690. Lea Landers. — The grand 
chain. The first couple advance and 
tui*n facing the top, then the couple at 
right advance behind the top couple, 
then the couple at left, and the opposite 
couple do the same, forming two lines. 
All change places with partners and 
back again. The ladies turn in a line on 
the right, the gentlemen in a line on the 
left. Each couple meet up the centre. 



Set in two lines, the ladies in one line, 
the gentlemen in the other. Turn 
partners to places — ^finish with the grand 
chain. 

1691. The Caledonians. — Firtt 
Figure. — The first and opposite couples 
hands across round the centre and binck 
to places — set and turn partners. 
Ladies' chain — ^half promenade. Half 
right and left. Repeated by the side 
couples. 

1692. Sec(md Figure. — The first 
gentleman advance and retire twice. 
AH set at comers, each lady passiDg 
into the next lady's place on the right 
Promenade by all. Repeated by the 
other couples. 

1693. Third Figure—The first lady 
and opposite gentleman advance and 
retire, bending to each other. First 
lady and opposite gentleman pass round 
each other to places. !First couple cross 
over, having hold of hands, while the 
opposite couple cross on the outside of 
them — ^the same reversed. All set at 
corners, turn, and resume partners. 
All advance and retire twice, in a circle 
with hands joined — turn partners. 

1694. FouHh Figure.— The first lady 
and opposite gentleman advance 
and stop ; then their partners advance ; 
turn partners to places. The four 
ladies move to right, each taking the 
next ladies' pla^e, and stop — the four 
gentlemen move to left, each taking 
the next gentleman's place and stop— 
the ladies repeat the same to the right 
— ^then the gentlemen to the left. All 
join hands and promenade round to 
places and turn partners. Repeated by 
the other couples. 

1695. FifthFigure.— The fii-st couple 
promenade, or waltz round inside the 
figure. The four ladies advance, join 
hands round and retire — then the gen- 
tlemen perform the same — all set and 
turn partnei-s. Chain figure of eight 
half round and set. All promenade to 
places and turn partners. All change 
sides, join right hands at comers and 
set — ^back again to places. — Finish with 
grand promenade. These three are the 
most admirod of the quadrilles; the 



lOHOBAJrCK BOABTFUL^ COVCKrOD, AND SUBB. 



181 



first set invariably takes precedence of 
every other dance. 

1696. Spanish Dance. — Danced in a 
circle or a line by sixteen or twenty 
couples. The couples stand as for {a 
Country Dance, except that the first 
gentleman must stand on the ladies' 
dide, and the first lady on the gentle- 
man's side. First gentleman and second 
lady balanoez to each other, while first 
lady and second gentleman do the same 
and change places. First gentleman 
and partner balancez, while second 
gentleman and partner do the same, 
and change places. First gentleman 
and second lady balancez, while first 
lady and second gentleman do the same 
and change places. First gentleman 
and second lady balancez to partners, 
and change places with them. All four 
join hands in the centre, and then 
change places, in the same order as the 
foregoing fig^e, four times. All four 
pousette, leaving the second lady and 

gentleman at the top, the same as in a 
Country Dance. The first lady and 
gentleman then go through the same 
figure with the third lady and gentle- 
man, and so proceed to the end of the 
dance. This figure is sometimes danced 
in eight bars time, which not only 
hurries and inconveniences the dancers, 
but also ill accords with the music. 

1697. Waltz Cotillon. — Places the 
same as quadrille ; first couple waltz 
round inside, first and second ladies ad- 
vance twice and cross over, turning 
twice ; first and second gentleman do 
the same, third and fourth couples the 
.same, first and second couples waltz to 
places, third and fourth do the same, 
all waltz to partners and turn half 
round with both hands meeting the 
next lady, perform this figure until in 
your places ; form two side lines, all 
advance twice and cross over, turning 
twice ; tlva same, returning ; all waltz 
round ; the whole repeated four times. 

1698. La Galopade. — Is an ex- 
tremely graceful and spirited dance in a 
continual chassez. An unlimited num- 
ber may join ; it is danced in couples 
OS waltzing. 



1699. The Galopade Quadbilles. — 
Ist, Galopade. 2nd, Right and left, 
sides the same. 3rd, Set and turn 
hands all eight. 4th, Galopade. 5th, 
Ladies' chain, sides the same. 6th, 
Set and turn partners all eight. 7th, 
Galopade. 8th, Tirois, sides the same. 
9th, Set and turn partners all eight. 
10th, Galopade. 11th, Top lady and 
bottom gentleman advance and retire, 
the other six do the same. 12 th, Set 
and turn partners all eight. 13th, 
Galopade. 14th, Four ladies advance 
and retire, gentlemen the same. 15th, 
Double ladies' chain. 16th, Set and 
turn partners all eight. 17th, Galopade. 
18th, Poussette, sides the same. 19th, 
Set and turn. 20th, Galopade waltz, 

1700. The Mazubka. — This dance is 
of Polish origin — ^first introduced into 
England by the Duke of Devonshire, 
on his return from Russia. It consists 
of twelve movements; and the firts 
eight bars are played (as in quadrilles) 
before the first movement commences. 

1701. The Redowa Waltz, is com- 
posed of three parts distinct from each 
other. Ist, The pursuit. 2nd, The 
waltz called Redowa. 3rd, The waltz 
k Deux Temps, executed to a peculiar 
measure, and which, by a change of the 
rhythm, assumes a new character. The 
middle of the floor must be reserved 
for the dancers who execute the pro- 
menade, called the pursuit, while those 
who dance the waltz turn in a circle 
about the room. The position of the 
gentleman is the same as for the waltz. 
The gentleman sets out with the lefk 
foot, and the lady with the right. In 
the pursuit the position is difierent, the 
gentleman and his partner face, and 
take each other by the hand. They 
advance or fall back at pleasure, and 
balance in advance and backwards. To 
advance, the step of the pursuit is made 
by a glissade forward, without spring- 
ing, coupd with the hind foot, and jefc^ 
on it. You recommence with the other 
foot, and so on for the rest. The re- 
tiring step is made by a sliding step of 
the foot_ backwards, without spring, 



182 



EAT NOT TO Tmh»mS»'^^BIS[K HOT TO BUETASION. 



jet^ with the front foot, and ooi]p4 with 
the one behind. It is necessaij to ad' 
vance well on the sliding step, and to 
spring lightly in the two others^ sur place, 
balancing equally in the j>af de pursmte, 
which ia executed alternately by the 
left inadvance, and the right baekwards. 
The lady should follow all the move- 
ments of her partner, falling back when 
he advances, and advancing when he 
falls back. Bring the shoulders a little 
forward at each sliding step, for they 
should always follow the movement of 
the leg as it advances or retreats ; but 
this should not be too marked. When 
the gentleman is about to waltz he 
should take the lady's waist, as in the 
ordinaiy waltz. The step of the 
Bedowa, in tui*ning, may be thus de- 
scribed. For the gentleman — jttd of 
the left foot passing before the lady. 
CHitsade of the light foot behind to the 
fourth position aside — ^the left foot is 
brought to the third position behind — 
then the p(u de htuqite is executed by 
the right foot, bringing it forward, and 
you recommence with the left. The 
p(U de barque should be made in three 
very equal beats, as in the Mazurka. 
The lady performs the same steps as 
the gentleman, be^j^inning by the pas de 
basque with the right foot. To waltz a 
deux temps to the measure of the 
Redowa, we should make each step 
upon each beat of the bar, and find our- 
selves at every two bars, the gentleman 
with his left foot, and the lady with her 
light, that is to say, we should make 
one whole and one half step to every 
bar. The music is rather slower than 
for the ordinary waltz. 

1702. Yalsb Cellarius. — The gen- 
tleman takes the lady's left hand with 
his rights moving one bar to the left by 
glissade^ and two hops on his left foot, 
while the lady does the same to the 
right, on her right foot ; at the second 
bar they repeat the same with the other 
foot — ^this is repeated for sixteen bars — 
they then waltz sixteen bars, glissade 
and two hops, taking care to occupy the 
time of two bars, to get quite round. 
The gentleman now takes both hands 



of the lady, and nnkee tfaegnuid aqmure 
— ^moving three bars to hi* left — at the 
fovtfth bar makxi^ two beats, while 
turning the angle — his rig^t foot is now 
moved forward to the other angle three 
bars, at the fouFth beat again while 
turning the angle — the same repeated 
for sixteen bus — ^the lady having her 
right foot forward, when the gentleman 
has his lefb foot forward^— the walta is 
again'repeated ; after whioh several other 
steps are introduced, bat which must 
needs be seen to be undx^rstood. 

1703. CiRCULAB Wams. — ^The dan- 
cers form a eircle, then promenade 
during the introduetion — ^all waits six- 
teen bars — ^set, holding partner^s right 
hand, and turn — ^waltz thirty-two bars 
— ^rest and turn partners slowly — ^fiioe 
partner and chasses to the right and left 
— pirouette lady twice with the right 
hand, all waltz sixteen bars — set and 
turn — ^all form a circle, still retaining 
the lady by the right hand, and move 
round to the left, sixteen bars — waltz 
for finale. 

1704. Polka Waltzbs. — The coupler 
take hold of hands as in the usual waits. 
First Waltz. — The gentleman hops the 
lefb foot well forwsurd, then back ; and 
glissades half round. He then hops 
the right foot forward and back, • and 
glissades the other half round. The 
lady performs the same steps, beginning 
witii the right foot. Second. The gen- 
tleman, hopping, strikes the left heel 
three times against the right heel, and 
then jumps half round on the left foot : 
he then strikes the right heel three 
times against the left, and jumps on the 
right foot, completing the circle. The 
lidy does the same steps with reverse 
feet. Third. The gentleman raises up 
the left foot, steps it lightly on the 
ground forward, then strikes the right 
heel smartly twice, and glissades half 
round. The same is Uken done with 
the other foot. The lady begins with 
the right foot 

1705. Valsk a Deux Tekfs. — Thin 
Waltz contain R, like the common waltE, 
three times, but differently divided, 
The first time consists of a gUdmgstep : 



tET ALL THI2RIB HATS TRBIB PLACES. 



183 



tJie aecozid a ohassezi inoluding two 
times in one. A chaaaen is performed 
by bringing one leg near the o<>her, then 
moYiisg it forward, bachward, right, left, 
and round. The gentleman b^^ins by 
sliding to the lefb with his 1^ foot, 
then performing a chaasez towards the 
left with his right foot without turning 
at all during the first two times. He 
then slides backwards ¥dth his right 
leg, turning half round ; after which he 
puts his left leg behind, to perform a 
chassez forward, turning then half 
round for the second time. The lady 
waltzes in the same manner, except that 
the first time she slides to the right with 
the right foot, and also performs the 
chassez on the right, and continues the 
same as the gentleman, except that she 
slides backwards with her right foot, 
when the gentleman slides with his left 
foot to the left ; and when the gentleman 
sMes with his right foot backwards, she 
slides with the left foot to the left To 
perform this waltz gracefully, care must 
be taken to avoid jumping, but merely 
to slide, and keep the knees slightly 
bent. 

1706. Circassian Circle. — The com- 
pany is arranged in ^couples round the 
room — the ladies being i placed on the 
right of the gentlemen after which, the 
first and second couples lead off the 
dance. Figure, Right and left set and 
turn partners — ladies chain, waltz. — ^At 
the conclusion, the first couple with 
fourth, and the second with the third 
couple, re-commence the figure — ^and so 
on until they go completely round the 
circle, when the dance is concluded. 

1707. Polka. — In the polka there are 
but two principal steps, all others be- 
long to fancy dances ; and much mis- 
chief and inconvenience is likely to 
arise from their improper introduction 
into the ball-room. — First step : the 
gentleman raises the left foot slightly 
behind the right, the right foot is then 
jumped upon, and the left brought 
fervnad with a glissade. The lady 
commences wi<^ the right, jumps on 
the left> and glissades with the right 
The gentleman during his step has 



hold of the lady's left hand wilii his* 
right. Second st^: The gentlenmv 
lightly hops the left foot fon^ffd oa 
the heel, then hops on the toe, bringing' 
the left foot slightiy behind the right. 
He then glissades wiUi the left foot 
forward ; the same is then done;, com- 
mencing with the right foot The lady 
dances the same step, only beginning^ 
with the right foot There are a variety 
of other steps of a fancy character, but 
they can only be understood with the 
aid of a master, and, even when well 
studied, must be introduced with care.. 
The polka should be danced with 
grace and elegance, eschewing all outr^* 
and imgainly steps and gestures, taking 
care that the leg is not lifted too high,, 
and that the dance is not commenced 
in too abrupt a manner. Any number 
of couples may stand up, and it is the 
privilege of the gentleman to form what 
figure he pleases, and vary it as often 
as his fancy and taste may dictate. 
First figure : four or eight bars are de- 
voted to setting forwards and back- 
wards, turning from and towards your 
partner, making a slight hop at the 
commencement of each set, and holding 
your partner's left hand, you then per- 
form the same step (forwards) all round 
the room. Second figure : the gentle- 
man faces his partner, and does the 
same step backwards all round the 
room, the lady following with the oppo- 
site foot, and doing the step forwards. 
Third figure: The same as the second 
figure, only reversed, the lady stepping 
backwards, and the gentleman forwards, 
always going the same way round the 
room. Fouaih fi/gwre : the same step 
as figures two and three, but turning 
as in a waltz. 

1708. The Gk)BLiTZA is similar to the 
polka, the figures being waltzed through. 

1709. The Schothbhe. — The gentle- 
man holds the lady precisely as in the 
polka. Beginning with the right foot, 
he slides it forward, then brings up 
the right foot to the place of the left-— 
slides the left foot forward — and springs, 
or hops on this foot. This movement. 
is repeated to the right He begins^ 



184 



HASTE MAKES WASTE. 



with the right foot, slides it forward, 
brings up the left foot to the place of 
the right foot — slides the right foot 
forward again, and hops upon it. The 
gentleman spiings twice on the left 
ibot, turning half round ; twice on the 
right foot; twice encore on the left 
foot, turning half round ; and again 
twice on the right foot, turning half 
round. Beginning again, he proceeds 
as before. The lady begins with the 
right foot, and her step is the same in 
principle as the gentleman's. Vary, by 
a reverse turn ; or by going in a straight 
line round the room. Double, if you 
like^ each part, by giving four bars to 
the first part, and four bars to the 
second part. The time may be stated 
as precisely the same as in the Polka ; 
but let it not be foi'gotten that La 
Shottishe ought to be danced rrnich 
dower. 

1710. Country Dances. — Sir Roger 
de Coverley. — FiiTst lady and bottom 
gentleman advance to centre, salute, 
and retire ; first gentleman and bottom 
lady, same. F^rst lady and bottom 
gentleman advance to centre, turn, and 
retire ; first gentleman and bottom 
lady the same. Ladies promenade, 
turning off to the right down the room, 
and back to places, while gentlemen 
do the same, turning to the left ; top 
couple remain at bottom ; repeat to the 
end of dance. 

1711. La Polka Country Dances. — 
All form two lines, ladies on the right, 
gentlemen on the left. Figure: Top 
lady and second gentleman heel nnd 
toe (Polka step) across to each other's 
place — second lady and top gentleman 
repeat b:\ck to places — second lady and 
top gentleman the same. Two couples 
Polka step down the middle and back 
again — two first couple, Polka Waltz. 
First couple repeat with the third 
couple, then with fourth, and so on to 
end of dance. 

1712. The Highland Reel. — This 
dance has now become a great favourite ; 
it \% performed by the company arranged 
^n parties of three along the room in 
the following mMinor ; a lady between 



two gentlemen in double rows — all ad- 
vance and retire — each lady then per- 
forms the reel with the gentleman on 
her right hand, and the opposite gentle- 
man to places — ^hands three round and 
back again — ^all six advance and retire 
— then lead through to the next trio 
and continue the figure to the end of 
the room. Adopt the Highland step, 
and music of three part tune. 

1713. Terms used to describe the 
Movements op Dances. 

Balancez: Set to partners. 

Chaine Amglaise: The top and bot- 
tom couples right and left. 

Chaine Anglaise double: The right 
and left double. 

Chaine des dames : The ladies chain. 

Chaine des dames double : The ladies' 
chain double, which is performed by 
all the ladies commencing at the same 
time. 

Chassez : Move to the right and left. 

Chassez croisez: Gentlemen changt 
places with partners, and back again. 

Demie Chaine Anglaise : The four op- 
posite persons half right and left. 

Demie Promenade: All eight half 
promenade. 

Dos-ordos : The two opposite persons 
pass round each other. 

Demi Movlinet : The ladies all ad- 
vance to the centre, giving hands, and 
return to places. 

La grand chaine : All eight chassez 
quite round, giving alternately right and 
left hands to partners, beginning with 
the right. 

Le grand rond : All join hands and 
advance and retire twice. 

Pa* d Allemande : The gentlemen 
turn the partners under their arms. 

Traversez : The two opposite persons 
change places. 

Vis-ams: The opposite partner. 



1714. TERMS USED TO EXPRESS 
THE PROPERTIES OF MEDICINES. 
1716. Absorbents are medicines 
which destroy acidities in the stomach 
and bowels, such as magnesia, prepared 
ohalk^ &c. 



FIBSI BE JUSI; THEN TOU MAT BK OBNEBOUS. 



185 



1716. Altsratiybs are medicines 
which restore health to the oonstitutioD, 
without producing any sensible effect^ 
such as sarsapariila^ sulphur, &a 

1717. AKALEFncs 9re medicines that 
restore the strength which has been 
lost by sickness, such as gentian, bark. 
Sec. 

1718. Anodtnes are medicines which 
relieve pain, and they are divided into 
three kinds, |)arejori(», hypnotics, and 
narcotics (see these tenns) ; camphor is 
anodyne as well as narcotic 

1719. Antacids are medicines which 
destroy acidity, such as lime, magnesia^ 
soda, he. 

1720. Antalkalies are medicines 
given to neutralize alkalies in the sys- 
tem, such as citric, nitric, or sul^^uric 
acids, &C. 

1721. AsTTHSLiiiNTics are medicines 
used to expel and destroy worms from 
the stomach and intestines, such as 
turpentine, cowhage, male fern, &c. 

1722. Antibilious are medicines 
which are useful in biUous affections, 
such as calomel, &c. 

1728. Antirheumatics are medi- 
cines used for the cure of rheumatism, 
such as colchicum, iodide of potash, &a 

1724. Antiscobbutics are medicines 
against scurvy, such as citric add, &c. 

1725. Antiseptics are substances 
used to correct putre&ction, such as 
bark, camphor, &c. 

1726. Antispasmodics are medicines 
whi<^ possess the power of overcoming 
spasms of the muscles, or allaying se- 
vere pain from any cause unconnected 
with inflammation, such as valerian, 
ammonia, &c. 

1727. Aperients are medicines 
which move the bowels gently, such as 
dandelion-root, &c. 

1728. Aromatics are cordial, spic^, 
and agreeably -flavoured medicines, such 
as cardamoms, cinnamon, &c. 

1729. Astringents are medicines 
which contract the fibres of the body, 
diminish excessive discharges, and act 
indirectly as tonics, such as oak-bark, 
galls, &c. 

1730. Attenuants are medicines 



which are suj^tosed to thin the blood, 
such as ammoniated iron, &a 

1731. Balsamics are medicines of a 
soothing kind, such as Tolu, Peruvian 
balsam, &c. 

1732. Carminatives are medicines 
which allay pain in the stomach and 
bowels, and expel flatulence, such as 
aniseed-water, &c. 

1733. Cathartics are strong purga- 
tive medicines, such as jalap, &c. 

1734. Cordials are exhilarating and 
warming medicines, such as aromatic 
confection, &fi. 

1735. Corroborants are medicines 
and food which increase the strength, 
such as iron, gentian, sago, &c. 

1736. Demulcents con*ect acrimony, 
diminish irritation, and soften parts 
by covering their surfaces with a mild 
and viscid matter, such as linseed- 
tea, &c. 

1737. Deobstruents are medicines 
which remove obstructions, such as 
iodide of potash, &c. 

1738. Detergents clean the surfaces 
over which they pass, such as soap, &o. 

1739. Diaphoretics produce per- 
spiration, such as tai*trate of antimony, 
&c. 

1740. Digestives are remedies applied 
to ulcers or wounds, to promote the 
formation of matter, such as resin oint- 
ments, warm poultices, &c. 

1741. DiscuTiENTS possess the power 
of repelling or ^resolving tumom's, such 
as galbanum, &c. 

1742. Diuretics act upon the kidneys 
and bladder, and increase the flow of 
urine, such as nitre, squUls, &c. 

1743. Drastics are violent purgatives, 
such as gamboge, &c. 

1744. Emetics produce vomiting, 
or the discharge of the contents of the 
stomach, such as mustard, tartai* 
emetic, warm water, &c. 

1745. Emollients sire remedies used 
externally to soften the parts they are 
applied to, such as spermEUjeti, palm 
oil, &c. 

1746. Epispastics are medicines 
which blister or cause effusion of serum 



186 



LITKiE ZSBDS ABE UKB LIT1M>H 6ffin)S — 



under the cuticle, euch as Spanifidi flies, 
&c. 

1747. Erbhimes are medicines which 
produce sneezing, such as tobacco, &c. 

1748. E90HAROTICS are medicines 
which corrode or destroy the vitality of 
the part to which they are applied, 
such as lunar caustic, &c. 

1749. Expectorants are medicines 
which increase expectoration, or the 
discharge from the bronchial tubes, 
such as ipecacuanha, &c. 

1750. Febrifuqes are remedies used 
in fevers, such as antimonial wines, &c. 

1751. Hydraoogueb are medicines 
which have the effect of removing the 
fluid of dropsy, by producing water 
evacuations, such as gamboge, calomel, 
&c. 

1752. Hypnotics are medicines that 
relieve pain by procuring sleep, such as 
hops, *&c. 

1753. Laxatives are medicines 
which cause the bowels to act rather 
more than natural, such as manna, &o. 

1754. Narcotics are medicines which 
cause sleep or stupor, and allay pain, 
«uch as opium, &c. 

1755. Nutrients are remedies that 
nourish the body, such as sugar, sago, 
<&c. 

1756. Paregorics are medicines 
-which actually assuage pain, such as 
compound tincture of camphor, &c. 

1757. Prophylactics are remedies 
employed to prevent the attack of any 
particular disease, such as quinine, &c. 

1758. Pubgatiyes are medicines that 
promote the evacuation of the bowels, 
such as senna, &c. 

1759. Bejfrigebants ore medicines 
which suppress an unusual heat of the 
body, such as wood-sorrel, tamarind, &c. 

1760. KuBEFAOiENTS are medicaments 
which cause redness of the skin, such as 
mustard, &c. 

1761 Sedatives are medicines 
which depress the nervous energy, and 
destroy sensation, so as to compose, 
43uch as foxglove, &c. 

1762. Sialogogues are medicines 
whioh promote the flow of saliva or 
flpittle, such as salt, calomti, Ac 



1768. Soporifics are medicines 
which induce sleep, such as hops, ftc. 

1764. Stimulants are remedies 
which increase the action of the heart 
and arteries, or the energy of the part 
to whidL they are applied, such as sas- 
safras, which is an internal stimulant, 
and savine, which is an external one. 

1765. Stomachics restore the tone of 
the stomcM^i, such as gentian, &c. 

1765*. Styptics are medicines which 
constrict the surface of a part, and pre- 
vent the efi^iou of blood, such as kino, 
&c. 

1766. Sui>orifios promote profuse 
perspiration or sweating, such as ipeca- 
cuanha, &c. 

1767. Tonics give general strength 
to the constitution, restore ihe natural 
energies, and improve the tone of the 
system, such as chamomile, &c. 

1768. Ybsicants are medicines 
whidi blister, 6u<:h as strong liquid 
ammonia, &c. 



1769. HINTS UPON PERSONAL 
MANNERS. — It is sometimes ob- 
jected to books upon etiquette that 
they cause those who consult them to 
act with mechanical restraint, and to 
show in society that they are governed 
by arbitrary rules, rather than by an 
intuitive perception of what is graceful 
and polite. 

1770. This objection is unsound, 
because it supposes that people who 
study the theory of etiquette do not 
also exercise their powers of observation 
in society, and obtain, by their inter- 
course with others, that freedom and 
ease of deportment, which society alone 
can impart. 

1771. Books upon etiquette are 
useful, inasmuch as that they expound 
the laws of poUte society. Experience 
alone, however, can give effect to the 
precise manner in which those laws are 
required to be observed. 

1772. Whatever objections may be 
raised to the teachings of works upon 
etiquette, there can be no sound aigu- 
ment against a series of simple and bnef 
hints, whioh shall operate as preeau- 



TSIT ABOW TO VUOmBaS, OB VO WIBD6. 



187 



tions agKuist anistokM in pereomal con- 
dael. 

1773. Avoid iatermeddling with the 
«fi«ini of otfaMTS. This is a most com- 
joaa. faxdt. A number of people 
•fleldom meet but they begin disiniasing 
the affion of some one who is absent. 
This is not only unoharitable but posi- 
tively uigust. It is equivalent to 
trying a cause in the tdfsence of tke 
perton implicaUd, "Even in the ori- 
minal code a prisoner is presumed to 
be innooent until he is found guilty. 
Society, however, is less just, and 
passes judgment without hearing the 
defence. Depend upon it, as a certain 
rule, that ihc people who wUte with you 
in dieeuinng the ajjfain of othere will 
proeeed to ecandalise you the moment 
that you depwrt, 

1774. Be consistent in the avowal of 
principles. Do not deny to-day that 
which you asserted yesterday. If you 
do, you will stultify yourself, and your 
opinions will soon be found to have no 
weight. You may fancy that you gain 
favour by subserviency ; but so far from 
gaining favour, you lose respect. 

1775. Avoid falsehood. There can be 
found no higher virtue than the love of 
truth. The man who deceives others 
must himself become the victim of 
morbid distrust. Knowing the deceit 
of his own heart, and the falsehood of 
his own tongue, his eyes must be 
always filled with suspicion, and he 
must lose the greatest of all happiness 
^-confidence in those who surround 
him. 

1776. The following elements of 
manly character are worthy of frequent 
meditation : — 

1. To be wise in his disputes. 

2. To be a lamb in his home. 

3. To be brave in battle and great in 
moral courage. 

4. To be dUiaereet in publie. 

5. To be a herd in his ehair. 

6. To be a teacher in his household. 

7. To be a oouncil in his nation. 

8. To be an arlHtrator in his vicinity. 

9. To be a hetnit in his church. 

10. To be a legislator in his oounliy. 



11. To be oopsoientioas in his ac- 
tions. 

12. To be happy in his Ufe. 

13. To be diligent in his calliug. 

14. To be just in his deSAing. 

15. That whatever he doeth be to the 
willofQod. 

1777. Avoid manifestations of ill- 
temper. Reason is given for man's 
guidance. Fapsion is the tempest by 
which reason is overthrown. Under the 
effects of passion man's mind becomes 
disordered his face disfigured, his body 
deformed. A moment's passion has 
frequently cut off a Ufe's friendship, 
destroyed a life's hope, embittered a 
life's peace, and brought unending sor- 
row and disgrace. It is scarcely worth 
while to enter into a comparative 
analysis of Hi-temper and passion : they 
are alike discreditable, alike injurious, 
and should stand equeJly condemned. 

1778. Avoid pride. If you are hand- 
some, God made you so; if you are 
learned, some one instructed you; if 
you are rich, God gave you what you 
own. It is for others to perceive your 
goodness; but you should be blind to 
your own merits. There can be no 
comfort in deeming yourself better than 
you really are : that is self-deception. 
The greatest m^i throughout all his- 
tory have been the most humble. 

1779. Affectation is a form of pride. 
It is, in fact, pride made ridiculous and 
contemptible. Some one writing upon 
afifectation has remaiked as follows :-^<- 

** If anything will sioken and disgust a man, 
it is the affected mincing way in wfaioh some 
paoplechooMtitiUk. It is peorfieeUy nauseous. 
If these young JaiduiMapes who sorew their 
words into aU manner of diaholioal shapes 
could only feel how perfectly disgusting they 
were, it might induce them to drop it With 
many, it soon becomes such a confirmed habit, 
that they cannot again be taught to talk in a 
plain, straightforward, manly way. In the 
lower order of ladies' boarding-schools, and 
indeed, too much everywhere, the same sicken- 
ing, mincing tone is too often found. Do, 
piay, good people, do talk in your natural 
tone, if you dont wiah to be uttariy ridieatons 
end coDtonyUble." 



188 



THE LOYBLIigST BIRD HAS NO BONa; 



1780. We have adopted the foregoing 
paragraph because we approve of some 
of its sentiments, but chiefly because it 
shows that persons who object to 
affectation Ihay go to the other extreme 
— vulgarity. It is vulgar, we think, to 
call even the most affected people 
"jackanapes, who screw their words 
into all manner of diabolical shapes." 
Avoid vulgarity in manner, in speech, 
and in correspondence. To conduct 
yourself vulgarly is to offer offence to 
those who are around you; to bring 
upon yourself the condemnation of per- 
sons of good taste ; and to incur the 
penalty of exclusion from good society. 
Thus, cast among the vulgar, you- be- 
come the victim of your own error. 

1781. Avoid swearing. Oaths are but 
the wrath of a perturbed spirit. 

1782. It is mean. A man of high 
moral standing would rather treat an 
offence with contempt, than show his 
indignation by an oath. 

1783. It is vulgar : altogether too 
low for a decent man. 

1784. It is cowardly : implying a fear 
either of not being believed or obeyed. 

1785. It is ung&ndemanly. A gentle- 
man, according to Webster, is a genteel- 
man — ^well-bred, refined. 

1786. It is indecent: offensive to 
delicacy, and extremely unfit for human 
ears. 

1787. It is foolish. "Want of de- 
cency is want of sense." 

1788. It is ahusive — to the mind 
which conceives the oath, to the tongue 
which utters it, and to the person at 
whom it is aimed. 

1789. It is verwmovMt showing a man's 
heart to be a nest of vipers ; and every 
time he swears, one of them sticks out 
from his head. 

1790. It is contemptible — ^forfeiting 
the respect of all the wise and good. 

1791. It is wicked: violating the 
Divine law, and provoking the dis- 
pleasure of liim who will not hold him 
guiltless who takes His name in vain. 

1792. Be a gentleman. — Moderation, 
decorum, and neatness, distinguish the 
gentleman ,* he is at all times affable. 



diffident, and stiidioiis to please. In- 
telligent and polite, his behaviour is 
pleasant and graceful. When he enters 
the dwelling of an inferior, he endeav* 
ours to hide, if possible, the difference 
between their ranks in l^e ; ever willing 
to assist those around him, he is neither 
unkind, haughty, nor overbearing. In 
the mansions of the rich, the correct- 
ness of his mind induces him to bend 
to etiquette, but hot to stoop to adula- 
tion ; correct principle cautions him to 
avoid the gaming-table, inebriety, or 
any other foible that could occasion 
him self-reproach. Pleased with the 
pleasures of reflection, he rejoices to 
see the gaieties of society, and is &8ti- 
dious upon no point of little import- 
Appear only to be a gentleman, and its 
shadow will bring upon you contempt: 
be a gentleman, and its honours wiil 
remain even after you are dead. 

1793. THE TEUE GENTLEMAN. 

"lis he whose every thought aad deed 

By rule of virtue moves ; 
Whose generous tongue disdains to speak 

The thing his heart disproves. 

Who never did a slander forge, 
His neighbour's fame to wound ; 

Nor hearken to a false report, 
By malice whispered round. 

Who vice, in all its pomp and power» 

Can treat with just neglect ; 
And piety, though clothed in rags. 

Religiously respect. 

Who to his plighted words and trust 

Has ever firmly stood ; 
And, though he promised to his loss. 

He makes his promise good. 

Whose soul in usury disdains 

His ti'easure to employ ; 
Whom no reward can ever bribe 

The guiltless to destroy. 

1794. Be Honest. Not only heoam 
" honesty is the best policy," but be- 
cause it is a duty to Cfod and to mtf»- 
The heart that can be gratified by dtf- 
honest gains ; the ambition that can be 
satisfied by dishonest means ; the mind 
that can be devoted to dishonest par- 
poses, must be of the worst order. (^ 
281.) 



so THX I.OTZIJEST WOMAN MAT LACK TIBTUS. 



1S9 



1795. Having laid down these general 
principles for ihe goTemment of per- 
sonal conduct, we will epitomise what 
we wonld still enforce : — 

1796. Avoid Idleness — it is the parent 
of many evils. Can you pray, " Give 
us this day our daily bread/' and not 
hear the reply, " Do thou this day thy 
dMly duty f 

1797. Avoid telling idle tales, which 
is like firing arrows in the dark : you 
know not into whose heart they may 
faU. 

1798. Avoid talking about yourself; 
praising your own works ; and pro- 
claiming your own deeds. If they are 
good, they wUl proclaim themselves ; if 
bad, the less you say of them the better. 

1799. Avoid Envy, for it cannot bene- 
fit you, nor can it injure those against 
whom it is cherished. 

1800. Avoid Disputation, for the mere 
sake of argument. The man who dis- 
putes obstinately and in a bigoted spirit, 
is like the man who would stop the 
fountain from which he should drink. 
Elamest discussion is commendable; 
but fiictious aigiiment never yet pro- 
duced a good result. 

1801. Be kind in little things. The 
true generosity of the heart is more dis- 
play^ by deeds of minor kindness, than 
by acts which may partake of ostenta- 
tion. 

1802. Be polite. Politeness is the 
poetry of conduct — and like poetry it 
has many qualities. Let not your po- 
liteness be too florid, but of that gentle 
kind which indicates a nature all-refined. 

1803. Be sociable — avoid reserve in 
society. Remember that the soda! 
elements, like the air we breathe, are 
purified by motion. Thought illu- 
mines thought^ and smiles win smiles. 

1804. Be pimctual. One minute too 
late has lost many a golden opportunity. 
Besides which, the want of punctuality 
is an affront offered to tiie person to 
whom your presence is due. 

1805. The foregoing remarks may be 
said to apply to the moral conduct, 
rather than to the details of personal 
mannen. €hreat principles, however, 



suggest minor ones; and hence from 
the principles laid down many hints 
upon personal behaviour may be ga- 
thered. 

1806. Be hearty in your salutations. 

1807. Discreet and sincere in your 
friendships. 

1808. Like to listen rather than to talk. 

1809. Behave, even in the presence 
of your relations, as thou^ you felt 
respect to be due to them. 

1810. In society never forget Hiat 
you are but one of many. 

1811. When you visit a friend, 
conform to the rules of his home. 

1812. Lean not upon his tables, nor 
rub your feet against his chairs. 

1813. Pry not into letters that are 
not your own. 

1814. Pay unmistakeable respect to 
ladies everywhere. 

1815. Beware of foppery, and of silly 
flirtation. 

1816. In public places be not too 
pertinacious of your own rights. 

1817. Find pleasure in making con- 
cessions. 

1818. Speak distinctly. 

1819. Look at the person to whom 
you speak. 

1820. When you have spoken, give 
him an opportunity to reply. 

1821. Avoid drunkenness as you 
would a curse; and modify all appe- 
tites, especially those that are acquired. 

1822. Dress well, but not superflu- 
ously. 

1823. Be neither like a sloven, nor 
like a stuffed model. 

1 824. Keep away all tmcleanly appear- 
ances from the person. Let the naUs, 
the teeth, and, in fact> the whole system 
receive scdtttary rather than atudied 
care. Be clean upon principle, and not 
merely for appearance. 

1825. Avoid displaying excess of 
jewellery. Nothing looks more effemi- 
nate upon a man. 

1826. Every one of these suggestions 
may be regarded as the centre of many 
others, which the earnest mind cannot 
fail to discover. {8e$ Bnquiries upon 
Etiquette.) 



190 



AN HOTJB IK THB UOfRHUIQ U HmTH 9WO MX KIGHT. 



1827. HABITS OF A MAN OF 
BUSINESS.— A SAcred regftrd to the 
principles of justice forms the basis of 
every transaction, and regulates the 
conduct of the upright man of business. 

He is strict in keeping his engage- 
ments. 

Does nothing carelessly or in a hurry. 

Employs nobody to do what he can 
easily do himself. 

Keeps everything in its proper place. 

Leaves nothing undone that ought to 
be done, and wluch circumstances per- 
mit him to do. 

Keeps his designs and business from 
the view of others. 

Is prompt and decisive with his cus- 
tomers, and does not over-trade his 
capital. 

Prefers short credits to long ones; 
and cash to credit at all times, either in 
buying or selling ; and small profits in 
credit cases with little risk, to the 
chance of better gains with more hazard. 

He is clear and explicit in all his 
bargains. 

Leaves nothing of consequence to 
memory which he can and ought to 
commit to writing. 

Keeps copies of all his important 
letters which he sends away, and has 
every letter, invoice, &c., belonging to 
his business, titled, classed, and put 
away. 

Never suffers his desk to be confused 
by many papers lying upon it. 

Is always at the head of his business, 
well knowing that if he leaves it, it will 
leave him. 

Holds it as a maxim that he whose 
credit is suspected is not one to be 
trusted. 

Is constantly examining his books, 
and sees through all his affairs as &r 
as care and attention will enable him. 

Balances regularly at stated times, 
and then makes out and transmits all 
his accounts current to his customers, 
both at home and abroad. 

Avoids as much as possible all sorts 
of aooommodation in money matters 
and lawsuits where there is the least 
hazard. 



He is eoonomieal in his expenditure' 
always living wii^iin his income. 

Keeps a memorandum*book in his 
pocket, in which he notes every partt' 
cular relative to appointments, ad- 
dresses, and petty cash matters. 

Is cautious how he becomes security 
for any person ; and is generous when 
urged by motives of humanity. 

Let a man act strictly to these habits ; 
when once begun they will be easy to 
continue in — ever remembering that he 
hath no profits by his pains whom 
Providence doth not prosper — ^and suc- 
cess will attend his efforts. 

Take pleasure in your business, and 
it will become your recreation. 

Hope for the best, think for the 
worst, and bear whatever happens. 



1828. MILK LEMONADE.— Dis- 
solve three quarters of a pound of loaf 
sugar in one pint of boiling water, and 
mix with them one gill of lemon juice, 
and one gill of sherry, then add three 
gills of cold milk. Stir the whole well 
together, and strain it. 

1829. Ground GLAa8.--The frosted 
appearance . of ground glass may be 
very nearly imitated by gently dabbing 
the glass over with a piece of glazier's 
putty, stuck on the ends of the fingerSt 
When applied with a light and even 
touch, the resemblance is considerable. 

1830. Vbqetable Soup. — ^Peel and 
cut up very fine three onions, three 
turnips, one carrot, and four potatoes, 
put them into a stewpeii with a quarter 
of a pound of butter, the same of lean 
ham, and a bunch of parsley, pass them 
ten minutes over a sharp fire ; tiien 
add a good spoonful of flour, mix well 
in, moisten with two quarts of broth 
and a pint of boiling milk, boil up, 
keeping it stirred, season with a little 
salt and sugar, and rub through a hair' 
sieve, put it into another stewpan, boil 
again, skim, and serve with fried bread 
in it. 

1881. To PiCKLB GH1EBJCIK&-— Pufc 

about two hundred and fifty in a pidde 
of two pounds, and let them remaiB in 
it three houri. Pat th«m in a neve to 



MORNIKQ FO» WORK, BTSKINQ FOB CONTBHPLATION. 



191 



dnun, wipe them, ood place them in a 
jar. For a pickle, best vinegar one 
gallon ; common sait, six ounces ; all- 
spice, one ounce ; mustard seed, one 
ounce ; cloves, half an ounce ; mace, 
half an ounce ; one nutmeg sliced ; 
stick of horseradish sliced; boil fifteen 
minutes, skim it well. When cold pour 
it over them, and let stand twenty-four 
hours, covered up ; put them into a 
pan over the fire, and let them simmer 
only until they attain a green colour. 
Tie the jars down closely with bladder 
and leather. 

1832. To KILL Cockroaches. — A 
teacupful of well-bruised Plaster of 
Paris, mixed with double the quantity 
of oatmeal, to which add a little sugar 
(the latter is not essential). Strew it on 
the floor or in the chinks where they 
frequent. 

1833. Cutaneous Eruptions. — The 
following mixture is very useful in all 
cutaneous einiptious ; — Ipecacuanha 
wine, four drachms ; flowers of sulphur, 
two drachms; tincture of cardamom, 
one ounce. Mix. One teaspoonful to 
be taken three times a day, in a wine- 
glassful of water. 

1834. When to change the Water 
IN WHICH Leeches are kept. — Once 
a month in winter, and once a week in 
summer, is sufficiently often, unless the 
water becomes discoloured or bloody, 
when it should be changed every day. 
Esther clean pond water, or clean rain- 
water should be employed. 

1835. Peas Pudding. — Diy a pint or 
quart of split peas thoroughly before 
the fire ; then tie them up loosely in a 
cloth, put them into warm water, boil 
them a couple of hours, or more, until 
quite tender ; take them up, beat them 
well in a dish with a little salt, (some 
add the yolk of an egg,) and a bit of 
butter. Make it quite smooth, tie it up 
again in a cloth, and boil it an hour 
longer. This is highly nourishing. 

1836. To arrest Bleeding at the 
Nose. — Introduce by means of a probe, 
a small piece of lint or soft cotton, pre- 
viously dipped into some mild styptic, 
as a solution of alum, white vitriol, 



creosote, or even cold water. This will 
generally succeed ; but should it not, 
cold water may be snuffed up the 
nostrils. Should the bleeding be very 
profuse, medical advice should be pro- 
cured. 

1837. To Clear Vegetables of 
Insects. — Make a strong brine of one 
pound and a half of salt to one gallon 
of water, into this place the vegetables 
with the stalk ends uppermost, for two- 
or three hours; this will destroy all 
the insects which cluster in the leaves, 
and they will fall out and sink to the- 
bottom of the water. 

1838. Disinfecting Fumigation. — 
Common salt, three ounces; black 
manganese, oil of vitriol, of each one- 
ounce ; water, two ounces. Carried in 
a cup through the apartments of the 
sick, or the apai*tments intended to be 
fumigated, where sickness has been, 
may be shut up for an hour or two, and 
then opened. 

1839. Depilatory Ointment — for 
removing superfluous Hair.— Finely 
powdered quick lime, one ounce ; finely 
powdered orpiment, one dram ; white 
of egg to mix. 

1840. To PREVENT Mice taking 
Peas. — Previous to the peas being 
sown, they should be well saturated 
with a solution of bitter aloes ; or, they 
may be saturated with salad oil, and 
then rolled in some powdered resin 
previous to sowing, and the mice will 
not touch them. 

1841. To Polish Enamelled Lea- 
ther. — Two pints of the best cream, one- 
pint of linseed oil ; make them each 
lukewarm, and then mix them well 
together. Having previously cleaned the 
shoe, &c., from dirt, rub it over with a 
sponge dipped in the mixture : then rub- 
it with a soft dry cloth until a brilliant 
polish is produced. 

1842. Devonshire Juncket. — Put 
warm milk into a bowl, turn it with a 
little rennet, then add some scalded 
cream, sugar, and cinnamon on the top^ 
without breaking the curd. 

1843. To clean Brass Ornaments. 
— Wash the brass work with roche alum 



192 



HAKB HAY WHILB TRK 8VN SHINES. 



boiled to a atrong ley, in the proportion 
of an ounce to a pint. When dry, it 
must be rubbed with a fine tripoli. 

1844. To Renovate Silks.— Sponge 
faded silks with warm water and soap, 
then rub them with a dry cloth on a flat 
board ; afterwards iron them on the i/n- 
side with a smoothing iron. Old black 
silks may be improved by sponging with 
spirits ; in this case, the ironing may be 
done on the right side, thin paper being 
spread over to prevent glazing. 

1845. To TAKE OUT StaiKs peom 
Mahogany Furniture. — Stains and 
spots may be taken out of mahogany 
furniture by the use of a little aqua- 
fortis or oxalic acid and water, by rub- 
bing the part with the liquid, by means 
of a cork, till the colour is restored ; 
observing afterwards to well wash the 
wood with water, and to dry and polish 
as usual. 

1846. Boiled Turnip Radishes. — 
Boil in plenty of salted water, and in 
about twenty-five minutes they will be 
tender ; drain well, and send them to 
table with melted butter. Common 
radishes, when young, tied in bunches, 
boiled for twenty minutes, and served 
on a toast, are excellent. 

1847. To remove Stains prom 
Mourning Dresses. — Boil a handful of 
fig leaves in two quarts of water until 
reduced to a pint. Bombazines, crape, 
cloth, &c., need only be rubbed with a 
sponge dipped in this liquor, and the 
effect will be instantly produced. 

1848. Iceland Moss Chocolate — 
FOR THE SICK ROOM. — Iceland moss has 
been in the highest repute on the conti- 
nent as a most efficacious remedy in in- 
cipient pulmonary complaints; com- 
bined with chocolate^ it will be found a 
nutritious article of diet, and may be 
taken as a morning and evening bever- 
age.; — Directions: — Mix a teaspoonful 
of the chocolate with a teaspoonful of 
boiling water or milk, stirring it con- 
stantly until it is completely dissolved. 



1849. A HINT ON HOUSEHOLD 
MANAGEMENT.— Have you ever ob- 



served what a dislike servants have to 
anything cheap. They hate saving their 
master's money. I tried this experi- 
ment with great success the other day. 
Finding we consumed a vast deal of 
soap, I sat down in my thinking chair, 
and took the soap question into consi- 
deration, and I found reason to suspect 
we were using a very expensive article, 
where a much cheaper one would serve 
the purpose better. I oi'dered half a 
dozen pounds of both sorts, but took 
the precaution of changing the papers 
on which the prices were marked before 
giving them into the hands of^ Betty. 
" Well, Betty, which soap do you find 
washes best?" "Oh, please sir, the 
dearest, in the blue paper ; it makes a 
lather as well again as the other." 
" Well, Betty, you shall always have it 
then ;" and thus the unsuspecting Betty 
saved me some pounds a year, and 
washed the clothes better. — IUbv. Sidney 
Sfnith. 

1860. TO THOSE WHO WRITE 
FOR THE PRESS.— It would be a 
great favour to editors and printers, 
should those who write for the press 
observe the following rules. They are 
reasonable, and our correspondent^ will 
regard them as such: — 1. Write with 
black ink, on whit« paper, wide niled. 
2. Make the pages small, one-fourth 
that of a foolscap sheet. S. Leave the 
second page of each leaf blank. Give 
to the written page an ample maii^ aU 
rouTid. 6. Number the pages in the 
order of their succession. 6. Write in 
a plain, bold hand, \iith less respect to 
beauty. 7. Use no abbreviations which 
are not to appear in print. 8. Punc- 
tuate the manuscript as it should be 
printed. 9. For italics underscore one 
line, for small capitals, two ; capitals, 
three. 10. Never interline without the 
caret to show its place. 11. Take spe- 
cial pains with every letter in proper 
names. 12. Review every word, to be 
sure that none is illegible. 13. Pat di- 
rections to the printer, at the head of 
the first page. 14. Never write a pri- 
vate letter to the editor on the printer's 
copy, but always on a separate sheet 



80,000 GALLONS OF MILK ABB CONSUMED IN LONDON WEEKLY. 193 



1851. DIAPHANIE. — This is a 
beautiful, useful, and inexpensive art, 
easily acquired^ and producing imita- 
tions of the richest and rarest stained 
^ass ; and also of making blinds, 
screens, skylights, Chinese lanterns, &c., 
in every variety of colour and design. 
We have been favoured by Messrs. 
White and Dalton, 52, Rathbone-place, 
London, with all the necessary particu- 
lars, and have obtained from those gen- 
tlemen a promise that they will pay 
every attention to the readers of Eti- 
quire Within who may consult them 
upon the subject. 

1852. In decorating his house, an En- 
glishman spends as much money as he 
can conveniently spare ; the elegances 
and refinements of modem taste demand^ 
something more than mere comfort ; 
yet though his walls are hung with pic- 
tures, his drawing-rooms filled with 
bijouterie, how is it that the windows 
of his hall, his library, his staircase are 
neglected ? The reason is obvious. The 
magnificent historical old stained glass 
might be envied, but could not be 
brought within the compass of ordinary 
means Hecent improvements in print- 
ing in colours led the way to this beau- 
tiful invention, by which economy is 
combined with the most perfect results. 
A peculiar kind of paper is rendered 
perfectly transparent, upon which de- 
signs are printed in glass colours (vitro 
de cotUevra), which will not change with 
the light. The paper is applied to the 
glass iwith a clear white varnish, and 
when dry, a preparation is finally applied, 
which increases the transparency, and 
adds tenfold brilliancy to the effect. 

1853. There is another design, printed 
in imitation of the half-light {abat-jour), 
tiiie is used principally for a ground, 
covering the whole sur&ce of the glass, 
within which (the necessary spaces 
having been previously cut out before 
it is stuck on the glass) are placed me- 
dallion centres of Watteau figures, per- 
fectly transparent^ which derive in- 
creased brilliancy from the semi-trans- 
parency of the surrounding ground. 
This is by fi&r the cheapest method , 



though involving extra trouble, as the 
plain grounds printed in sheets (20 ^ in. 

V 16i)> a*6 oiily Is. 6d .each; and 
there is one sheet of suitable ti*ans- 
parent designs, which contains twenty- ' 
four medallion Watteau centres (price 
6s.), twenty of these medallions average 
34 in. by 4in., the remaining four mea- 
sure 7 in. by 5. 

1854. The transparent sheets are all 6s. 
each, they measure 204 in. by 16i, and 
are ready for immediate use. The var- 
nish is Is. 6d." per bottle ; the liqueur 
diaphane. Is. 6d. per bottle ; brushes, 
4d. each; metal palettes, Is. 6d. each; 
ivory sticks from Is. each. These are 
all the articles required.* 

1855. To ascertain the quantity of de- 
signs required measure your glass care- 
fully, and then calculate how.many sheets 
it will take (the sizes of each kind are 
given above). The sheets ai'e arranged 
so that they can be joined together con- 
tinuously, or cut to any size or shape. 

1856. Practical Instructions. — 
Choose a fine day for the operation, as 
the glass should be perfectly diy and 
unafiected by the humidity 01 the 
atmosphere. Of course if you have a 
choice, it is more conveniertt to work 
on your glass before it is fixed in the 
frame. If you are working on a piece 
of unattached glass, lay it on a, flat table 
(a marble slab is preferable), over which 
you must previously lay a piece of 
baize or cloth ^to keep the glass steady. 
The glass being thus fixed, clean and 
polish the side on which you intend to 
operate '{in windows this is the inner 
side), then with your brush lay on it 
very equably a good coat of the pre- 
pared varnish ; let this dry for an hour, 
more or less, according to the dryness 
of the atmosphere and the thickness of 
the coat of varnish ; meantime cut and 
trim your designs carefully to fit the 
glass (if it is one entire transparent 
sheet you will find little trouble) ; then 
lay them on a piece of paper, face 

* Abozof nicely-assorted materials will be 
forwarded to any part of the kingdom by 
Me88rs.W1iiteMid Dalton, for 208., 30s., or 40s. 



id^ 



A ljm>x xn akbaiga iMsD^ A ^mi^ IS 65^555 vixom. 



downwardsi and damp tl^ }mk of ibom 
with a 9ponge, applied aeyeral times, to 
egualise tbe moistur^. In this operar 
tiou, arrange your time^ so that your 
designs may now be finally le£b to dry 
for fifteen minutes before application to 
the glass, the Tarnish on which has now 
become tacky or sticky, and in a proper 
state to receiye them. Apply the 
printed side next to the glass without 
pressure ; eudeaTour to let your sheet 
fall perfectly level and smooth on your 
glass, so that you may avoid leaving 
creases, which would be fatal. Take 
now your palette, lay it flat on the de- 
sign, and press out sJl the air bubbles, 
commencing in the centre, and working 
th^n out from the sides; an ivory sticdL 
will be found useful inremoving creasy ; 
you now leave this to dry, and after 
twenty-four hours apply a suight coat of 
the liqueur diaphane, leaving it another 
day, when, if dry, apply a second coat 
of the same kind, which must be left 
several days : finally, apply a coat of 
varnis^ oyer all. 

1857. If these directions are carefully 
followed, your glass will never be affected 
by time or any variations in the weather ; 
it will defy hail, rain, frost, and duBt^ 
and can be washed the same as ordl- 
naiy stained glass, to which, in some 
respects, it is even superior. 

1858. It is impossible to caiumerate 
the variety of articles to themanu£9U2ture 
of which Diaphanie may be suocessfully 
applied, as it is not confined to glass, 
but can be done on silk, parchm^ent, 
paper, linen, &o., after they have been 
made transparent, which may be accom- 
plished in the following manner : — 

1859. Stretch your paper, orwhalfever 
it may be^ on a frame or drawing board, 
then apply two successive coats (a day 
between each, of diaphanous liquor, and 
after leaving it to dry for several days, 
cover it with a. thin layer of very clear 
size^ and when dry it will be in a fit 
state to receive the ooat of vamish and 
the de.'^igns. 

1860 . Silk, linen, or other stu£&,, should 
be more carefully stretched, and receive a 
thicker coat of. sixe ihm .papor or {>a7ch: 



meaty the latter may be grained on a 
diawing or any other smooth boafd, by 
damping the sheel^, and after pastiag 
the edges, stretchu]^ it down while 
damp ^ilk, linen, and oiiher stufib re- 
q^uire to be carefully stretch^ on a 
knitting or other suitable frame). Take 
great care to allow, whatever you vm, 
time to dry b^ore applying the liqueur 
diaphane. 

1861. All kinds of screeos, lamp shades, 
and glasses, .lanterns, &c. &c., may be 
made in this way, as heat will produce 
no effect upon them. The tQinq[>arent 
pictures are successful, because they 
may be hung on a window fr&me or 
removed at mU, and the window blinds 
are far superior to anything of that 
kind that have yet been seen. 

1862. Instead of steeping the deeogns 
in the transparent liquor at- the time of 
printing,them,which was previously done 
in order to tJwm their tra/i^tpareniey to 
the pur chaser f but which was practically 
objeotionaJide, as the paper in that state 
was brittle^ and devoid of pliapoy, neces- 
sitating also the use of a peculiarly diffi- 
cult vdbiqle to manage. (vamish) in ap- 
plying it to the glass, the.manufacturer 
now. pcepares his paper differently, in 
order-to allow the use of parohment^aiBe 
in stiddng them on the glass. The 
liquevir diaphane, which is finally a^ 
pUed, renders them perfectly trans- 
parent. In this mode of operation, no 
delay is requisite, the designs being 
appUed to Uie glass immediately after 
laying on the size, taking care to preu 
oist all the air JyuMes^ for which pur- 
pose a roller will be found indispensi^. 
The designs should be d^unped before 
the size is applied to them» 

1863. We are of opinion that this vt 
may be applied to the j»oduotieo of msr 
gic lant^n slides^ dissolving vievs, and 
dioramic effects; thpugh. we are not 
aware wlwther suoh esqperinaeata have 
been toed. • 

1864. POTICHOBCANIK.--Thia ele- 
gant aooomplishsMnt, which haf beoone 
so.eKtpemely popuUu^aiui fai^onable, 
promiaes not only to supersede alto- 
gether, ma^y. of tbcise n^KetRciouB 



ooFPSB WAS ratar bbouohv to axoLAiw m 1641. 



195 



aooempliBhmeiits which hare hitherto 
idbflorbed the attention of onr £edr ooun* 
trywomeD, but to rank among the Fine 
Arts. It poBseases many advantagoB — 

1st. The inroceas is simple and easily 
acquired. 

^d. It is an exceedingly pleasing and 
interesting empioyment, requiring no 
previous know)e<^ of drawing, yet 
aSbrdingabundant space for the exereise 
of the most exquisite taste. 

3rd. The time employed is richly re- 
paid ; the results produced are of actual 
value ; articles of ornament and domes- 
tic utility being produced in perfect 
imitation of the most beautiful Chinese 
and Japanese Porcelain, of Sevres and 
Dresden China, and of eveiy form that 
is uBUftl in the {Hroduotions of the Cera- 
naio Art. 

4th. It furmshea an inexhaustible and 
inexpensive source for the production 
of useful and elegant presents, which 
will be carefully preserved as tokens of 
firiendship, and as yioaSa of the taste 
and talent of the giver. 

1865. ARTICLES NECE8SABT IN THE 
▲ST OF POTIOHOMANIB. 

Ist Glass vases {PiOiehea en verre) 
of shapes smtable to the different orders 
of Chinese, Japanese, Etruscan, and 
French Porcelain, Allum^ttes, ^^ ; 
cups, plates, &c., ^^, of Sevres and 
Dnsden design. 

2nd. Sheets of coloured drawings, 
or prints, characteristic representations 
of the designs or decorations suitable 
te every kind of porcelain and china. 

drd. A bottle of liquid gum. 

4th. Three or four hog-hair brushes. 

5th. A bottle of varnish. 

6th. Very fine pointed scissors for 
cutting out. 

7tli. An assortment of colours for the 
foundation, in botties. 

8th. A packet of gold powder. 

9th. A glass vessel for dilating the 
eofeuFs* 

1866. Pbiobs of thb ABTieiiW ubhd 
IN £<MiOHOMAiriB.--CU«8s*vese8| ia^ of 
various shapes, fnom* 9d. eaeh ; sheetsi 
of coloured desi^ai^ finim lB.ea^. pD» 



pMired colours (ready for use) of eveiy 
tint required by the potichomanist^ Is. 
per bottle ; bottles of varnish. Is. each ; 
bottles of prepared gum, 6d., dd., and 
Is. each ; bottles of gold paint, Is. 6d. 
each; brushes (hog and camel hair), 
from Id. each.* 

1867. DiRScrnoNS. — We will siip- 
pose the object selected for imitation 
to be a Chinese vase. After providing 
yourself with a plain glass vase, of the 
proper shape, you take your sheets of 
coloured prints on which are depicted 
subjects characteristic of that pecuUar 
style. From these sheets you can 
select a great variety of designs^ of the 
most varied character, on the arrange- 
ment and grouji^ng of which you will 
exercise your own taste. 

186S. After you have fully decided 
upon the arrangement of your drawings, 
cut them out accurately with a pair of 
scissors, then apply seme liquid gum 
carefully over the coloured side of the 
drawings, and stick them on the inside 
of the vase, according to your own pre- 
viousarrangement — pressingthem down 
till they adhere closely, without any 
bubbles of air appearing between the 
glass and the drawings. 

1869. When the drawings have had 
sufficient time to dry, take a fine brush 
and cover every part of them (without 
touching the glass) witii a coat of 
parehment size or Uquid gum, which 
prevents the oil colour (which is next 
applied) from sinking into or becoming 
absorbed by the paper. 

1870. When the interior of the vase is 
perfectly dry, and any particles of gum 
size that may have been left on the 
glass, have been removed, your vase is 
ready for the final and most important 
process. 

1871. Tou have now to tint the whole 
of the vase with a proper colour to give- 
it the appearance of porcelain, for up to 
this time you will recollect it is but a 
glaas vase, with a few ooloured prints 
stunk thereon. 

• AU thoie artSdes omi be preoifred aft 
Wemn. WUte and DaltenX S^i Sathbmie- 
piaee,in ttae^§Natet&p«Metimi; 



196 



115,562,236 bogs abe impobtsd ankuallt. 



1872. Select from your stock of pre- 
pared colours, in bottles, the tint most 
appropriate to the kind of china you are 
imitating (as we are now supposed to 
be making a Chinese vase, it will be of 
a greenish hue), mix fully sufficient 
colour in a glass vessel, then pour the 
whole into the vase. Take now your 
vase in both hands and turn it round 
continually in the same direction, until 
the colour is equally spread over the 
whole of the interior; when this is 
satisfactorily accomplished, pour back 
the remainder. If the prepared colour 
is too thick, add a little vamiBh to the 
mixture before applying it. 

1873. If prefeiTcd, the colour may be 
laid on with a soft brush. Should the 
vase be intended to hold water, the in- 
terior must be well varnished after the 
above operations, or lined with zinc 
or tin foil. 

1874. If the Potichomanist wishes to 
decorate the mouth of his vase with a 
gold border, he can do so by mixing 
some gold powder in a few drops of the 
essence of lavender and some varnish, 
applying it on the vase with a fine 
brush ; or he can purchase gold bands, 
already prepared for application in 
varied sheets, suitable to the Poticho- 
manie designs. 

1875. Potichomanists have found the 
ark capable of greater results than the 
mere imitation of porcelain vases, by the 
introduction of glass panels (previously 
decorated with beautiful flowers on a 
white groimd) into drawing-room doors, 
and also into walls, which being panel 
papered, offer opportunities of intro- 
ducing centre pieces of the same cha- 
racter as the doors ; elegant chess and 
work-tables, folding and cheval-screens,. 
panels for cabinets, cheffioniers and 
book-cases, slabs for pier and console- 
tables, glove-boxes, covers for books 
music, albums, &c. 

1876. WAXEN FLOWERS AND 
FRUIT. — ^There is no art more easily 
acquired, nor more encouraging in its 
immediate results, than that of model- 
Ung flowers and fruit in wax. We do 



not mean that it is easy to attain the 
highest perfection in this art; but 
that, compared with other pursuits of a 
similar nature, the difficulties to be 
surmounted are comparatively few; 
and the first rewards of perseverance 
come veiy speedily, and are surpris- 
ingly agreeable. The art, however, is 
attended by this drawback — ^that the 
materials reqmred are somewhat ex- 
pensive. But then, the flowers pro- 
duced are of value, and this is a set-off 
against the cost. 

1877. The materials required for oom- 
menciifg waxen flower making will cost 
from 20s. to SOs. ; and no progress can 
be made without this outlay at the 
starting. 

1878. The materials may be obtained at 
most fancy repositories in large towns ; 
and persons wishing to commence the 
art would do well to call at those places 
and enquire the particulars, and see the 
specimens of materials ; because, in 
this, as in eveiy other pursuit, there 
are novelties and improvements being 
introduced which no book can give an 
idea of.* 

1879. Those who reside in places 
where they cannot obtain the requisite 
materials, may obtain information by 
writing to Messrs. Mintom, Brothers, 
Soho-square, London ; or they may see 
the names of other professors adver- 
tised occasionally in the Times, the 
Illustrated News, the Lody's Newspaper, 
and other papers. 

1880. There are some small works pub- 
lished, which profess to teach the art 
But they are, in fact, written by pro- 
fessors, and the chief aim of them ia to 
sell the materials, which they are 
written to advertise. 

1881. A series of papers upon the sub- 
ject appeared in the first volume of the 
Family Friend; another series in the 
Home Circle; and also, we think, in 
the Lady's Newspaper, 

1882. Those who wish to Dursue the 

* A visit to Mrs. Peachey's Show Eooms, 86, 
Bathbone-i»lMe, Lond<m, will be found hlghty 
remniMKatiTe. FrcBf from 10 to 6 ^tJij. 



UOKDOS BAB 3,000 MILK Or StBSRB. 



197 



sabject farther thaa our instmetiaiiB 
will take them, may be able to rsfer to 
either or all of the works mentioned. 

1883. Printed mstmctiona are, how> 
ever, of oomparatiTelj little value, ex- 
cept at the starting, to supply the 
simplest elements of the art. 

1884. ThepetaUy leaivet, Se., of flowers, 
are made of sheets of coloured wax, 
wbicb may be purchased in packets of 
assorted colours, at from 5b. to Os. 6d. 
per gross. 

1885. The ttem» are made of wire of 
suitable thicknesses, ooTered with silk, 
and oTerlaid with wax; and the leaVes are 
frequently made by thin sheets of wax 
pressed upon leaves of embossed calico. 
Leaves of various descriptions are to be 
obtained of the persons who sell the 
materials for wax flower making. 

1886. Ladies will often find among 
their discarded artificial flowers leaves 
and buds tiiat will serve as the base of 
their wax models. 

1887. The best guide to the construc- 
tion of a flower — ^far better than printed 
diagrams or patterns — ^is to take a 
flower, say a tulip, a rote, or a camdUa. 
If possible, procure two flowers, nearly 
alike, and carefully picking one of Ibem 
to pieces, lay the petals down in the 
order in which Ibey are taken from the 
flower, and then cut "poipet patterns 
from tiiem, and number them from the 
centre of the flower, that you may 
know their relative positiona. 

1888. The perfect flower will guide you 
in getting the wax petals together, and 
will enable you to give not only to each 
petal but to the contour of the flower, 
the characteristics which are natural to 
it. In most cases, they are merely 
pressed together and held in their 
places by the adhesiveness of the wax. 
From the paper patterns the wax petals 
or other portions of the flowers may be 
cut. They should be cut singly by a 
scissors rather loose at the points ; and 
the scissors should be frequently 
dipped into water to prevent the wax 
from adhering to the blades. 

1889. The scraps of wax that fall from 
the cutting will be found useful for 



making seed vessels, and other parts 
of the flowers. 

1890. Very few and veiysimple instru- 
ments are required, and these may be 
purchased at the place where the wax 
sheets, &c., are obtained. 

189L With regard to the Uava of 
flowers, where the manufactured founda- 
tions of them cannot be obtained, pat- 
terns of them should be cut in paper, and 
the veinoos appearance may be imparted 
to the wax by pressing the leaf upon it. 

1892. In the construction of tpri^ it is 
most important to be guided by sprigs 
of the natural plants as various kinds of 
plants have many di£forent charac- 
teristics in the grouping of their flowers, 
leaves, and branches. 

1893. It would be possible to extend 
these instructionsto an indefinite length, 
but nothing would be gained thereby. 
The best instruction of all is — ^take a 
FLOWER AMD COFT IT, — observing care 
in the selection of good sheets of wax^ 
and seeing that their colours are pre- 
cisely those of the flower you desire to 
imitate. 

1894. For the tints, stripes, and spots 
of vari^ated flowers, you will be supplied 
with colours among Ibe olbw mateiials, 
and the application of them is precisely 
upon the principle of water-colour 
painting. 

1895. With regard to the imitations of 
fruit in wax, very different rules are to 
be observed. The following directions 
are from the Family Fritnd: — The 
material of which moulds for waxen 
fruit should be composed is the hett 
plaster of Paris, whidi can be bought 
from the Italian figure-makers at about 
a penny a pound, in bags containing 
fourteen pounds, or half-bags contain- 
ing seven pounds. If this cannot be 
procured, the cheaper plaster from the 
oil-shops may be substituted, if it can 
be procured quite fresk. If, however, 
the plaster is fiiulty, the results of the 
modelling will of course be more or 
less so ^so. It is the property of 
plaster of Paris to form a chemical union 
with water, and to form a paste which 
rapidly " sets " or hardens into a sub- 



196 



XNGLIBHHEir VAT flAXSB £2. 12b. OD. FIB HBAB FEB ANNUM. 



stance of the density- of firm chalk 
The mould must, therefore, be made by 
an impression from the object to be 
imitated, made upon the plaster before 
it sets. 

1896. The use of an elastic fruit in 
early experiments, leads to a want of 
accuracy in the first steps of the opera* 
tion, which causes very annoying diffi- 
culties afterwards; and therefore a 
soHd, inelastic body — an egg boiled 
hard — ^is recommended as the first ob* 
ject to be imitated. 

1897. Having filled a small pudding- 
basin about three quarters full of damp 
sand (the finer the better) ; lay the e^ 
lengthways in the sand, so that half of 
it is above, and half below, the level of 
the sand, which should be perfectly 
smooth around it. Then prepare the 
plaster in another basin, which should 
be half full of water. Sprinkle the 
plaster in quickly till it comes to the 
top of the water, and. then, having 
stured it for a moment with a spoon, 
pour the whole upon the egg in the 
other basin. 

1898. Whfle the half mould thus made 
is hardening thoroughly, carefully re- 
move every particle of plaster from the 
basin in which it was mixed,andalso from 
the spoon which has been used. This 
must be done by placing them both in 
water and wiping them perfectly clean. 
This is highly important, since a small 
quantity of plaster which has set will 
destroy the quality of a second mixing 
if it is mixed therewith. In about five 
minutes the half mould will be fit to 
remove, which may be done by turning 
the basin up with the right hand, (tak- 
ing care not to lose the sand), so that 
the mould Mis into the left hand. Tkte 
egg should then be gentlv allowed to 
ftHl back on the sand out of the mould; 
if, however, it adheres, lightly scrape 
the plaster from the edge oi the mould, 
and then shake it out into the hollow 
of the hand. If, however, the exact 
half of the egg htm been immersed in 
the sand, no sueh difiloulty will arise; 
this shows how imp<»tant is exactness 
is the first petitioii of the object from 



which a casting is to be taken. The 
egg being removed and laid aside, the 
mould or casting must be *' trimmed ;^ 
that is; tiie sand must be brushed from 
Uie flat sur&ce ' of the mould with a 
nail-brush veiy slightly, without touch- 
ing the extreme and sharp edges where 
the hollow of the mould commences. 
Then upon the broad edge from which 
the sand has been brushed, make four 
equi-distant hollows (with the round 
end of a table-knife) like the deep im- 
pression of a thimble's end. These are 
to guide hereafter in the fixing of the 
second half of the mould. The egg 
should now be replaced in the casting, 
and the edge of the cast, with the holes, 
thoroughly lubricated with sweet oil, 
laid on with a feather, or what is better, 
a large camel-hair brush. 

1899. Into the small pudding-basin 
from which the sand has been emptied, 
place with the egg uppermost the half 
mould, which, if the operation has been 
managed properly, should fit close at 
the edges to the side of the vessel ; then 
prepare some more liquid plaster as 
before, and pour it upon the egg and 
mould, and while it is hardening, round 
it with the spoon as with the first half. 

1900. In due time remove the whole 
from the basin : the halves will be found 
readily separable, and the egg being re- 
moved, the mould is ready to cast in, 
after it has been set aside for an hotff 
or two so as to completely haideiL 
This is the simplest form of mould, and 
all are made upon the same principle. 

1901. The casting of an ^gg is not 
merely interesting as the first step in a 
serieeof lessons, but as supplyingameaas 
of imitating peculiarly charming objects, 
which the natural historian tries almost 
in vain to preserve. We shall proceed 
then witii the ditections for the castiag 
of an egg in the mould. 

1902. For the first experiments, com- 
mon yellow wax may be used as ths 
material, or the ends of half-burnt wue- 
candles. The materials of the haid 
(not tallow) composition monUUeaadlei 
will also answer. 

1908. EverylaigeobjeettobelmitMled 



Tta BAHi^ATO 6if UKttAiN HAVE C06T £260,000,000; 



ld9 



lid wax should be caG(t%o22oK;; and there- 
fore, though the transparent Jightness 
required in the imitation of fruits is not 
itequisite in an artificial ^gg, we shall 
cast the egg upon the same principle as 
a fruit. 

1st. — The two pieces of the plaster of 
Paris mould must be soaked in hot 
water for ten minutes. 

2nd. — The wax should in the mean- 
time be very slowly melted in a small 
tin saucepan, with a spout to it;^ care 
being taken not to allow it to boil, or it 
will be discoloured. As to the quantity 
of wax to be melted, the following is a 
general rule : — If a lump, the size of 
the object to be imitated, be placed in 
the saucepan, it should be sufficient for 
casting twice, at least. 

3rd. — As soon as the wax is melted 
thoroughly, place the saucepan on the 
hob of the grate, and, taking the parts 
of the mould from the hot water, re- 
move the moisture from their sui'&ces 
by pressing them gently with a hand- 
kerchief or soft cloth. It is necessary 
to use what is called in some of the arts 
** a Tery light hand " in this operation, 
especially in drying moulds of fruits, 
whose aspect possesses characteristic 
irregularities — such as those on the 
orange, the lemon, or the cucumber. 
The mould must not be vnped but only 
pressed. If the water has not been hot 
enough, or if the drying is not performed 
quickly, the mould will be too cold, 
and the wax will congeal too rapidly, 
and settle in ridges and streaks ; on the 
other hand, if the wax has been made j 
too hot, it will adhere to the mould, and 
refuse to come out entire. 

4tlL — Having laid the two halves of 
the mould so that there can be no mis- 
take in fitting the one in its exact place 
quickly on the other, pour from the 
saucepan into (fne of the half mouldd 
nearly as much wax as will fill the 
hollow made by the model (egg), quickly 
fit the other half on the top of it, squeeze 
tiie two pieces tightly together in the 
hand, and still holding them thus, turn 
them over In every piossible position, do 
ihit'the Wat which id slowly congealing 



in th6 intertkal hollow 6f the mould may 
be of equal thickness in all f>am 
Having continued this process at least 
two minutes, the hands (stiH holding 
and turning the mould) may be im- 
mersed in cold wat# to accelerate the 
cooling process. The perfect congeal- 
ment of the wax may be known after a 
little experience by the absence of 
the sound of fluid on shaking the 
mould. 

5th. — ^As soon as the mould is com- 
pletely cooled, the halves may be sepa- 
rated carefully, the upper being lifted 
straight up from the imder, and if the 
operation has been properly managed, 
a waxen egg will be turned out of liie 
motild. 

6th. — The egg will only require fnm- 
ming, that is, removing the ridge which 
marks the line at which the halves of 
the mould joined, and polishing out the 
scratches or inequalities left by the knife 
with a piece of soft rag, wet with spirits 
of turpentine or spirits of wine. 

1904. It is always desirable, when the 
materials and moulds are prepared, to 
make several castings of the same object^ 
as the moulds are apt to get chipped 
when laid by in a cupboard ; and for thiu 
reason, as well as for the sake of prac- 
tice, we reconmiend our pupils to make 
at least a dozen waxen eggs before they 
proceed to any other object. If they 
succeed in this completely, they mav 
rest assured that every difficulty which 
is likely to meet them in any flituro 
operations will be easily overcome. 

That these results of experiment may 
be rendered correct imitations of the 
object from whose form they Were 
modelled, we shall now add a few fur- 
ther directions :— 

1905. To colowr ike irar.— While the 
wax is yet on the hob, and fluid, stir into 
it a little flake white, in powder, and 
continue to stir the mixture while it is 
being poured into the half mould. It 
will be found that unless the fixing and 
shaking of the moulds is m£ina|;ed 
quickly the colouring matter will settfe 
on the side of the half into which tUd 
ibixture Is poured; a little cafe fid 



f^OO QBBAT BRITAIN FBOOUOBS ANITTJALLY 81,500,000 TONS OF OOAL. 



manipulation is therefore again re- 
quisite. 

1906. To produce a good imitation of 
tke turf ace, — It will be noted by the close 
observer that the shell of the common 
hen's egg has a niimber of minute holes, 
which destroy the perfect smoothness 
of its appearance. This peculiarity is 
imitated in the following simple man- 
ner : — In the first place, very slightly 
prick with a fine needle the surface of 
your waxen egg, and then, having 
smeared it with spirits of turpentine, 
rub the surface all over, so as riea/rly to 
obliterate the marks of the needle 
point. 

1907. The simple experiment which 
has just been described really embodies 
all that need be said to start &e pupil in 
his first endeavour. The colouring of 
the wax is a matter which comes easily 
enough by experiment. Oranges, 
lemons, large gooseberries, small cu- 
cumbers, &c., &c., are excellent objects 
for practice. To those who require 
special information upon points not 
herein described — ^if such persons can- 
not refer to the works we have already 
enumerated, we shall be happy to reply 
in our monthly^/n^ervtew, a work which 
will commence in January, 1856. 



1908. FEATHER FLOWERS.--The 
art of making B'eather Flowers, though 
a very easy and inexpensive accomplish- 
menl^ and yielding pretty ornaments 
for the mantel-piece or the cheffioneer, 
is but little pursued. Many persons 
are under the impression that they can 
only be made from the feathers of 
exotic birds, and that these are expen- 
sive. But the following instructions 
will dispel this misconception, and re- 
move the difficulty. There is a magni- 
ficent bouquet of feather flowers in the 
Crystal Palace, west of the centre tran- 
septy made according to these direc- 
tions : — 

1909. Procure the best white geese 
or swans' feathers, have them plucked 
off the fowl with care not to break the 
yreb, free them from down, except a 



small quantity on the shaft of ihe 
feather. 

1910. Having procured two good 
specimens of the flower you wish to 
imitate, carefully pull off the petals 
of one, and, with a piece of tissue 
paper, cut out the shape of each 
size, taking care to leave the shaft 
of the feather at least half an inch 
longer than the petal of the flower. 
Carefully bend the feather with the 
thumb and finger to the proper shape ; 
mind not to break the web. 

1911. To MAKE THE StBM AND HbABT 

OP A FLOWER. — Take a piece of wire six 
inches long; across the top lay a small 
piece of cotton wool, turn the wire over 
it, and wind it roimd until it is the size 
of the heart or centre of the flower you 
are going to imitate. If a single flower, 
cover it with paste or velvet of the pro- 
per colour, and rotmd it must be ar- 
ranged the stamens; these are made 
of fine Indian silk, or feathers may be 
used for this purpose. After the petals 
have been attached, the silk or feather 
is dipped into gum, and then into the 
farina. Place the petals round, one at 
a time, and wind them on with Mora- 
vian cotton, No. 4 ; aiTange them as 
nearly like the flower you have for a 
copy as possible. Cut the stems of the 
feathers even, and then make the calix of 
feathers, cut like the pattern or natural 
flower. For the small flowers the calix 
is made with paste. Cover the stems 
with paper or silk the same as the 
flowers; the paper must be cut in 
narrow strips, about a quarter of an 
inch wide. 

1912. To MAKE THE PASTES OF THI 

Calix, Hearts, Aim Buds op Flowers. 
— Take common white starch and mix 
it with gum water until it is the sub- 
stance of thick treacle ; colour it with 
the dyes used for the feathers, and keep 
it from the air. 

1913. To make the Farina.— Use 
common ground rice, mixed into a stiff 
paste with any dye ; dry it before the 
fire, and when quite hard, pound it to a 
fine powder. The buds, berries, and 
hearts of some double flowers are mad« 



SAB CONBUHSD IH LOKDON 00B18 ^£500,000 TSiJILT. 



201 



with cotton wool^ wound around wire, 
moulded to the shape with thumb and 
finger. Smooth it over with gum water. 
and when dry, cover the buda, berries, 
or oalix with the proper coloured 
jMtstes : they will require one or two 
coats, and may be shaded with a little 
paint, and then gummed and left to 
dry. 

1914. Flowers of two or more shades 
or colours are variegated with watei^ 
colours, mixed with lemon-juice, tdtra- 
marine and chrome for blue^ and gold 
may also be used in powder, mixed with 
lemon-juice and gum water. 

1915. The materials required are 
some good white goose or swan's fea- 
thers ; a little fine wire, different siises ; 
a few skeins of fine floss silk, some good 
cotton wool or wadding, a reel of No. 4, 
Moravian cotton, a skein of Indian silk, 
the starch and gum for pastes, and a 
pair of small sharp scissors, a few sheets 
of coloured silk paper, and some water- 
colours, with the following dyes : — 

1916. To DtbFeathebsBlue. — ^Into 
two pennyworths of oU of vitriol, mix 
two pennyworths of the best indigo in 
powder ; let it stand a day or two ; 
when wanted shake it well, and into a 
quart of boiling water put one table- 
spoonful of the Uquid. Stir it well, put 
the feathers in, and let them simmer 
a few minutes. — (See 419.) 

1917. Ybllow. — Put a tablespoonful 
of the best turmeric into a quart of 
boiling water ; when well mixed put in 
the feathers. More or less of the tur- 
meric will give them different shades, 
and a very small quantity of soda will 
give them an orange hue. — (See 423.) 

1918. Green.— Mix the incUgo liquid 
with turmeric, and pour boiling water 
over it ; let the featiier simmor in the 
dye until they have acquired the shade 
you want them. 

1919. Pink. — ^Three good pink saucers 
in a quart of boiling water, with a small 
quantity of cream of tartar. If a deep 
colour is required, use four saucers. Let 
the feathers remain in the dye several 
hours. 

1920. Bed. — Into a quai't of boiling 



water dissolve a teaspoonlul of cream of 
tartar, put in one tablespoonful of pre- 
pared cochineal, and l^en a few drops 
of muriate of tin. This dye is expen- 
sive, and scarlet flowers are best made 
with the plumage of the red Ibis, which 
can generally be had of a bird-fimcier 
or bird-stuffer, who will give directions 
how it may be applied. 

1921. LiLAO. — About two teaspoon- 
fuls of cudbear, into about a quart of 
boiling water; let it simmer a few 
minutes before you put in the feathers. 
A small quantity of cream of tartar 
turns the colour from lilac to amethyst. 

1922. Blaok.— (Sk 418.) Cbdibon. 
— (See 420.) Bead the peneral tnitruc- 
tiana upon Dyeing (40£./ 

1928. Before the Feathers abx 
Dtbd they must be put into hot water, 
and let them drain before they are put 
into the dyes. After they are taken 
out of the dye, rinse them two or three 
times in clear cold water (except the 
red), which must only be done once. 
Then lay them on a tray, over which a 
cloth has been spread, before a good 
fire ; when they begin to dry and un- 
fold draw each fea&er gently between 
your thumb and finger, \mtil it regains 
its proper shape. 

1924. The Leaves of the Flowers 
are made of green feathers, cut like 
those of the natund flower, and serrated 
at the edge with a very small pair of 
scissors. For the calix of a ntoss-rose 
the down is left on the feather, and is a 
very good representation of the moss on 
the natural flower. 



1925. COLLECTING AND LAY- 
ING OUT SEA-WEEDS. -First wash 
the sea-weed in fresh water, then take 
a plate, or dish (the laiger the better), 
cut your paper to the size required, 
place it in the plate with fresh water, 
and spread out the plant with a good- 
sized camel-hair pencil in a natural 
form (picking out with the pin gives 
the sea-weed an unnatural appearance, 
and destroys the characteristic fall of 
the branches, which should be carefully 
avoided) ; then gently raise the paper 

h 2 



202 AYV&AQTS VKCGBT OV XAV'S VAAX», ^ 1^98. ; WOMtlOf^ 2 VBO, 11 OZ. 



ivifeh the c^edtnen out of the watorj 
plaomg- it in a> BlantlnglpoBition for a 
fem momenta, so as to aUow the super- 
abundant water to run off; after wfalidi, 
plaoeit inthe press. The press is made 
¥7ikh dthsr three pieces of board or 
pastefboard. Lay on the first board 
two sheets of blotting-paper; on that 
lay your specimens ; place straight and 
smooth oyer them a piece of old muslin, 
fine cambric, or linen ; then some more 
bk>tting-paper, and place another board 
on the top of that, and continue in the 
same way. The blotting-paper and the 
mnslin should be carefully removed 
and dried every day, and then replaced ; 
at the same time, those specimens that 
are sufficiently dried may be taken 
ffimy. Nothing now remuna but to 
wvite on each the name, date, and lo- 
cality. You can either gum the speci- 
mens in a scrap-book, or fix them in, 
as drawings are often fastened, by 
making four slits in the page, and in- 
serting each comer. This is by far the 
best plan, as it admits of their removal, 
without injury to the page, at any 
^ture period, if it be required either 
to insert better specimens, or interme- 
diate species. Some of the larger Algae 
will not adhere to the paper, and conse- 
quently require gumming. The follow- 
ing method of preserving them has 
been communicated to me by a botanical 
Mttid : — ** After well cleaning and 
pzBssing, brush the coarser kinds of 
Algffi over with spirits of turpentine, 
in.which two or three small lumps of 
gum mastic have been dissolved, by 
shaking in a warm place ; two-thirds of 
a small phial is the proper proportion, 
and this will make the specimens retain 
a fresh appearance." — Mis$ OifforcPs 
Marine Botaniat. 

1926. DRY BOTANICAL SPECI- 
MENS FOB PRBSBBVATION.—The 
plants you wish to preserve should be 
gathered when the. weather is dry, and 
after placing the ends in water, let them 
remain in a cool place till the next day. 
When about to.be. submitted to the 
process of drying, plaee each plant 
between several sheets of blotting* 



papev^ and, iron* it with a lazge smooth 
heater, pxeitty sIvoBgly warmed, till all 
the- moistttrci is dusipated. Colours 
may thus be fixed^ which otherwise be- 
come pale, or nearly white. Some 
plants require more moderate heat than 
others, and herein consists the nice^ 
of the experiment; but I have gene- 
rally found, that if the iron be not too 
hot, and is passed rapidly, yet carefully, 
over the surface of the blotting paper 
it answers the purpose equally well 
with plants of almost every variety 
of hue and thickness. In compound 
flowers, with those also of a stubborn 
and solid form, as the Centaurea, some 
little art is required in outting away the 
imder part, by which means the profile 
and fonns of the flowers will be more 
distinctly exhibited. This is especially 
necessary, when the method employed 
by Major Velley is adopted ; viz., to fix 
the flowers and fructification down with 
gum upon the paper previous to ironing; 
by which means they become almost in- 
corporated with the surface. When 
this very delicate process is attempted, 
blotting-paper should be laid ,imder 
every part excepting the blossoms, in 
order to prevent staining the white 
paper. Great care must be taken to 
keep preserved specimens in a dry 
place. 

1927. SKELETON LEAVES may 
be made by steeping leaves in rain 
water, in an open vessel, exposed to the 
air and sun. Water must ocoasionally 
be added to compensate loss by evapo- 
ration. The leaves vdll putrefy, and 
then their membranes will begin to 
open ; then lay them on a clean white 
plate, filled with clean water, and with 
gentle touches take off the external 
membranes, separating them cautiously 
near the middle rib. When there is an 
opening towards the latter the whole 
membrane separates easily. The pro- 
cess requires a great desJ of patience, as 
ample time must be given for the t^^ 
table tissues to decays and separate^ 

1928. A HORJS EXPiSDiTIOUS MITBOI^ 

— A table-spoonful of chloride of lime in 
a liquid state^ mixed with a quart of 



18,000,00<K FxascmB dib eybrt tibab/ 



208 



pura sfkring water. Leaves or seed 
vessels of plants to be soaked in the 
lABeture for about four hours, then 
taken out and well washed in a large 
bason filled with water, after which, 
thejr should be left to dry with free 
exposure to light and air. Some of the 
laigiex species of forest leaves, or such 
aa harve strong ribs, will require to be 
left rather more than four hours in the 
liquid. 

1929. DWARF PLANTS.— Take a 
cutting of the plant you wish to dwar^ 
say a myrtle, for instance, and having 
sot it in a pot, wait until you are 
B«tisfied that it has taken root ; then 
take a cutting from it, and place it in a 
memiature flower pot, taking care to fill 
it more than three parts with fine sand, 
the remainder with mould. Put it imder 
a glass, on the chimney-piece, or in any 
warm place, and give it veiy small 
qaaatities of water. 

1930. PRESERVE FUNGL — Re- 
ceipt of the celebrated botanist, William 
Withering, Esq., by which specimens' 
of fungi may be beautifully preserved. 
— Take two ounces of sulphate of cop- 
per, or blue vitriol, and reduce it to 
XK>wder, and pour upon it a pint of 
boiling water, and when cold, add half 
a pint of spirits of wine ; cork it well, 
and call it "the pickle." To eight 
pintB of water add one pint and a-half 
of spirits of wine, and call it "the 
liquor." Be provided with a number 
of wide-mouthed bottles of different 
sizes, all well fitted with corks. The 
fungi should be left on the table as 
l<»ig as possible, to allow the moisture 
to. eraporate; they should then be 
placed in the pickle for three hours, or 
longer, if necessaiy; then place them 
in* the bottles intended for their re 
cation, and fill with the liquor. They 
shettld then be well corked and sealed, 
and arranged in order, with their names 
in^front of the bottles. 



1931. MODELLING IN CORK, 
GUTTA PERGHA, LEATHER, PA- 
PER, PLASTER 01* PARIS, WAX, 
WOOD; &e. — Modelling^ in a g^ieral 



sense^ signifies the art of constructiDg 
an original pattern, which is to be ulti- 
mately carried out on an enlax^ed 
scale, or copied exactly. 

1932. When models are constructed 
to give a miniature representation of 
any great work, elevation, or topogra- 
phica^ information, they are executed in 
detail, with all the original parts in just 
and due proportions, so that the work 
may be conducted or comprehended 
better ; and if the model is a sdentifie 
one, viz. relating to machinery, physi- 
cal science, &c., then it requires to be 
even still more accurate in its details. 
In fact, all models should be conr 
structed on a scale which should be ap- 
pended to them, so that a better idea 
may be obtained of the proportions and 
dimensions. 

1933. In the earliest ages, modelling 
in clay- — which was sometimes subse- 
quently coated with wax — was much 
practised : afterwards sculpture suc- 
ceeded ; but it still depended on model- 
ling in a measure, as it now does, for 
its excellence. Pew, indeed, of our 
great works of art are executed without 
some kind of a model in addition to the 
design — we had almost written, none ; 
but we know that statues and reliefs 
have been executed without any other 
aid than that furnished by the design 
alone. 

1934. The most celebrated models of 
modem, and we believe surpassing any 
of former times, are M. Brunetti's 
"Ancient Jerusalem," Mr. E. Smith's 
" Modern Jerusalem," General Pfiffer's 
"Switzerland," and "The Waterloo 
Model ;" all of them examples worthy 
of being imitated, whether for the ex- 
cellence of the work, the faithfulness of 
the model, or the patience and scien- 
tific knowledge displayed in their con-i 
struetion. 

1935. The materials required are 
piaster of Paris, wax, whiting, putty^ 
clay, pipe-clay; common and factory 
cinders ; sand of various colours ; pow- 
dered fluor spar, oyster-shells^ bricks, 
slate, cinders, and glass; gums, acacia 
and tragacanth ; starch ; paper — white 



204 



HAir'B HBABT BBATS 92,160 TDCES IN ▲ DAT. 



and brown, cardboard and millboard; 
cork sheetBy cork raspingBy and old boi- 
tie corks; gutta percha; leather and 
leather chips ; wood ; paints, oil, water, 
and varnish; moss, lichen, ferns, and 
grass ; talc, window and looking-glass ; 
muslin and net ; chenille ; carded wool ; 
tow; wire; hay and straw; yarious 
varnishes, glue, and cements. 

1936. Thb TOOLS consist of brushes for 
paints, varnishes, and cements ; two or 
three bradawls; a sharp penknife; a 
chisel, hammer and puncnes ; scissors ; 
and pencil. 

1937. Cayes may be readily modelled 
in cork, wood, starch-paste, or cinders 
covered with brown paper soaked in 
thin glue. 

1938. To COVSTBUCT THEM OF CIN- 
DERS. — ^Arrange the cinders, whether 
common or factory, in such a manner 
as to resemble the intended design; 
then cover in such pai*ts as require it 
with brown paper soaked in thm glue 
until quite pulpy. When nearly diy, 
dust over with sand, powdered bricK, 
slate, and chopped lichen or moss, from 
a pepper-box; touch up the various 
parts with either oU, water, or varnish 
colours; and if necessary, form your 
trees of wire covered with brown paper, 
and moss glued on. 

1939. When a cave is constructed in 
the way we have pointed out, on a 
large scale, and the interior sprinkled 
with powdered fluor spar or glass, the 
effect is very good by candle-light. 

1940. Stalactites may be repre- 
sented by rough pieces of wood, which 
must be smeared with glue, and sprin- 
kled with powdered fluor spar, or 
glass. 

1941. To MODEL Caves in Cork. — 
Construct the frame-work of wood, and 
fill up the outline with old bottle- 
corks. The various projections, re- 
cesses, and other minutisd, must be 
affixed afterwards with glue, after being 
formed of cork, or hollowed out in the 
necessary parts, either by burning with 
a hot wire and scraping it afterwards, 
or by means of a sharp-pointed brad- 
awl. 



1942. If small cork models are con- 
structed, the trees should be formed 
by transfixing short pieces of shaded 
chenille with a fine wire (.), and sticking 
them into the cork. 

1943. Various parts of the model 
must be touched up with oU, water, or 
varnish colours; and powdered biick, 
slate, and chopped lichen or moss, 
dusted on as usuaL 

1944. Wooden modeU are constructed 
roughly in deal, according to the proper 
design, and the various fine parts after- 
wards affixed with glue or brads. 

1945. In forming ihe finer parts of 
t^e wooden model, a vast amount of 
unnecessary labour may be saved, and a 
better effect obtained^ by burning much 
of the outline instead of carving it. By 
this plan deeper tones of colourings 
facility of operating, and saving of time 
and labour, are the result. 

1946. In common with other models, 
those constructed of wood, require the 
aid of lichen, moss, powdered ifOate, &&, 
and colours, to complete the effect. 

1947. Wben water issues from the 
original cave, and it is desirable to copy 
it in the model, a piece of looking-glus 
should be glued on the stand, and the 
edges suiToimded by glue, and paper 
covered with sand. Sometimes it is re- 
quisite to cut away the wood of the stand, 
so as to let in the looking-glass ; this, 
however, is only when the water is sup- 
posed to be much lower than the sur&oe 
of the land. 

1948. Starch p(Mte models are formed 
in the usual way of the following com* 
position : — Soak gum tragacanth in 
water, and when soft, mix it with pow* 
dered starch till of a proper consistence. 
It is much improved by adding some 
double-refined sugar finely powdered. 
When the model is finished, it must bt 
coloured correctly, and varnished with 
white varnish, or left plain. This is the 
composition used by confectioners for 
modelling the various ornaments on 
cakes. 

1949. Ancient^ Cities, may be con- 
structed of cork or starch paste, in the 
same manner as directed above ; bearing 



CABBAOH^ OABBOTB, &0.» WBBE NOT KNOWIT BBFOBS 1547. 



205 



in mind the neoeBsity for always working 
models according to a scale, which 
should be afterwards affixed to the stand 
of the model. 

1950. MoDBBN Cities, are better made 
of cardboard, starch-paste, or pipe-day ; 
the houses, public buildings, and other 
parts being constructed according to 
scale. 

1951. ffottses Rhould be cut out of a 
long thin strip of cardboard, partially 
divided by three strokes of a penknife, 
and glued together; this must after- 
wards be marked with a pencil, or pen 
and ink, to represent the windows, 
doors, stones, &c.; and the roof — cut 
out of a piece of square cardboard 
equally and partially divided — ^is tiien 
to be glued on, and the chimney — 
formed of a piece of lucifer-match, or 
wood notched at one end and flat at 
the other — ^is to be glued on. A square 
piece of cardboard must be glued on the 
top of the chimney ; a hole made with 
a pin in the card and wood; and a 
piece of grey worsted, thinned at the 
end, fixed into the hole for smoke. 

1952. CcUhedraU, Churches, and other 
jpvhlic buildings are made in the same 
way; only requiring the addition of 
small chips of wood^ ends of ludfer 
matches, cork raspings, or small pieces 
of cardboard, for l^e various ornaments, 
if on a large scale, but only a pencil- 
mark if small. 

1953. When constructed of starch 
paste, or pipe-clay, the material is rolled 
flat on a table or marble slab, and the 
various sides cut out with a sharp pen- 
knife ; they are then gummed together, 
and coloured properly. 

1954. If large models of houses or 
buildings are made, the windows are 
constructed of talc or thin glass, covered 
with net or muslin. The frames of the 
windows are made of cardboard, neatly 
out out with a sharp penknife. 

1955. CouNTBiES should be made of 
cork, because it is easier to work. Al- 
though the starch pastels very agreeable 
to model with, yet it is liable to shrink, 
and therefore when in the mass one part 
dries quicker than another, so that there 



is not equal contraction — a great objec- 
tion to its employment in accurate 
models. Cork, on the contrary, may 
be easUy cut into all forms, and from 
abounding with pores it is remarkably 
light — ^no little consideration to travel- 
lers. 

1956. ToPOOBAPHiCAL models may, 
however, be formed of plaster of Paris, 
but the weight is an objection. We 
have lately constructed a model of a 
country on a moderate scale — one-eighth 
of an inch to a square mile — with its 
mountains, valleys, and towns, and it 
was done in this manner : — A model was 
first made in clay, according to scale and 
plan; a mould was taken of various 
parts in gutta percha^ rendered soft by 
dipping it into hot water, and the parts 
cast in paper cement. 

1957. Papeb Cement. — 1. Reduce 
paper to a smooth paste by boiling it in 
water ; then add an equail weight each 
of sifted whiting and good size ; boil to 
a proper consistence, and use. 

1958. 2. Take equal parts of paper, 
paste, and size, sufficient finely 
powdered plaster of Paris to make into 
a good paste, and use as soon as 
possible after it is mixed. This com- 
position may be used to cast architec- 
tural ornaments, busts, statues, &c., 
being very light, and receiving a good 
poU^, but it wiU not stand weather. 

1959. The several mountains and 
other parts being formed, we joined them 
together in their proper plsices with 
some of the No. 1 paper cement, ren- 
dered rather more fluid by the addi- 
tion of a little thin glue. The towns 
were made of a piece of cork, cut and 
scratched to the form of the town ; 
steeples of cardboard, and trees of 
blades of moss. Sand was sprinkled 
in one part ; looking-glass in others, for 
the lakes, bays, and rivers ; and green 
baize flock for the verdant fields. 

1960. Monuments, ancient or modem, 
are better constructed of cork, on 
account of the lightness and facility in 
working, the more especially the 
ancient ones. We once constructed a 
model of the Acropolis of Athens in cork. 



206 



THI CVBSAKT TBBB WAB IHTBODUCaH> IH 1588. 



'wideh was completed in one-fifth the 
time occupied by other materialB, and 
looked much better ; and have lately 
been at work upon others representing 
the ancient moniunents of Sgypt. 

1961. Cities AND Temples. — WewUl 
suppose that the model is to represent 
the Temple of Theseus, at Athens, 
which was built by Cimon, the son of 
Hiltiades. In the first place we must 
obtain the necessary dimensions^ and 
then reducing the number of feet to 
fractional parts of an inch, form a scale 
suitable for carrying out the whole. A 
piece of wood of the necessary size is 
procured, the plan maiked out in pen- 
cil, and the ground on which it stands 
imitated in cork, by cutting away the 
parts that are not required, with a 
sharp penknife, and adding others with 
glue. The floor of the temple is now 
io be glued on with common glue, for 
we should remark that the liquid glue 
does not dry quick enough for cork 
modelling, and is not so good as the old 
plan ; the sides and ends are formed of 
cork sheets, marked with a lead-pencU 
to represent the blocks of stone ; and 
ruined and broken parts imitated, by 
pricking the cork with a blunt penkni& 
or needle. The frieze, representing 
the battle between the Oentau and La- 
pithae, and the metopes in mezzo- 
relievo, containing a mixture of the 
labours of Hercules and Theseus, 
should be dravm. upon the sheets of 
cork according to scale, and coloured 
with a little lamp-black and raw sienna, 
to represent the subject intended : if 
the scale is small, or if the model ad- 
mits of it, the groups may be neatly 
carved with a sharp penknife from the 
cork, which has been previously out- 
lined with pencil. The next thing we 
shall have to do, is to strengthen the 
interior of the model, and this is done 
by glueing small pieces of cork, at 
irregular intervals at the angles formed 
by the junction of any parts ; these are 
put on the inside, and lastly, the roof 
is affixed. Any parts that require to be 
coloured, must be touched up with 
varnish or water colours, and lichen. 



&e., affixed with mucilage where it is 
requisite. 

1962. To KODBL FBOK UYIKO OB- 
JECTS. — We will imagine that the 
reader desires to model the featixres of 
some friend, and as there is some difll 
culty in the matter, on account of the 
person operated upon having a natural 
tendency to distort the features when 
the liquid plaster is poured upon the 
face, and some danger of suffi)cation if 
the matter is not well managed, we will 
proceed at once to describe the various 
stages of operating : — 

1963. Mix the plaster of Paris with 
warm water, and have it about as thick 
as cream, but do not mix it until all is 
ready. Lay the friend upon his back, 
and having raised the head to ihe 
natural position when walking, by 
means of a pillow of bran or sana, 
cover the pai*ts intended to be cast 
with oil of almonds or olives, applied 
by means of a feather, brush, or lump 
of cotton ; plug the ears with cotton or 
wool, and insert two quills into the 
nostrils, and plug the space between 
each quill and the nostril very carefully 
with cotton. 

1964. Cover the face with the plaster, 
beginning at the upper part of the fore- 
head, and spread it downwards, over 
the eyes, which should be kept JtmUy 
closed, but in such a manner as not to 
produce any distortion by too violent 
compression — and continue the plaster 
as far as the lower border of the chin; 
cover that part of the chest and arms 
that is to be represented, and carry 
the plaster upwards, so as to join the 
cast of the face ; then carefully remote 
each, and season for casting, by soaking 
or brushing with linseed oil boiled 
with sugar of lead or litharge. Some 
persons boil the moulds in the oil ; and 
many, instead of casting the face in one 
piece, and the chest in another, lay 
threads across the face and up and 
down it, leaving the ends out. As the 
plaster sets, or is nearly set, the threads 
are pulled through, so as to divide the 
cast into four, five, or more pieces. 

1965. The back part of the head is 



Ffiomo&im WAS pbocmhsbbd 



1677. 



807 



moulded by bAvhig an oyal trenoher- 
8ort of TOMOl, deeper than half the 
head, and generally made of plaster, 
vhA boiled in oiL The back of the 
head being oiled, and this trencher 
partially filed with liquid piaster of 
Paris, itte head is lowered into it, and 
tiie cast taken. The back of tiie neck 
is cast with the person turned over on 
his face. 

1966. Each part of the mould is 
marked, so as to admit of its corre- 
sponding; sometimes with a x or ||, 
which, passing over the junction of two 
pieces, serves to distinguish them. 

1967. To model the face, join the 
several pieces, and tie Uiem together 
with twine ; then wrap some rag round 
-the joints, to prevent the plaster oozing 
out, and pour in the plaster made 
tolerably fluid, taking care to oil the 
inside of the mould very carefiilly first. 
When the outer part of the model is 
nearly set, scoop out the centre with a 
spoon, and let the whole dry ; then 
remove the strings, Soc, and smooth ofiP 
the edges of the joints upon the model 
with a sharp penknife, and carve out 
the eyes from the mass, otherwise they 
will appear as if closed. 

1968. Wax models may be made 
from the moulds used for the plaster ; 
but when the wax sets at the outside 
to about one-eighth of an inch, the rest 
should be poured out of the mould ; or, 
A smaller portion being poured in, it 
may be shaken about the inside of the 
mould until it is coated. The pieces 
are removed, and the seams trimmed 
up, as in the plaster cast. 

1969. If a cast be made in gutta 
percha from the model In plaster— or, 
what is still better, in fusible metal, 
then by pressing basU leather, moistened 
with water, into the mould, and 
strengthening the back and centre with 
chips of wood, affixed by liquid glue, 
a very nice model may be obtained in 
leather, which, when varnished, will 
look like oak carving — the more 
especially if it be stained with Stephens's 
Oak Stain. 

1970. Runre should be conBtnicte4 



of cork, aocMrding to the diieetioas we 
have given, and when it is necessary to 
represent the mouldering walls covered 
with moss or ivy, a little green faaiae 
flock, or moss cihippings, should be 
attached by muoUage to the part ; and 
oftentimeB a brush of raw sienna, com- 
bined with vamiah, requires to be laid 
underneath the moss or flock, in order 
to improve the efiect. Prostrate columns 
and huge blocks are effectively repre- 
sented in cork, and diould be neatly 
cut out with a shaip knife, and the 
various parts supposed to be destroyed 
^7J^^ picked away with a pin or blunt 
kmfe afterwards. 

1971. Rustic WasK, Sbats, Ak:., may 
be constructed of wire twisted to the 
proper shape and suae, and then covered 
with gutta percha, rendered soft by 
being dipped in hot water. The gutta 
per(£a should be twisted round the 
wire previously warmed, and gemtiy 
heated over a spirit lamp, or dipped 
again into hot water, so as to allow the 
various parts to be covered with it. 
When the model is finiidied, it should 
be touched up here and there with oil 
colours — green, yellow, sienna, and Ye- 
netian red — according to fancy, and the 
effect produced will be vezy good. 

1972. BAKING, BOILING, BROIL- 
ING, FRYING, ROASTING, STEW- 
ING, and /^FOILING.— A DiALoarm 
between the Dutch Oten, the Saucbb- 
FAN, the Spit, the GBlDtBON, and the 
Frying-pan, with reflections thereupon, 
in which all housekeepers and cooks 
are invited to take an interest. 

1973. We were once standing by oiir 
scullery, when all of a sudden we 
heard a tremendous clash and jingle — 
the Saucepan had tumbled into the 
Fryf&g-pan ; the Frying-pan had shot 
its handle through the ribs of the Grid- 
iron ; the Gridiron had bestowed a ter- 
rible thump upon the hollow head of 
the Dutch-oven; and the Spit had dealt 
a very sldlful stroke, which shook l^e 
sides of flJl the combatants, and made 
them ring out the noises by which we 
were startled. Musing upon this md- 



208 



LONDON ffCANSS THPON 620 ACBBS. 



dent, we hanaed that we OTerheard the 
following dialogue : — 

1974. FsTiNa-FAN. — Hallo, Sauce- 
pan 1 what are you doing here, with 
your dropsical corporation f Quite 
time that you were superannuated; 
you are a mere meat-spoiler. Tou 
adulterate the juices of the hest joint, 
and give to the stomach of our master 
little else than watery compounds to 
digest. 

1975. Saucepan. — Well ! I like your 
conceit ! Tou — ^who harden the fibre of 
flesh so much, that there is no telling 
whether a steak came from a bullock, a 
horse, or a bear ! — ^who can't fry a slice 
of potato, or a miserable smelt, but you 
must be flooded with oil or fa^ to keep 
your spiteful nature from burning or 
biting the morsel our master should 
exyoy. Not only that — you open your 
mouth so wide, that the soot of the 
chimney drops in, and frequently spoils 
our master's dinner ; or you throw the 
fSeit over your sides, and set the chimney 
in a blaze ! 

1976. Spit. — Gk) on ! go on ! six 
one, and half-a4ozen the other ! 

1977. Dutch-oven.— -Well, Mr. Spit, 
you needn't try to foment the quarrel. 
Tou require more attention than any 
of us; for if you are not continually 
watched, and helped by that useftil 
little attendant of yours they call a 
Jack, your lazy, lanky fig^e would 
stand still, and you would expose the 
most delicious joint to the ravages of 
the fire. In &ot, you need not only a 
Jack to keep you going, but a cook to 
constantly baste tibie joint confided to 
your care, without which our master 
would have but a dry bone to pick. 
Not only so, but you thrust your spear- 
like length through the best meat^ and 
make an unsightly gash in a joint which 
otherwise might be an ornament to the 
table. 

1978. Spit.— What> Dutch oven, is 
that you? venerable old sobersides, with 
a hood like a monk ! Why, you are a 
mere dummy — as you are placed so you 
reinain ; there you stand-in one place, 
gaping wide and catching* the cools as 



they fall ; if you were not well watched, 
you would bum the one half, and sod- 
den the other, of whatever you were re- 
quired to prepare. Bad luck to ffottr 
impertinence. 

1979. Gridiron. — ^Peaoe ! peace ! We 
all have our merits and our demerits. 
— ^At this remark of the Gridiron, there 
was a general shout of laughter. 

1980. Saucepan.— Well, I declare, I 
never thought that I should have my 
merits classed with those of the miser- 
able skeleton called a Gridiron. That 
is a joke ! A thing with six ribs and a 
tail to compare with so useful a mem- 
ber of the cuisine community as my- 
self ! Why you, Gridiron, waste one 
half of the goodness of the meat in the 
fire, and the other half you send to the 
table tainted with smoke, and burnt to 
cinders ! — ^A loud rattle of approbation 
went round, as the poor Gridiron fell 
under this torrent of derision frx>ni the 



1981. Coming away from the scene 
of confusion, I ordered the scullerymaid 
to go instantly and place each of the 
utensils that lay in border upon the 
ground, into its proper place, charging 
her to cleanse each carefully, untU it 
should be required for use. 

1982. Betuming to my library I 
thought it would form no mean oc- 
cupation were I to spend a few hours 
in reflection upon the relative claims of 
the disputants. I did so, and the fol- 
lowing is the result : — 

1983. The Gbidibon.— The Gridiron, 
though the simplest of cooking instru- 
ments, is by no means to be despised. 
The Gridiron, as indeed all cookiog 
utensils, idiould be kept scrupulously 
clean ; and when it is used, the ban 
should be allowed to get warm before 
the meat is placed upon it, otherwise 
the parts crossed by the bars will be 
insufficiently dressed. The fire should 
be sharp, clear, and fr>ee from smoke. 
The heat soon forms a film upon tbe 
surfiice of the meat, by which the 
juices are retained. Chops and steaks 
should not be too thick nor too tiiin. 
Fh>m a hiJf to three-quarters of an inch 



LONDON EHPLOTB 3,000 OMNIBUSES, AND 3,500 CABS. 



209 



is the proper thickness. Avoid thrust- 
ing the fork into the meat, by which 
you release the juice. There is a de- 
scription of gridiron in which the bars 
are grooved to catch the juice of the 
meat ; but a much better invention is 
the upright gridu'on, which is attached 
to the front of the grate, and has a pan 
at the bottom to catch the gravy. Kid- 
neys, rashers, &c., dressed in this man- 
ner will be found delicious. There are 
some, however, who think that the 
dressing of meat over the fire secures a 
flavour which cannot otherwise be ob- 
tained. Remember that the Gridiron is 
devoted to the cooking of small dishes, 
or snacks, for breakfast, supper, and 
luncheon, and is therefore a most useful 
servant, ready at a moment's notice. 
Remember, also, that eveiy moment 
which is lost, after the gridiron has 
delivered up his charge, is a delay to 
the prejudice of the Gridiron. From 
the Gridiron to the table without loss 
of time should be the rule. — (See 239). 

1984. Thb Fbytng-pan is less a 
favourite, in our estimation, than the 
Gridiron; but not to be despised, never- 
theless. He is a noisy and a greasy 
servant, requiring much watchfulness. 
Like the Gridiron, the Frying-pan re- 
quires a clear, but not a hu-ge &ce, and 
tiie pan should be allowed to get 
thoroughly hot, and be well covered with 
t&t, before meat is put into it. The ex- 
cellence of frying very much depends 
upon the sweetness of the oil, butter, 
lardy or fat, that may be employed. The 
Frying-pan is very useful in the warming 
of cold vegetables and other kinds of 
food, and, in this respect may be 
considered a real friend of economy. 
All know the relish afforded by a 
pancake — a treat which the Gridiron 
would be \mable to afford us. To say 
nothing of eggs and bacon, and various 
kinds of fish^ to which both the Sauce- 
pan and the Gridiron are quite unsuited, 
because they require that which is the 
essence of fiying, hoiling and browning 
in fat.— (See 239). 

1985. The Spit is a very noble and 
a very useful implement of cookery, as 



ancient, we presume, as he is straight- 
forward at his work. Perhaps the pro- 
cess of roasting stands only second in 
the rank of excellence in cookery. The 
process is perfectly sound in its chemi- 
cal effects upon the food ; while the 
joint is kept so immediately under the 
eye of the cook, that it must be the 
fault of that frinctionary if the joint 
does not go to table in the highest 
state of perfection. The process may 
be commenced very gradually, by the 
joint being kept a good distance from 
the fire, and gradually brought forward, 
until it is thoroughly Boaked within 
and browned without. The Spit has 
this advantage over the Oven, and espe- 
cially over the common oven, that the 
meat retains its own flavour, not having 
to encounter the evaporation from fifty 
different dishes, and that the steam 
from its own substance passes entirely 
away, leaving the essence of the meat 
in its primest condition. — (See 239, 598). 

1986. The Dutch Oven, though not 
so royal an instrument as the Spit, is, 
nevertheless, of great utility for small 
dishes of various kinds, which the Spit 
would spoil by the magnitude of its 
operations, or tiie Oven destroy by the 
severity of its heat. It combines, in 
fact, the advantages of roasting and 
baking, and may be adopted for com- 
pound dishes, and for warming cold 
scraps ; it is easily heated, and causes no 
material expenditure of fuel. — (See 239). 

1987. The Saucepan. — When we 
come to speak of the Saucepan, we have 
to consider the claims of a very large, 
ancient, and useful family ; and perhaps, 
looking at the g^iieric orders of the 
Saucepan, all other cooking implements 
must yield to its claims. There are 
large saucepans, which we dignify with 
the name of boilers, and small sauce- 
pans, which come under the denomina- 
tion of stew-pans. There are few kinds 
of meat or fish which it will not re- 
ceive, £md dispose of in a satisfactory 
manner ; and few vegetables for which its 
modus operandi is not adapted. The 
Saucepan, rightly used, is a very econo- 
mical servant^ allowing nothing to be 



210 



umotm xxfBBOia& txablt 240,000 BHUiOCEB. 



loci; that willed escapes from the meat 
wliile in its diacrge forms brotli, or mi^ 
be made the base of sonps. Fat rises 
upon the snrfiioe of the water, and may 
be skimmed off; while in Tarious stews 
it combines, in an eminent degree, 
what we may term the fragnvnce of 
cookery, and the piquancy of taste. 
The fVench are perfect masters of the 
use of the 8tew-pan. And we shall find 
that, as all cookery is but an aid to 
digestion, the operations of the Stew- 
pan resemble the action of the stomach 
Tery closely. The stomach is a close 
sac, in which solids and fluids are mixed 
together, macerated in the gastric 
juice, and dissolved by the aid of heat 
and motion, occasioned by the continual 
contractions and relaxations of the 
coats of the stomach during the action 
of digestion. This is more closely re- 
sembled by the process of stewing than 
by any other of our culinary methods. 
"-(See 239, 590). 

1988. In tlus rapid review of the 
claims of various cooking utensils, we 
think that we have done justice to each. 
They all have their respective advan- 
tages; besides which, they contribute 
to the VAKiETT presented by our tables, 
without which the routine of eating 
would be very monotonous and unsatis- 
factory. 

1989. There is one process to which 
we must yet allude — the process of 
Spoiling. Many cooks know how to 
prodttce a good dish, but too many of 
them know how to spoil it. They leave 
fifty things to be done just at the criti- 
cal moment when ^ chief dish should 
be watched with an eye of keenness, and 
attended by a hand thoroughly expert. 
Having spent three hours in making a 
joint hot and rich, they forget that a 
quarter of s^ hour, after it is taken 
from the fire, may impair or spoil all 
their labours. The serving -up of a 
dinner may be likened to the assault 
upon Sebastopol. Looking upon the 
joint as the Malakhoff, and the sur- 
rounding dishes as the redans, the bas- 
tions, and the forts, they should all be 
seized simultaneously, and made the 



prize of the commander4n-chi^ and 
his staff around the dinner-table. Sndi 
a victory will always do the cook the 
highest honour, and entitle him to tiie 
gratitude of the household. 

1990. Why does a polished metal tea- 
pot make better tea than a black, earthen 
one ? — Ab polished metal is a very bad 
radiator of heat, it keeps the water hot 
much longer; and the hotter the water 
ifi, the better it " draws " the tea. 

1991. Wht will not a dull black tea- 
pot make good tea ? — ^Because the heat 
of the water flies off so quickly, through 
the dull black surface of uie teapot, 
that the water is very rapidly cooled, 
and cannot "draw" the tea. 

1992. Do not pensioners, and aged 
cottagers, generally prefer the black 
earthen teapot to the bright metal one? 
— ^Tes, because they set it on the hob 
to "draw;" in which case, the little 
black teapot will make the best tea. 

1993. Wht vrill a black teapot make 
better tea than a bright metal one, if it 
is set upon the hob to draw ? — ^Because 
the black teapot will absorb heat plen- 
tifully from the fire, and keeps the 
water hot ; whereas a bright metal tea- 
pot (set upon the hob) would throw off 
the heat by reflection. 

1994. Then sometimes a black earthea 
teapot is the best, and sometimes a bright 
metal one? — ^Yes; when the teapot is 
set on the hob to " draw," the black 
earth is the best, because it absorbs heat; 
but when the teapot is not set on the 
hob, the bright metal is the best, be- 
cause it radiates heat very slowly, and 
therefore keeps the water hot. 

1995. Why does a saucepan which 
has been used boil in a shorter time 
than a new one ? — Because the bottom 
and back are covered with soot, and 
the black soot rapidly absorbs the heat 
of the glowing coals. 

1996. Wht should the front and lid 
of a saucepan be clean and bright ?— 
As they do not come in contact with 
the fire, they cannot absorb heat, and 
(being bright) they will not suffer the 
heat to escape by radiation. 



LONDOiT cmnvms tKLWur 1,<IO%080 Qu:4BnBBs oo* wheat. 



211 



1997. War ehotild not the bottom 
-and back of a kettle be cleaned and 
polished? — ^Because they come in con- 
tact with the fire, and (while they are 
eoYered with black soot) absorb heat 
freely from the burning coals. 

1993. Why are dinner covers made 
of bright tin or silver? — ^Because light- 
colourad and higUy-polished metal is a 
▼ery bad radiator of heat ; and, there- 
fore, bright tin or silver will not allow 
the' heat of the cooked food to escape 
throagh the cover by radiation. 

1999. "Why should a meat-cover be 
very brightly polished ? — If the cover 
be dull or scratched, it will absorb heat 
from the food ; and instead of keeping 
it hot, will mi^e it cold. 

2000. Why should a silver meat- 
cover be plain, and not chased ? — ^Be- 
cause, if the cover be chased, it will 
absorb heat from the food ; and instead 
of making it hot, will make it cold. 

2001 . What is the smoke of a candle ? — 
Solid particles of carbon, separated from 
the wick and tallow, but not consumed. 

2002. Why are some paiiiicles con- 
sumed and not others? — The com- 
bustion of the carbon depends upon its 
combining with the oxygen of the air. 
Now, as the outer surface of the flame 
prevents the aooess of air to the interior 
parts, much of the carbon of those parts 
passes off in smoke. 

2003. Why do lamps smoke ?— Either 
because the wick is cut unevenly, or 
else because it is turned up too high. 

2004. Why does a lamp smoke, when 
the wick is cut imevenly ? — ^Because the 
points of the jagged edge (being very 
easily separated from the wick) load 
the flame with more carbon than it can 
consume ; and as the heat of the flame 
is greatly diminished by these little bits 
of wicks, it is unable to consume even 
the usual quantity of smoke. The same 
applies when the wick is turned up too 
high. 

2005. WHYdoes a lamp-glass diminish 
the smoke of the wick? — Because it 
iaereases the supply of oxygen to the 
flune, by producing a draught ; and it 
concentrates and reflects the heat of 



the flame; in eoBisequenee of which, 
the combustion of the carbcm is more 
perfect, and veiy IttUe escapes imcon- 
sumed^->(From No. 0000 to 0000 are 
quoted from *'J)r. Brewer' 8 Guide to 
Sdenee,** We have> taken some care to 
extract the answers relating to domestic 
subjects. See 291.) 

2006. CAUTIONS FOR THE PRE- 
VENTION OF ACCIDENTS. — The 
foUowing regulations should be engraved 
on the memories of all : — 

2007. As most sudden deaths come by 
water, particular cautioa is therefore 
necessary in its vicinity. 

. 2008. Stand not near a tree, or any 
leaden spout^ iron gate, or palisade, in 
time <^ lightning. 

2009. £ay loaded guns in safe places, 
and never imitate firing a gun in jest. 

2010. Never gleep near charcoal; if 
drowsy at any work where oharooal 
fires are used, take the fresh air. 

2011. Carefully rope trees before they 
are cut down, that when they fall they 
may do no injury. 

2012. When benumbed with cold be- 
ware of sleeping' out of doors; rub 
yoiursel^ if you have it in your power, 
with snow, and do not hastily approach 
the fire. 

2013. Beware of damps. 

2014. Air vaults, by letting them re- 
main open some time before you enter, 
or scattering powdered lime in them. 
Where a lighted candle will not bum, 
ftwiniftl life cannot exist ; it will be an 
excellent caution, therefore, before en- 
tering damp and confined places, to try 
this simple experiment. 

2015. Never leave saddle or draught 
horses, while in use, by themselves; 
nor go immediately behind a led horse 
as he is npt to kick. 

2016. Ride not on foot-ways. 

2017. Be wary of children, whether 
they are up or in bed; and particularly 
when they are near the fire, an element 
with which they are very apt to amuse 
themselves. 

2018. Leave nothing poisonous open 
or accessible ; and never omit to write the 



212 



LOXDOn CUKSmOB TSABLT 1,700,000 SBXIP. 



word " Poboh" in large letters upon it> 
wherever it may be placed. 

2019. In walking the streets keep out 
of the line of the cellars, and never 
look one way and walk another. 

2020. Never throw pieces of orange- 
peel, or broken glass bottles into the 
streets. 

2021. Never meddle with gunpowder 
by candle-light. 

2022. In trimming a lamp with nap- 
tha, never fill it. Leave space for the 
spirit to expand with warmth. 

2023. Never quit a room leaving the 
poker in the fire. 

2024. When the brass rod of the stair- 
carpet becomes loose, fasten it imme- 
diately. 

2025. In opening efitsrvescing drinks, 
such as soda water, hold the cork in 
your hand. 

2026. Quit your house with care on a 
frosty morning. 

2027. Have your horses' shoes roughed 
directly there are indications of frost. 

2028. Keep lucifer matches in their 
cases, and never let them be strewed 
about. 

2029. BIRDLIME.— Take any quan- 
tity of linseed oil, say half a pint ; put 
it into an old pot, or any vessel that 
will stand the fire without breaking; 
the vessel must not be more than one- 
third full, put it on a slow fire, stir it 
occasionally imtil it thickens as much 
as required; this will be known by 
cooling the stick in water, and trying it 
with tiie fingers. It is best to inake it 
rather harder than for use. Then pour 
it into cold water. It can be brought 
back to the consistency required with a 
little Archangel tar. 

2030. RINGWORM. — The head to 
to be washed twice a day with soft 
soap and warm soft water ; when dried, 
the places to be rubbed with a piece of 
linen rag dipped in ammonia from gas 
tar; the patient should take a little 
sulphur and treacle, or some other gen- 
tle aperient, every morning; brushes 
and combs should be washed eveiy day, 
and the ammonia kept tightly corked. 
— (&e 1260.) 



2031. DOITT RUN IN D£BT. 
" DoM'T ran in debt:*' — never mind, 
mind. 
If the dotiies are faded and torn: 
Seam them up, make them do ; it ia better hj 
far, 
Than to have the heart weary and worn. 
Wholl love yon the more for the shape of 
your hat, 
Or your mfl; or the tie of your shoe, 
The cutof yoor vest, or your boots, or cravat, 

If th^ know yoa*re in debt for the new. 
There's no oomfort, I tell yoo, in walking the 
street 
In fine clothes if you know yon are in debt; 
And feel that perchance yoa some tradesman 
may meet, 
Who will sneer — "They're not paid for 
yet" 
Good friends, let me beg of yoo, don't nm ia 
debt, 
If the chairs and the soflu are old— 
They will fit jovar back better than Tany new 
set, 
Unless tiiey're paid for — ^with gold ; 
If the house is too small, draw the closer 
together. 
Keep it warm with a hearty good wiU ; 
A big one unpaid for, in all kinds of weather, 

Will send to your warm heart a chill. 
Don't run in debt—now, dear g^ls, take a 
hint, 
(If the fashions have changed since hut 
season,) 
Old Nature is out in the very same tint, 

And old Nature, we think, has some reason. 
But Just say to your Mend, that you cannot 
aiPord 
To spend time to keep up with the fashion ; 
That your purse is too light, and your honour 
too bright. 
To be tarnished with such silly passion. 
Gents, don't run in debt — ^let your ftiends, if 
they can, 
Have fine houses, feathers, and flowers, 
But, unless they are paid for, be more of a 
man 
Than to envy their sunshiny hours. 
If you've money to spare, I have nothing to 
say — 
Spend your silver and gold as you please ; 
But, mind you, the man who his bill has to pay 

Is the man who is never at ease. 
Kind husbands, don^t run into debt any nuMne ; 

'Twill fill your wife's cup taXL of sorrow, 
To know that a neighbour may call at jour 
door, 
With a claim yoa must settle to-morrow. 



LOlTDOir COirSUMXS TXABLT 28^000 CALTXB. 



218 



Oh ! take mj adido»— it is good, it is true ! 

(But, last 70U may soma of you doubt it,) 
I*]l whisper a secret, now seeing 'tils you— - 

I have tried it, and know all about it : 
27iec/uttno/add>torit/uawpandcoki, 

It* Unts aB corrosion and rtutf 
Cfiid U <fer <u j/ou wia — it i$ never o/goM^ 

Then gpumitcuideteith diegtttt 



2032. LOVE'S TELEGRAPH.— If a 
gentleman wants a wife, he wears a ring 
on the fir»t finger of the left hand ; if 
lie is engaged, he wears it on the second 
finger ; if married on the third ; and 
on the fourth if he never intends to he 
married. When a lady is not engaged, 
she wears a hoop or diamond on her 
firtA finger ; if engaged, on the second ; 
if manied, on the third; and on the 
fourth if she intends to die a maid. 
When a gentleman presents a fim, 
flower, or trinket> to a lady with the 
left handf this, on his part, is an over- 
ture of regard; should she receive it 
with the l^ hand, it is considered as 
an acceptance of his esteem; but if 
with the right hand, it is a refusal of 
the offer. Thus, by a few simple 
tokens, explained by rule, the passion 
of love is expressed : and, through the 
medium of the telegraph, the most 
timid and diffident man may, without 
difficulty, communioate his sentiments 
of regard to a lady, and, in case his 
offer should be refused, avoid expe- 
riencing the mortification of an explicit 
refusal. 

2038. SLUGS and SNAILS are 
great enemies to every kind of garden- 
plant, whether flower or vegetable; 
they wander in the night to feed, and 
return at day-light to their haunts; 
the shortest and surest direction is, 
"rise early, catch them, and kill them." 
If you are an early riser, you may cut 
them off from their day retreats, or you 
may lay cabbage leaves about the 
ground, especially on the beds which 
they frequent. Every morning examine 
these leaves, and you will find a great 
many taking refuge beneath; if they 
plague you very much, search for their 
retreat, which you can find by their 



slimy track, and hunt there for them 
day by day ; lime and salt are very an- 
noying to snails and slugs ; a pinch of 
salt kills them, and they will not 
touch fresh Ume ; it is a common prac- 
tice to sprinkle lime over young crops, 
and along the edges of beds, about rows 
of peas and beims, lettuces and other 
vegetables ; but when it has been on 
the ground some days, or has been 
moistened by rain, it loses its strength. 
—{See 1306, 1306.) 

2034. Caterfillabs and Aphidbs. — 
A garden syringe or engine, with a cap 
on the pipe full of very minute holes, 
will wash away these disagreeable visi- 
tors very quickly. You must bring 
the pipe close to the plant, and pump 
hard, so as to have considerable force 
on, and the plant, however badly in- 
fested, will soon be cleared without re- 
ceiving any iigury. Every time that 
you use the syringe or garden engine, 
you must immediately rake the earth 
under the trees, and kill the insects 
you have dislodged, or many will reco- 
ver and climb up the stems of the 
plants. 

2035. Grubs on orchard-trees and 
gooseberry and currant bushes, will 
sometimes be sufficiently numerous 
to spoil a crop ; but, if a bonfire be 
made with dry sticks and weeds on the 
windward side of the orchard, so that 
the smoke may blow among the trees, 
you will destroy thousands; for the 
grubs have such an objection to smoke, 
that very little of it makes them roll 
themselves up and fall off; they must 
be swept up e^erwards. 

2036. Wasps destroy a good deal of 
fruit, but every pair of wasps killed in 
spring saves the trouble and annoyance 
of a swarm in autumn ; it is necessary, 
however, to be very careful in any at- 
tempt upon a wasp, for its sting is pdn- 
ful and lasting. In case of being stung, 
get the blue bag from the laundry, and 
rub it well into the wound as soon as - 
possible. Later in the season, it is cus- 
tomary to hang vessels of beer, or 
water and sugar, in the fruit-trees, to 
entice them to drown themselves. 



214 



uxnaa eoMmnoM iiABiiT 96JIM noft 



2(tt7. BuTTBEFUK and Maaa, hoir- 
eviflr pxettj, aro the wont eaemies one 
caa liaveinagwden; a aing^ inaect of 
this kind may depoait eggfi enongfa to 
ovemm a tree wtth caterpfllara, there- 
fore they ahould be deatroyed at any 
coat of trouble. The only moih that 
you muat spare, ia the oommon bhick 
and red one; the gmba of this feed 
ezdusiYeiy on groundsel, and are there- 
fore a valuable ally of the gardener. 

2038. Earwigs are very destructive 
insects; their favourite food is the 
petals of roses, pinks, *^**i1iag and 
other flowers. They may be caught by 
driving stakes into the ground, and 
placing on each an inverted flower pot; 
the earwigs will climb up and take 
refuge imder it, when they may be 
taken out and killed. Clean bowls of 
tobacco-pipes placed in like manner on 
the tops of smaller sticks are very good 
traps ; or very deep holes may be made 
in the ground with a crowbar, into 
these they will fall, and may be de- 
stroyed by boiling water. 

2039. Toads are among the best 
friends the gardener has ; for they live 
almost exclusively on the most destruc- 
tive kinds of vermin. Unsightly, there- 
fore, though they may be, they should 
on all accounts be encouraged; they 
should never be touched nor molested 
in any way ; on the contrary, places of 
shelter should be made for them, to 
which they may retire from the burn- 
ing heat of the sun. If you have none 
in your garden, it will be quite worth 
your while to search for them in your 
walks, and bring them home, taking 
care to handle them tenderly, for al- 
though they have neither the will nor 
the power to injure you, a veiy little 
rough treatment will injure them ; no 
cucumber or melon frame should be 
without one or two. — Qlenni/s Qa/rden' 
vngfor Ghildrmk* 

2040. SMALL-POX MABKS.'-Mr. 
Waddington, Buzgeon' to the Sea* 
Bathing Infirmary, Margate, lances the 



ia^MBi neBilMit Utile -mrt. 



pusfenlw witii anaedle, and thus allows 
the poiMBovs matter (wldeh is the 
cause of the dtflfigvenMBt) to etcKp^ 
and also orders the room to be kept 
dark. Mr. Waddington states that, 
during twelve years* practice, he has 
not known one case out of twenty of a 
person being marked by the small-pox, 
when the above simple expedient has 
been reaoited to. (Ae 1018.) 

2041. VENTILATING BED- 
BOOMS.— A sheet of finely perforated 
zinc, substituted for a pane of glass in 
one of the upper squares of a chamber 
window, is the cheapest and best form 
of ventilator ; there sUould not be & 
bed-room without it. 

2042. GREASE SPOTS FROM 
SILK. — Upon a deal table lay a piece 
of woollen cloth or baize, upon which 
lay smoothly the part stained, with the 
right side downwards. Having spread 
a piece of brown paper on the top, 
apply a flat-iron just hot enough to 
scorch the paper. About five or eight 
seconds is usually sufficient. Then rub 
the stained part briskly with a piece of 
cap-paper. (See 815.) 

2043. CLEAN WHITE OSTRICH 
FEATHERS.— Four oz. of white soap, 
cut small, dissolved in four pints of 
water, rather hot, in a large basin; 
make the solution into a lather, by 
beating it with birch rods, or wires. 
Introduce the feathers, and rub well 
with the hands for five or six minutes. 
After this soaping, wash in clean water, 
as hot as the hand can bear. Shake 
until dry. 

2044. INK STAINS. — Very £* 
quently, when logwood has been used 
in manufacturing ink, a reddish stam 
still remains, after the use of oxahc 
acid, as in the former directionfl. '^ 
remove it, prooore a solution of toe 
chloride of lime, and apply it in ^® 
same manner as directed for the oxalifi 
add. (See 176, 177, 277> 602,.and 507.) 

2046. BALDNESa— The decoctiwi 
of boxwood, suooessful in;caflesof hatfl' 
nessy is thus made :— Take of the oooi' 
mon haLfyAdeb.ipem» ia gjBPdeD ^'f^ 
stems and Imkvs* four laige bsDdfou; 



Tmn lamAX body* o^, 2i0 bohbS) 



216 



boil ilk three pints of water, in a closoly 
covered vee^l, for a quarter of an how , 
and let it stand in a covered earthen* 
ware jcff for ten hours or more ; Btrain, 
and add an ounce and a half of Eau de 
Cologne, or lavender water, to make it 
keep. The head should be well washed 
with this solution every* maming. (See 
148, 149, and 169.) 

2046. TO DESTROY AKTS.— Drop 
some quicklime on the mouth of their 
nest, and wash it in with boiling water; 
or dissolve some camphor in spirits of 
wine, then mix with water, and pour 
into their haunts; or tobacco water, 
which has been found effectual. They 
are averse to strong scents. Camphor 
will prevent their infesting a cupboard, 
or a sponge saturated with creosote. 
To- prevent their climbing up trees, 
place a ring of tar about the trunk, or 
a circle of rag moistened occasionally 
with creosote. 



2047. BREACH OF PROMISE OF 
MARRIAGE.— A verbal offer of 
marriage is sufficient whereon to ground 
an action for breach of promise of 
marriage. The conduct of the suitor, 
subsequent to the breaking off the en- 
gagement, would weigh with the jury 
in estimating damages. An action may 
be commenced although the gentleman 
is not married. The length of time 
which must elapse before action, must 
be reasonable. A lapse of three years, 
or even half that time, without any at- 
tempt by the gentleman to renew the 
acquaintance, would lessen the damages 
very considerably — ^perhaps do away 
witifi all chance of success, unless the 
delay could be satisfactorily explained. 
The mode of proceeding is by an action 
at law. For this an attorney must be 
retained, who will manage the whole 
affair to its termination. The first pro- 
ceeding (the writ^ service thereof, &c.) 
costa from £2 to ^5. The next pro- 
ceeding — from a fortnight to a month 
after service of the writ — costs about 
£5 more. The whole Tcosts, to the ver- 
dict of the jury, &om £35 to £50, be- 
sides the expenses of the lady's witnesses. 



If the verdict be in her favour, the- 
other side have to pay her costs, with, 
the exception of about £10. If th» 
verdict be against her, the same tu3a' 
holds good, and she must pay her 
opponents costs— ^probaldy fh>m £60^ 
to £70. 

2048. Before legal proceedings ax^ 
commenced, a letter should be written to- 
the gentleman, by the £ither or brother 
of the lady, requesting him to fulfil his 
engagement A copy of this lettec 
should be kept, and it had better be 
delivered by some person who can prove 
that he did so, and that the cc^y is> 
correct: he should make a memoran- 
dum of any remarks or conversation. 

2049. We give an extract or two from 
the law authorities : they will, we have 
no doubt, be perused by our Mr readers 
with great attention, and some satisfac-^ 
tion. '^ A man, who was paying parti- 
cular attentions to a young girl, wa& 
asked by the father of the latter, after 
one of his visits, what his intentions 
were, and he replied, " I have pledged 
my honour to marry the girl in a month, 
after Christmas ;" and it was held that 
this declaration to the father, who had 
a right to make the inquiry, and to 
receive a true and correct answer, taken 
in connexion with the visits to the 
house, and the conduct of the young 
people towtu'ds each other, was suffi- 
cient evidence of a promise of marriage." 

2050. " The common law does not alto« 
getherdisc9untenancelong engagements 
to be married. If parties are young,, 
and circumstances exist, showing that 
the period during which they had 
agreed to remain single was not un- 
reasonably long^ the contract is binding 
upon them ; but if they are advanced 
in years, and the marriage is appointed 
to take place at a remote and un- 
reasonably long period of time, the 
contract would be voidable, aib the 
option of eith£r of the parties, as being- 
in restrain of matrimony. If no time 
is fixed and agreed upon for the per'- 
farmance of the contmct, it is in oon-^ 
templation of law a eontriict to mairry 
within a recuoThoible period afivirreqmtU 



216 



A SALMON HAS BBBN KNOWN TO PBODUCE 10,000,000 ■GGS. 



Either of the parties, therefore, after 
the making of such a contract, may call 
upon the other to fulfil the engage- 
ment ; and in case of a refusal, or a 
neglect so to do on the part of the 
latter within a reasonahletime after the 
request made, the party so calling upon 
the other for a fulfilment of the en- 
gagement, may treat the betrothment 
as at an end, and bring an action for 
damages for a breach of the engagement 
If boti^ parties lie by for an unreasonable 
period, and neither renew the contract 
from lime to time by their conduct or 
actions, or call upon one another to 
carry it into execution, the engagement 
will be deemed to be abandoned by 
mutual consent, and the parties will be 
free to marry whom they please." 

2051. "The Roman law very properly 
considered the term of two years amply 
sufficient for the duration of a betroth- 
ment ; and if a man who had engaged 
to marry a girl did not think 'fit to 
celebrate the nuptial within two years 
from the date of the engagement, the 
girl was released from the contract." 



2052. DYE SILK LILAC. — For 
eveiy pound of silk, take one and a-half 
pound of archil, mix it well with the 
liquor ; make it boil a quarter of an 
hour, dip the silk quickly, then let it 
cool, and wash it in river water, and a 
fine half violet, or lilac, more or less 
full, will be obtained. {See 402.) 

2053. DYE HAIR AND FEA- 
THERS GREEN.— Take of verdigris 
or verditer, of each one ounce ; gum 
water, one pint; mix them well, and 
dip the hair or feathers into the mix- 
ture, shaking them well about. {See 
418 to 421.) 

2054. EXCELLENT HAIR WASH. 
— ^Take one ounce of borax, half an 
ounce of camphor; powder these in- 
gredients fine, and dissolve them in 
one quart of boiling water ; when cool, 
the solution will be ready for use; 
damp the hair frequently. This wash 
effectually cleanses, beautifies, and 
strengthens the hair, preserves the 
colour, and prevents early baldness. 



The camphor will form into lumps 
after being dissolved, bufc the water 
will be sufficiently impregnated. 

2055. ESSENCE OP CELERY.— 
This is prepared by soaking for a fort- 
night a-half ounce of the seeds of celeiy 
in a^uarter pint of brandy. A few 
drops will flavour a pint of soup or 
broth, equal to a head of celery. 

2056. HICCOUGH OR HICCUP.— 
This ia a spasm of the diaphragm, caused 
by flatulency, indigestion, or acidity. 
It may be relieved by the sudden ap- 
plication of cold, also by two or three 
mouthfiils of cold water, by eating a 
small piece of ice, taking a pinch of 
snufi^ or anything that excites counter 
action. 

2057. SUBSTITUTE FOR CREAM 
IN TEA OR COFFEE. — Beat the 
white of an egg to a froth, put to it a 
very small lump of butter, and mix 
well. Then turn iuto it gradually, so 
that it may not curdle. If perfectly 
done, it will be an excellent substituto 
for cream. 

2068. STAINS AND MARKS 
FROM BOOKS.— A solution of oxalic 
acid, citric acid, or tartaric acid, is at- 
tended with the least risk, and may be 
applied upon the paper and prints with- 
out fear of damage. These acids, taking 
out writing ink, and not touching the 
printing, can be used for restoring books 
where the margins have been written 
upon, without attacking the text. {See 
548.) 

2059. MINT VINEGAR— Put mto 
a wide-mouthed bottle, fresh nice dean 
mint leaves enough to fill it loosely; 
then fill up the bottle with good viae- 
gar ; and after it has been stopped close 
for two or three weeks, it is to bo 
poured off clear into another bottle, and 
kept well corked for use. Serve with 
lamb when mint cannot be obtained. 

2060. YELLOW RICE.— Take on* 
pound of rice, wash it clean, and put it 
into a saucepan which will hold thret 
quarts ; add to it half a pound of cur- 
rants picked and washed, one quarter of 
an ounce of the .best turmeric powder, 
previously dissolved in a cupful of 



THE 1CU810AL 80ALB WAS ISYSSTSD IN 1022. 



217 



water, and a stick of cinnanion; pour 
over them two quarts of cold water, 
place the sauoepaa uncovered on a 
moderate fire, and allow it to boil till 
the rice is dry, then stir in a quarter of 
a pound of sugar, and two ounces of 
butter : cover up, and place the pan 
near the fire for a few minutes^ then 
mix it well and dish up. This is a 
favourite dish with the Javanese, and 
will be found excellent as a vegetable 
with roast meat, poultiy, &c. It also 
forms a capital pudding, which may be 
improved by the addition of raifiins,^and 
a few blanched almondB. 

2061. NEAT MODE OF SOLDER- 
ING. — Cut out a piece of tinfoil the size 
of the surfaces to be soldered. Then 
dip a feather in a solution of sal ammo- 
niac, and wet over the surfaces of the 
metaJ, then place them in their proper 
position with the tinfoil between. Put 
it so arranged on a piece of iron hot 
enough to melt the foil. When cold 
they will be found firmly soldered 
together. 

2062. TRACING PAPER. — Mix 
together by a gentle heat, one oz. of 
Canada balsam, and a-quarter pint of 
spirits of turpentine ; with a soft brush 
l^pread it thinly over one side of good 
tissue paper. It dries quickly, is very 
transparent, and is not greasy, there- 
fore does not stain l^e object upon 
which it may be placed. 

2063. DYE SILK, &c., CRIMSON. 
— Take about a spoonful of cutbear, 
put it into a small pan, pour boiling 
water upon it; stir and let it stand a 
few minutes, then put in the silk, 
and turn it over in a 8hoi*t time, and 
when the colour is full enough, take it 
out; but if it should require more 
violet or crimson, add a spoonful or 
two of purple archil to some warm 
water ; steep, and dry it within doors. 
It must be mangled, and ought to be 
pressed. 

2064. CLEAN KID GLOVES.— 
Make a sti'ong lather with curd soap 
and warm water, in which steep a small 
piece of new flannel. Place the glove 
on a flat^ clean, and unyielding surfSeice 



— such as the bottom of a dish, and 
having thoroughly soaped the flannel 
(when squeezed from the lather), rub 
the kid till all dirt be removed, clean* 
ing and re-soaping the flannel from 
time to time. Care must be taken to 
omit no part of the glove, by turning 
the fingers, &c. The gloves must be 
dried in the sun, or before a moderate 
fire, and will present the appearance of 
old parchment. When quite dry, they 
must be gradually " pulled out," and 
will look new. (See 323, 1321.) 

2065. PREVENT GALLING IN 
INVALIDS.— The white of an egg, 
beaten to a strong froth, then drop in 
gradually whilst you are beating two 
teaspoonfuls of spirits of wine, put it 
into a bottle, and apply occasionally 
with a feather. 

2066. MASHED POTATOES AND 
SPINACH OR CABBAGE.— Moisten 
cold mashed potatoes with a little 
white sauce: take cold cabbage or 
spinach, and chop either one very finely. 
Moisten them with a brown gravy. Fill 
a tin mould with layers of potatoes and 
cabbage ; cover the top and put it into 
a stew-pan of boiling water. Let it re- 
main long enough to warm the vege- 
tables; then turn the vegetables out 
and serve them. This might be pre- 
pared by boiling the vegetables sepa- 
rately, and merely putting them into 
the mould in layers, to be tmned out 
when wanted. It forms a very pretty 
dish for an entree. — {See 122.) 

2067. COLD CARROTS AND TUR- 
NIPS may be added to soups, if they 
have not been mixed with gravies ; or 
warmed up separately, and put into 
moulds in layers ; they may be turned 
out, and served the same as the pota- 
toes and cabbage described above. 

2068. RASPBERRY VINEGAR.— 
Put a pound of very fine ripe raspberries 
in a bowl, bruise them well, and pour 
upon them a quart of the best white 
wine vinegar ; next day strain the liquor 
on a pound of fresh ripe raspbenies ; 
bruise them also, and the following day 
do the same, but do not squeeze the Jruit, 
or it wiU make it foment; only drain 



218 



80M« VBlEAZiS SPIBEIA PBO&ITCB 2^6<N) E4MB; 



the liquor as dry as you can from it. 
Tito last time, pass it through a canvas 
bag, previotisly wet with the vinegar, to 
prevent waste. Put the juice into a 
stone jar, with a pewnd of w/^wr to 
«wry pvn^ of juice ; the sugar must be 
broken into lumps; stir it, and when 
melted, put the jar into a pan of water ; 
let it simmer, and skim it ; when cold, 
bottle it; it will be fine, and thick, 
when cold, like stramed honey, newly 
prepared. 
2069. SIGNS OF THE WEATHER. 

2070. Dew.— If the dew lies plenti- 
fully on the grass after a fair day, it is a 
sign of another. If not, and there is no 
wind, rain must follow. A red even 
ing portends fine weather; but if it 
spread too far upwards from the hori- 
zon in the evening, and especially 
morning, it foretells wind or i-ain, or 
both. When the sky, in rainy weather, 
is tinged with sea green, the rain 
will increase ; if with deep blue, it will 
be showery. 

2071. Clouds. — Against much rain, 
the clouds grow bigger, and increase 
Tery fast, especially before thunder. 
When the clouds are formed like fleeces, 
but dense in the middle and bright to- 
wards the edges, with the sky bright, 
iiiey are signs.of a frost, with hail, snow, 
or rain. If clouds form high in air, in 
thin white trains like locks of wool, 
they portend wind, and probably rain. 
When a general cloudiness covers the 
sky, and small black fragments of clouds 
fly underneath, they are a sure sign of 
rain, and probably it will be lasting. 
Two CTirrents of clouds always portend 
rain, and, in summer, thunder. 

2072. Hbatenlt Bodies. — ^Ahasdness 
in the air, which fades the sun's light, 
«nd makes the orb appear whitish .Or 
ill'>defined — or at night, if the moon and 
stars grow dim, and a ring encircles 
the former, rain will follow. If the 
sun's rays appear like Moses' horns — ^if 
white at setting, or shorn of his rays, or 
goes down into a bank of clouds in the 
iMirison, bad Weather is to be expected. 
If the moon looks pale and dim, we ez- 
I^ectrain; if red, wind; and if of her 



natural colour, with a clear sky, fidr 
weather. If the mooU is rainy through- 
out, it will clear at the change, andt 
perhaps, the rain return a few days 
after. If £air throughout^ and rain at 
the change, the fiiir weather will pro- 
bably return on the fourth or fifth day. 

2078. ASTHILA..— The foUowing is 
recommended as a relief. — ^Two ounces 
of the best honey, and one ounce of 
castor oil mixed. A tea-spoonful to be 
taken night and morning. 

2074. MILDEW OUT OF LINElf.— 
Take soap, and rub it well ; then 
scrape some fine chalk, and rub it also 
on the linen. Lay it on the grass. As 
it dries, wet it a little, and it will come 
out in twice doing. 

2075. EXCELLENT REMEDY FOR 
SPRAINS.— Put the white of an egg 
into a saucer, keep stirring it with a 
piece of alum about the size of a walnut 
until it becomes a thick jelly ; apply a 
portion of it on a piece of lint or tow 
large enough to cover the sprain, 
changing it for a fr^sh one as often as 
it feels warm or dry ; the limb is to be 
kept in an horizontal position by 
placing it on a cha^r. 

2076. REMEDY FOR RHEUMA- 
TISM, LUMBAGO, SPRAINS, BRUI- 
SES, CHILBLAINS, (BEFORE THEY 
ARE BROKEN) AND BITES OF 
INSECTS.--One raw egg well beaten, 
half a pint of vinegar, one ounce of 
sphits of turpentine, a quarter of an 
ounce of spirits of wine, a quarter of 
an oimce of camphor. These ingredi- 
ents to be beaten well together, then 
put in a bottle and shaken for ten 
minuted, after which, to be coiked 
down tightly to exclude the air. In 
half an hour it is fit for use. Direc- 
tions: — ^To be well rubbed in, two, 
three, or four times a day. For rheu- 
matism in the head, to be rubbed at 
the hack of the neck and behind the 
ears. 

2077 UNFERMENTBD BREAD.— 
Three pounds wheat meal; half tch. 
ounce, avoirdupois; muriatic acid ; hidf 
an ounc6|, avoirdupois, carbonate soda ; 



THEBX AflX 9,000 CEOa TS A SQTTlftftB VOOT OF BOmElCOHB. 



210 



fviter enou^ to make it of a proper 
consistence. For white flour, four 
pounds of ^xmr ; half an ounce, avoirr 
dupois, muriatio acid ; half an ounce, 
avoirdupois, oarboBftte soda ; water 
about a quart. The way of making is 
as follows: — ^First mix the soda and 
flour well together by rubbing in a pan ; 
then pour the aoid into the water, and 
mix well by stirring. Mix altogether to 
the required consistence, and bake in a 
hot oyen immediately. The gain from 
iiiis method of baking is as follows: — 
four poimds of wheat meal made seyen 
pounds nine ounces of excellent light 
bread ; and four poimds of seconds 
flour made six pounds of excellent light 
bread. It keeps moist longer than 
bread made with yeast, and is far more 
sweet and digestible. This is especially 
recommended to persons who suffer 
from indigestion, who willfind the brown 
bread invaluable. (See 461.) 

2078. SCURF IN THE HEAD.— A 
simple and effectual remedy. Into a 
pint of water dropa lump of fresh quick 
lime, the size of a walnut ; let it stand 
all night, then pour the water off clear 
from sediment or deposit, add^a quarter 
of a pint of the best vinegar, and wash 
the head with the mixture. Perfectly 
harmless ; only wet the roots of the 
hair. (See 1276.) 

2079. JAUNDICE. — One penny- 
worth of allspice, ditto of flowers of 
brimstone, ditto of turmeric ; these to 
be well pounded together, and after* 
wards to be mixed with half-a-pound of 
treacle. Two table^oonfuls to be 
taken every day. {See 1247.) 

2080. CRAMP IN THE LEGS. 
— Stretch out the heel of the leg as far 
as possible, at the same time cUuwing 
up the toes as far as possible. This 
will often stop aiit of tike cramp aftw it 
has commenoisd. 

2081. CLEAN FURS.— Strip the ftir 
articles of their staffing and binding, 
aad'Iay them as much as possible in a 
flat position. They must then be sub- 
jected to a very bnsk brushing, with a 
stiff clothes bt«ish ; after this, any moth- 
eaten parta nrast be eui oat, and be 



neatly replaeod by new bits of fUr to 
matdb. Sable, chinchilla, squirrel, fitoh, 
&0., should be treated as follows: — 
Warm a quantity of new bran in a pan, 
taking care that it does not bum, to 
prevent which it must be actively 
stirred. When well warmed, rub it 
thoroughly into the fur with Uie hand. 
Repeat tins two or three times : then 
shake the frir, and give it another sharp 
brushing until fr^ee from dust. White 
furs, ermine, ftc, may be uleandd as 
follows : — Lay the ftir on a table, and 
rub it well with bran made moist with 
warm water; rub until quite dry, and 
afterwards with dry bran. The wet bran 
should be put on with flannel, and the 
dry with a piece of book-muslin. The 
li^t furs, in addition to the above, 
should be well rubbed with magnesia, 
or a piece of book-muslin, after the bran 
process. Furs are usually much im- 
proved by stretching, which may be 
managed as follows : to a pint of soft 
water add three ounces of salt, dissolve; 
with this solution sponge the inside of 
the skin (taking care not to wet the 
fur), tmtil^it becomes thoroughly satu-^ 
rated ; then lay it carefully on a board 
with the frir side downwards, in its 
natural disposition ; then stretch as 
much as it will bear, and to the required 
shape, and &sten with small tacks. The 
drying may be quickened by placing the 
skin a little distance fr^m the fire or 
stove »••— a^—. 

2082. WHIST.— (Upon the principles 
of Hoyle's games). — Great silence 
and attention must be observed by the 
players. Four persons cut for partners; 
the two highest are against the two 
lowest. The partners sit opposite to 
each other, and the person who cuts 
the lowest card is entitled to the 
deal. The ace is the lowest in cutting. 

Each person has a right to shufSe 
the cards before the deal; but it is 
usual for t&e elder hand only, and the 
dealer after. 

The pack is then cut by the ri^t 
hand adversary; And the dealer dis- 
tributes the cards, one by one, to eaeh 
of the players; beginning with th» 



220 



A OOW OONBTTMBB 100 LBS. Or OBXSN FOOD DAILT. 



Serson who sits on his left hand until 
e comes to the last card, which he 
turns up, being the trump, and leaves 
on the table till the first trick is played. 

The person on the left hand side of 
the dealer is called the elder, and plays 
first ; whoever wins the trick becomes 
elder hand, and plays again ; and so on, 
till all the cards are played out. 

No intimations or signs of any kind, 
during the play of the cards, are per- 
mitted between the partners. The 
mistake of one party is the game of the 
adversary, except in a revoke, when the 
partners may inquire if he has any of 
the suit in his hand. 

The tricks belonging to each party 
should be turned and collected by the 
respective partners of whoever wins 
the first trick in every hand. 

All above six tricks reckon towards 
the game. 

The ace, king, queen, and knave of 
trumps are called honours; and when 
either of the partners have three 
separately, or between them, they coimt 
two points towards the game ; and in 
case they have four honours, they count 
four points. 

The gavM coTitists of tenpmwtt. 

2083. Terms used in Whist. — 
Fmeanng, is the attempt to gain an 
advantage; thus: — If you have the 
best, and third best card of the 
suit led, you put on the third best, and 
run the risk of your adversary having 
the second best ; if he has it not, which 
is two to one against him, you are then 
certain of gaining a trick. 

Porcmg, is playing the suit of which 
your partner or adversary has not any, 
and which he must trump, in order to 
win. 

Long trump, means the having one or 
more trumps in your hand when all 
the rest are out. 

Loose card, means a card in hand of 
no value, and the most proper to throw 
away. 

PoinU, Ten make the game; as 
many as are gained by tricks or 
honours, so many points are set up 
to the score of the game. 



QjiMft, is four successive cards in any 
suit. 

Q^art Major, is a sequence of ace, 
king, queen, and knave. 

Q^nti is five successive cards in any 
suit. 

Quint Major is a sequence of aoe^ 
king, queen, and ten. 

Seesaw, is when each partner turnB 
a suifc^ and when they play those suits 
to each other for that purpose. 

Sewre, is the number of points set up. 
The following is the most approved 
method of scoring: — 
128456 789 

00 000 
00 000 0000 00 000 



SUm,, is when either party win every 
trick. 

Tenttce, is possessing the first and 
third best cards, and being the last 
player, you consequently catch the 
adversary when that suit is played; as, 
for instance, in case you have ace and 
queen of any suit, and your adversary 
leads that suit, you must win two 
tricks, by having the best and third 
best of the suit played, and being the 
last player. 

Terce, is three successive cards in 
any suit. 

Terce Ma^or, is a sequence of ace, 
king, and queen. 

2084. RnUES. — 1. Lead from your 
strong suit, and be cautious how yon 
change suits ; and keep a commandiDg 
card to bring it in again. 

2. Lead through the strong suit and 
up to the weak, but not in trumps, 
unless very strong in them. 

8. Lead the highest of a sequence; 
but if you have a quart or cinque to a 
king, lead the lowest. 

4. Lead through an honour, parti- 
cularly if the game is much agninst 
you. 

5. Lead your best trump, if the ad- 
versaries be eight, and you have no 
honour; but not if you have four 
trumps, unless you have a sequence. 

6. Lead a trump if you have four or 
fivei or a strong baad ; but not if weak. 



2,800 aiLKWOBMB FBODUCB 1 LB. Or 8ILK. 



221 



f . Haying ace, king, and two or 
tliree small cards, lead ace and king, 
if weak in trumps, but a small one if 
strong in them. 

8. If you have the last trump, with 
some winning cards, and one losing 
card only, lead the losing card. 

9. Return your partner's lead, not 
the adyersaries ; and if you have only 
l^iree originally, play the best; but 
you need not return it immediately, 
when you win with a king, queen, or 
knave, and have only small ones, or 
when you hold a good sequence, have a 
strong suit, or have five trumps. 

10. Do not lead from ace queen, or 
ace knave. 

11. Do not lead an ace, imless you 
have a king. 

12. Do not lead a thirteenth card, 
imless trumps be out. 

13. Do not trump a thirteenth card, 
unless you be last player or want the 
lead. 

14. Keep a small card to return your 
jiartner^s lead. 

15. Be cautious in trumping a card 
when strong in trumps, particularly if 
you have a strong suit. 

16. Having only a few small trumps, 
make them when you can. 

17. If your partner refuses to trump 
a suit, of which he knows you have not 
the best, lead your best trump. 

18. When you hold all the remaining 
trumps play one, and then try to put 
the lead in your partner's hand. 

19. Remember how many of each 
suit are out, and what is the best card 
left in each hand. 

20. Never force your partner if you 
are weak in trumps, unless you have a 
renounce, or want the odd trick. 

21. When playing for the odd trick, be 
cautious of lumping out, especially if 
your partner be likely to trump a suit ; 
and make all the tricks you can early, 
and avoid finessing. 

22. If you take a trick, and have a 
sequence, win it with the lowest. 

2085. Laws of Whjst. 
2086. JDtaling. — 1. Ifa card be turned 
up in dealing, the adverse party may 



call a new deal, unless they have been 
the cause; then the dealer has the 
option. 

2. Ifa card be faced in the deal, the 
dealer must deal again, unless it be the 
last deal. 

8. If any one play with twelve cards, 
and the rest have thirteen, the deal to 
stand good, and the player to be 
punished for each revoke ; but, if any 
have fourteen cards, the deal is lost. 

4. The dealer to leave the trump 
card on the table till his turn to play ; 
after which none may ask what csod 
was turned up, only what is trumps. 

5. No person may take up the cards 
while dealing ; if the dealer in that case 
should miss the deal, to deal again, unless 
his partner^s fault ; and if a card be 
turned up in dealing, no new deal, 
imless the partner's fault. 

6. If the dealer put the trump card 
on the rest, with face downwards, 
he is to lose the deal. 

2087. Playing oiU of turn. — 7. If any 
person play out of his turn, the adver- 
sary may call the card played at any 
time, if he do not make him revoke ; or 
if either of the adverse party be to lead^ 
may desire his partner to name the suit, 
which must be played. 

8. If a person supposes he has won 
the trick, and leads again before his 
partner has played, the adversary may 
oblige his partner to win it, if he can. 

9. If a person lead, and his partner 
play before his turn, the adversary's 
partner may do the same. 

10. If the ace, or any other card of a 
suit, be led, and any person play out of 
tiun, whether his partner have any of 
the suit led or not, he is neither to 
trump it nor win it, provided he do not 
revoke. 

2088. Revoking, — 11. Ifa revoke hap- 
pen to be made, the adversary may add 
three to their score, or take three tricks 
from them, or take down three from 
their score ; and, if up, must remain at 
nina 

12. If any person revoke, and, before 
the oards be turned, discover it, the 
advemry may cause the highest or 



222 



A QUIHBV BM taOVUXm liX^Oti XQOI III ▲ flSASON. 



Ipweet of th& suii tod, oor call the card 
thea i^yed at any tiniid^ if it do not 
cause a revoke. 

13. No leyoke to be daimed till the 
tridc be turned and quitted, or the 
party who revoked, or bis partner, have 
{dayed again. 

14. If any persoa claim a revoke, the 
adverse party ajre not to mix thnr 
cards, upon focfeiting the revoke. 

15. Ko revoke can be daiined after 
the cards are cut for a mew deal 

208d. CaUing hofmu^s.—H, J£ any 
peaTson call, except at tho point of ei^t, 
the adverse party may coniralt, and have 
a new deal. 

17. After the trump card is tuamed 
up, HQ person may ramdad his partaMr 
to call, on penalty of losing one point. 

18. If the trump cacd he turned up, 
no honours can be set up, unless befone 
claimed ; and scoring honours, not hav- 
ing them, to be-soored agayiat tham. 

19. If any person, call aife eight, and be 
answered, and the opposite parties have 
thrown down their cards, and it appear 
they have not their honouirs, they may 
consult, and have a new deal or not. 

2O4 If any person answer without an 
honour, the adversaries may consult and 
stand the deal or not. 

21. If any person call at eight, after 
he has played, the adversaries may ealla 
new deal 

2090. S^arcUing and Showioig the 
Cards. — 22. If any person sepaxate a 
card from the rest^ the adverseparty may 
call it if he name it ; but, if he call a 
wrong card, he or his partner are liable , 
for once, to have the highest or lowest 
card called in any suit led during that 
deal. 

23. If any person throw his cards on 
the table, supposing the game los^ he 
may not take them up^ and the adver- 
saries may call them^ provided he do 
not revoke. 

24. If any person be sure of winning 
every trick in his hand, he may show 
his cards, but is liable to have them: 
called. 

2091. OiMiUmgtopU»ytoaTrit^'^%6. 
If any paiHon omit to p]«gr.V> a triok, 



and it appear he has one sard mopethjm 
the rest, it shall be at the option of the 
adversary to ha^e a neiw deaL • 

2092. Respecting who piayed a Par 
tictUar Oamd. — 26k Baoh person oa^t 
to lay his card before ham; andifeitiier 
of the adversaries mix their cards with 
his, his partner may demand each per- 
son to lay his card before him, but not 
to inquire who played any particular 
card. 

These laws are agreed to by the beat 
judges. 

2098. HAxmB for whist. 

2094. Lecbdir.^l, Begin with the 
suit of whidL you ha^e most in number ; 
for, when the trumps are out, you will, 
probably, mako'sevvral ixickB by it. 

2. If you hold equal numbers* in dif- 
ferent suits, begin with the strongest, 
because it is the least liable to injure 
yonr partner. 

8. Seqitenoea are always eUgiUe leads, 
as supporting your partner without in- 
juring your own hand. 

4. Lead &om a king or queen, rather 
thanfirom an ace ; for, since the adver- 
saries will lead from tiioae suits whiefa 
you do not, your aoe wiU do them most 
harm. 

5. Lead from a king raider than a 
queen, and^flrom aqueen rather than firam 
a knave; for the stronger the suit» the 
less is your partner endangered. 

6. Lead not from aoe queen, or aoe 
knanre, tiU neo oooa iy ; for, if thirt suit be 
■led by the adversaries, you have a good 
chance of malong two trioks in it. 

7. In all sequences to a> queen, knave, 
or ten, begin with the highest, because 
it willfirequoitly distress your left-hand 
advenary. 

8. Having ace, king, and knave, lead 
the king ; for, if strong in trumps, you 
may wait the return of this suity and 
foiQoao-th0' knaTei 

9. Haring> aee, queenj and- one onall 
card, lead 3ie snudl one^; for, by this 
lead, your partner has a chanoe to make 
the knave. 

10. Having aoe, king, and two or 
threeemall cards, play aoe aad^kiBg^ if 

bat a small oiml; i£ atvong io 



▲ CQW JISU» 163 £98. OJT B9TX9B 9E& AJ{]7J9lf. 



228 



trumps, you may give your partner tU 
chance of making the first trick. 

11. Having king, queen, and one 
am^l card, play the small one ,* for 
your partner has an equal chance to 
vidn, and you i^ed not fear to make 
king or queen. 

12. Having king, qujden, and two or 
tlyree small cards, lead a small card, if 
strong, and the king if weak in trumps ; 
for strength in trumps entitles you to 
p]^7 a backward gamie, and give your 
partner a chance of winning the first 
trick ; but, if weak in ixumps, lead the 
liin^ or queen* to secure a trick in that 
suit. 

13.. Having an ace, with four small 
cards, and no other good suit, play a 
small caiHi, if strong in trumps, and the 
aee if wei^ ; for strength in trumps 
may enable you to msuce one or two 
of the small cards, although your part- 
ner cannot support the lead. 

14. Having kin^, knave, and ten, 
lead the ten ; for, if your partner hold 
the ace, you have a good chance to 
make three tricks, whel^ei he paas the 
ten or not. 

15. Having king, queen, and ten, 
lead the king ; for, if it fail, by putting 
on the ten, upon the return of that 
suit from your partner, you have a 
chance of making two tricks. 

16. Having queen, knave, and nine, 
lead the queen ; for, upon the return 
of that suit from your partner, by 
putting on the nine, you will, probably, 
make the knave. 

2095. Second Hamd. — L Having 
ace, king, and small ones, play a small 
card, if strong in trumps, but the king 
if weak in them j for, otherwise, your 
ace or king might be trumped, in the 
lattor case, and no hazards should be 
run with few trumps but in critical cases. 

2. Having ace, queen, and small cai'ds, 
pls^ a small one, for« upon the return 
of that auit^ you will, probably, make 
imo tricks. 

8. Having ace, kniw^ and small 
cards, play a small one, for, upon the 
iietum of that anil^ you. wiU, perhaps, 
iaa)g9 two tricks* 



4. Having ace, ten, or nine> with 
small cards, play a small one, for, by 
this method, you have a ch^mce of 
making two laricks.in the suit. 

5. Having king^ queen, ten^ aad 
small cards, play the queen ; for, by 
playing the ten upon the return oi the 
suit, you will, probajjly, make two 
tricks in it. 

6. Having |king, queen, and small 
cards, play a smaJl card if strong in 
trumps, but the queen if weak in them ; 
for strength in trumps warrants play- 
ing a backward game, and it is always 
advantageous to keep back your adver- 
saries' suit. 

7. If you hold a sequence to your 
highest card in the suit, play the 
lowest of it, for, by this means, your 
partner wUl be informed of your 
strength. 

8. Having queen, knave, and small 
ones, play the knave, because you wUl, 
probably, secure a trick. 

9. Having queen, ten, and small ones,, 
play a small one, for your partiior hafr 
an equal chance to win. 

10. Having either ace, king, queen,, 
or knave, with small cards, play a 
small one, for your partner has.an,equal 
chance to win the trick. 

11. Having either ace, king, queeiv 
or knave, with one small card only, 
play the small one, for, otherwise, your 
adversary will finesse upon you. 

12. If a queen be led,, and you hold 
the king, put that on, for if your partr 
ner hold the ace, you do no harm; and, 
if the king be taken, the adversaries 
have played two honours to one. 

14. If a king be led, and you hold 
ace, knave, and small ones, play the 
ace, for it cannot do the adversary a 
gr^er ii^ury. 

2096. Third Hand,—\* Having ace 
and king, play the aee and retqm the 
king, because you should not keep the 
command of your partner's atron|( 
suifc. 

2. Hayix;^ ace and queen, play, the 
aoei, and return the queen ; for, 
although it may prove better in some 
ca^es. to p^t on the qaeex^ ypt, in gene* 



224 



IT WOULD TAKE 27,600 SPIDERS TO PRODUCE 1 LB. OF WEB. 



ral, your partner is best supported by 
this method. 

3. Having ace and knave, play the 
ace and return the knave, in order to 
strengthen your partner's hand. 

4. Having king and knave, play the 
king ; and, if it win, return tibe knave, 
for the reason in No. 3. 

6. Always play the best when your 
partner plays a small card, as it best 
supports your partner. 

6. . If you hold the ace and one small 
card only, and your partner lead the 
king, put on the ace, and return the 
small one; for, otherwise, your ace 
will be an obstruction to his suit. 

7. If you hold the king and one 
small card only, and your partner lead 
the ace, if the trumps be out, play the 
king ; for, by putting on the king, 
there will be no obstruction to the 
suit. 

2097. Fourth Hand. —1. If a king 
be led, and you hold ace, knave, and a 
small card, play the small one; for, 
supposing the queen to follow, you 
probably make both ace and knave. 

2. When the third hand is weak in 
his partner's lead, you may often 
return that suit to great advantage; 
but this rule must not be applied to 
trumps, unless you are very strong 
indeed. 

2098. Cases in which you should 
return your partnei^s lead immediately. 
— 1. When you win with the ace and 
can return an honour, for that will 
greatly strengthen his hand. 

2. When he leads a trump, in which 
case,, return the best remaining in your 
hand (imless you held four oiiginally), 
except the lead be through an honour. 

3. When your partner has trumped 
out ; for then it j^ evident he wants to 
make his great siilt. 

4. When you have no good card in 
any other suit ; for then you entirely 
depend on your partner. 

2099. Cases in which you shotUd not 
retv/m your pawner's lead immediately. 
— ^1. If you win with the king, queen, 
or knave, and have only smsbU cards 
left ; for the return of a small card will 



more distress than strengthen your 
partner. 

2. If you hold a good sequence ; for 
then you may show a strong suit, amd 
not injure his hand. 

3. If you have a strong suit ; because 
leading from a strong suit directs your 
partner, and cannot injure him. 

4. If you have a good hand ; for, in 
this case, you ought to consult your 
own hand. • 

6. If you hold five trumps ; for then 
you are warranted to play tinimps, if 
you think it right. 

2100. Leading Trumps. — 1. Lead 
trumps from a strong hand, but never 
from a weak one, by which means you 
will secure your good cards from being 
trumped. 

2. Tnmip not out with a bad hand, 
although you hold five small trumps ; 
for, since your cards are bad, it is only 
trumping for the adversaries'. good ones. 

3. Having ace, king, knave, and 
three small trumps, play ace and king ; 
for the probability of the queen's 
falling is in your favour. 

4. Having ace, king, knave, and one 
or two small trumps, play the king, 
and wait the return from your partner 
to put on the knave, in order to win 
the queen; but> if you particularly 
wish the trumps out, play two rounds, 
and then your strong suit. 

6. Having ace, king, and two or three 
small trumps, lead a small one ; this is 
to let your partner win the firet trick ; 
but, if you have good reason for getting 
out the trumps, play three rounds, or 
play ace and kmg, and then proceed 
with your strong suit. 

6. If your adversaries be eight, and 
you do not hold an honour, throw off 
your best trump, for, if your partner 
has not two honours, you have lost the 
game : and, if he hol(& two honours, it 
is most advantageous to lead a trump. 

7. Having ace, queen, knave, and 
small trumps, play the knave ; for, by 
this means, the long only can mak« 
against yoiL 

8. Having ace, queen, ten, and one 
or two small trumps, lead a small one, 



ALE VaVD AS A BEYSRAGB 404 TEABS B.O. 



225 



for it will give your partner a chance 
to win the trick, and keep the command 
in your own hand. 

9. Having king, queen, ten, and 
small trumps, lead the king ; for, if the 
king be lost, upon the return of trumps, 
you may finesse the ten. 

10. Having king, knave, ten, and 
small ones, lead die knave, because it 
will prevent the adversaries from 
making a small trump. 

11. Having queen, knave, nine, and 
small trumps, lead the queen; for, if 
your partner hold the ace, you have a 
good chance of making the whole suit. 

12. Having queen, knave, and two or 
three small trumps, lead the queen, for 
the reason in No. 11, 

13. Having knave, ten, eight, and 
small trumps, lead the knave ; for, on 
the return of tiiimps, you, probably, 
may finesse the eight to advantage. 

14. Having knave, ten, and three 
small trumps, lead the knave, because 
it will most distress your adversaries, 
unless two honours are held on your 
right hand ; the odds against which are 
about three to one. 

15. Having only small trumps, play 
the highest ; by which you will support 
your partner all you can. 

16. Having a sequence, begin witii 
the highest; by this means, your 
partner is best instructed how to play 
hia hand, and cannot possibly be 
injured. 

17. If any honour be turned up on 
your left, and the game much against 
you, lead a tnmip the first opportunity ; 
for, your game being desperately bad, 
this method is the most likely to 
retrieve it. 

18. In all other cases it is dangerous 
leading through an honour, imless you 
he strong in trumps, or have a good 
hand; because all the advantage of 
trumping through an honour lies in 
your partner's Messing. 

19. Supposing it hereafter proper to 
lead trumps, when an honour is turned 
up on your left, you, holding only one 
honour, with a small trump, play the 



honour, and next the small one ; 
because it will greatly strengthen your 
partner s hand, and cannot hurt your 
own. 

20. If an honour be turned up on 
the left, and you hold a sequence, lead 
the highest of it, because it will prevent 
the last hand from injuring your 
partner. 

21. If a queen be turned up on the 
left, and you hold ace, king, and a 
small one, lead the small trump, 
because you will have a chance of 
getting the queen. 

22. If a queen be turned up on the 
left, and you hold a knave, with small 
ones, lead the knave ; for the knave 
cannot be of service, as the queen is 
on your left. 

23. If an honour be turned up by 
your partner, and you strong in trumps, 
lead a small one ; but, if w^ik in them, 
lead the best you have ; by this play 
the weakest hand will support the 
strongest. 

24. If an ace be turned up on the 
right, you holding king; queen, and 
knave, lead the knave : a secure lead. 

25. If an ace be turned up on the 
right, and you hold king, queen, and 
ten, lead the king, and upon the return 
of trumps play the ten ; for, by this 
means, you show a great starength 
to your partner, and will, probably 
make two tricks in them. 

26. If a king be turned up on the 
right, and you hold queen^ knave, and 
nine, lead knave, and, upon the return 
of trumps, play the nine, because it 
may prevent the ten from making. 

27. If a king be turned up on your 
right, and you hold knave, ten, and 
nine, lead the nine, and, upon the 
i*etum of trumps, play the ten ; because 
this method will best 'cUsclose your 
strength in trumps. 

28. If a queen be turned up on the 
right, and you hold ace, king, and 
knave, lead the king, and, upon the 
return of trumps, play the knave, 
because you are then certam to make 
the knave. 



226 



ALUM FIBST DI8COTEBED A.D. 1300. 



29. If a queen be turned up on the 
right, and you hold ace, king, and small 
ones, lead the king; and, upon the 
return of trumps, you may finesse, 
unless the queen falls, for otherwise, 
the queen will make a trick. 

30. If a knave be turned up on the 
right, and you hold king, queen, and 
ten, lead the queen, and, upon the 
i^tum of trumps, play the ten ; for, by 
this means, you wUl make the ten. 

31. If a knave be turned up on the 
right, and you hold king, queen, and 
small ones, lead the king ; and, if that 
come home, play a small one, for it is 
probable your partner holds the ace. 

32. If a knave be turned up on the 
right, and you hold king and ten or 
queen and ten, with two small cards, 
lead a small one; and, upon the 
return of trumps play the ten, for it is 
five to four that your partner holds one 
honour. 

2101. TFAero you tv/m up cm Honour. 
— 1. If you turn up an ace, and hold 
only one small trump with it, if either 
adversary lead the king, put on the 
ace. 

2. But, if you turn up an ace, and 
hold two or three small trumps with it, 
and either adversary lead the king, put 
on a small one ; for, if you play the ace, 
you give up the command in trumps. 

3. If you turn up the king, and hold 
only one small trump with it, and your 
right hand adversary lead a trump, 
play the king. 

4. If you turn up a king, and hold 
two or three small trumps with it, if 
your right hand adversary lead a trump, 
play a small one. 

6: If you turn up a queen or knave, 
and hold, besides, only small trumps, 
if your right hand adversary lead a 
trump, put on a small one. 

6. If you hold a sequence to the 
honour turned up, play it last. 

2102. Playing for the Odd Trick.— 1. 
Be cautious of trumping out, notwith- 
standing you have a good hand. 

2. Never trump out, if your partner 
appears likely to trump a suit. 



3. If you are moderately strong in 
trumps, force your partner, for by this 
you probably make a trick. 

4. Make your tricks early, and be 
cautious of finessing. 

6. If you hold a single card of any 
suit, and only two or three small 
trumps, lead the single card. 
2103. Calculations. 

1. It is about five to four that yoni 
partner holds one card out of any two. 

2. It is about five to two that he 
holds one card out of three. 

3. It is about four to one that he 
holds one card out of any four. 

4. It is two to one that he does 
not hold a certain card. 

5. It is about three to one that he 
does not hold two cards out of any 
three. 

6. It is about three to two that he 
does not hold two cards out of any 
four. 

2104. CRIBBAGE. — The game of 
Cribbage differs from all other games 
by its immense variety of chances. It 
is reckoned useful to young people in 
the science of calculation. It is played 
with the whole pack of cards, generally 
by two persons, and sometimes by 
four. There are also five different 
modes of playing — that is, with five, 
six, or eight cards ; but the games are 
principally those with five and six cards. 
The rules vary a little in different com- 
panies, but the following are those 
most generally observed : — 

2105. Terms ubbd in Cribbage.— 
CHh. The cards thrown away by each 
party, and the dealer is entitled to 
score whatever points are made by 
them. 

Pairs are two similar cards, as two 
aces or two kings. Whether in hand 
or playing they reckon for two points. 

Pairs RoyaiL are three similar carda, 
and reckon for six points, whether b 
hand or playing. 

Double Pairs Royal are four aimilar 
cards, and reckon for twelve pointa, 
whether in hand or playing. The 
points gained by pairs, pairs royal, and 



AUOTIONS OOMMBNCBD IN BBITAIN A.D. 1779. 



227 



double pairs royal, in playing, are thus 
effected : — Tour adversary having 
played a seyen and you another, con- 
stitutes a pair, and entitles you to 
score two points ; your antagonist then 
playing a third seven, mi^es a pair 
royal, and he marks six ; and your 
playing a fourth is a double pair royal, 
and entitles you to twelve points. 

FifteenB. Eyery fifteen reckons for 
two points, whether in hand or playing. 
In hand they are formed either by two 
cords, such as a five and any tenth 
card, a six and a nine, a seven and an 
eight, or by three cards, as a two, a five, 
and an eight, &c. And in playing thus, 
if such cardB are played as make to- 
gether fifteen, the two points are to be 
scored towards the game. 

Sequences are three or four more suc- 
cessive cards, and reckon for an equal 
number of points, either in hand or 
play. In playing a sequence, it is of 
no consequence which card is thrown 
down first; as thus: your adversary 
playing an ace, you a five, he a three, 
you a two, tlxen he a four, he counts 
five for the sequence. 

Fhuh, When the cards are all of one 
suit, they reckon for as many points as 
there are cards. For a flush in the 
crib, the card turned up must be of the 
same suit as those put out in the crib. 

Noddy. The knave of the suit turned 
up reckons for one point; if a knave 
be turned up^ the dealer is to mark 
two ; but it cannot be reckoned again ; 
and when played it does not score any- 
thing. 

End HoU. The point scored by the 
last player, if he makes under thirty- 
one ; if he makes thirty-one exactly, 
he is to mark two. To obtain either of 
these is considered a great advantage. 

LoiU Three points taken at the com- 
mencement of the game of five-card 
cribbage by the non-dealer. 

2106. Rules op Cribbage. — 1. The 
adverse parties cut the cards to deter- 
mine who shall be dealer ; the lowest 
card has it. The ace is the lowest. 
2. In dealing, the dealer may dis- 



cover his own cards but not those of 
his adversary — who may mark two, 
and call a fresh deal. 

8. Should too many cards be dealt 
to either, the non-dealer may score two, 
and demand another deal, if the error 
be detected previous to taking up 
the cards ; if he do not wish a new 
deal, the extra cards must be drawn 
away ; when any player has more thaii 
the propeif number of cards in hand, 
the opponent may score four, and call 
a new deal. 

4. If any player meddle with the 
pack after dealing, till the period of 
cutting it for the turn-up card, then 
his opponent may score two points. 

5. If any player take more than he 
is entitled to, the other party should 
not only put him back as many points 
as are overscored, but likewise take the 
same extra number for his own game. 

6. Should either party even meddle 
with his own pegs unnecessarily, the 
opponent may score two points ; and if 
any one take out his front peg, he must 
place the same back behind the other. 
If any be misplaced by accident^ a by- 
stander may replace the same, accord- 
ing to the best of his judgment; but 
he should never otherwise interfere. 

7. If any player neglect to set up 
what he is entitled to, the adversary 
is allowed to take the points so omitted. 

8. Each player may place lus own 
cards, when done with, upon the pack. 

9. In five-card cribbage, the cards 
are to be dealt one by one ; but when 
played with six cards, then it is cus- 
tomary to give three, and if with eight 
cards, four ^t a time. 

10. The non-dealer, at the com- 
mencement of the game, in five- 
cai*d cribbage, scores three points, 
called tkne for last; but in six and 
eight-card cribbage this is not to be 
done. 

11. In what is called the Bath game, 
they reckon flushes upon the board; 
that is, when three cards of the same 
suit are played successively, the party 
playing the third scores three pointo ; 



228 



PUBLICATION OF BANZ7S OF MABRIAOE COMMENCED A.D. 1210. 



if the adyersaiy play a fourth of the 
same suit, then he is to score four, and 
so on for four, five, six, or as long as 
the same suit continues to be played in 
uninterrupted succession, and that the 
whole number of pips do not reckon 
thirty-one. 

2107. FlVB-CARD Crebbage. — It is 
unnecessary to describe cribbageboards; 
the sixty-one points or holes marked 
thereon make the game. * We have 
before said, that the party cutting 
the lowest card deals ; after which, 
each player is first to lay out two of 
the five cards for the crib, which 
always belongs to the dealer ; next, 
the adversary is to cut the remainder 
of the pack, and the dealer to turn 
up and lay upon the crib the uppermost 
card, for which, if a knave, he is to 
mark two points. The card turned up 
is to be reckoned by both parties, 
whether in showing their hands or crib. 
After laying-out and cuttmg as above- 
mentioned, the eldest hand is to play a 
card, which the other should endeavour 
to pair, or find one, the pips of which, 
reckoned with the firsts will make fif- 
teen ; then the non-dealer must play 
another card, and try to make a pair, 
pair-royal, sequence, flush (where 
allowed of) or fifteen, provided the cards 
already played have not exceeded that 
number; and so on alternately, imtil 
the pips on the cards played make 
thirty-one, or the nearest possible num- 
ber under that. 

When the party, whose turn it may 
be to play, cannot produce a card that 
will make thirty-one, or come under 
that number he is then to say Qo to his 
antagonist, who, thereupon, will be en- 
titled to score one, or must play any 
card or cards he may have that will 
make thirty-one, or under ; and if he 
can make exactly thirty-one, he is to 
take two points ; if not, one ; the last 
player has often opportunity this way 
to make pairs or sequences. Such 
cards as remain after this are not to be 
played; but each party having, during 
the play, scored his points gained, in the 



manner before directed, must proceed ; 
the non-dealer first to count and take 
for his hand, then the dealer for his 
hand, and also for his crib, reckoning 
the cards every way they can possibly 
be varied, and always including the 
tumed-up-card. Points 

For every fifteen 2 

Pair, or two of a sort .... 2 
Pair-royal, or three ofa sort . . 6 
Double pair-royal, or four ditto 12 
Knave of the tumed-up suit. . 1 
Sequences and flushes whatever num- 
ber. 

2108. Maxims fob latinq out the 
Crib Cards. — It is always requisite in 
laying out cards for the crib, that every 
player should consider not only his own 
hand, but also to whom the crib be- 
longs, as well as the state of the game; 
for what might be proper in one situar 
tion would be highly imprudent in 
another. When any player possesses a 
pair-royal, it is generally advisable to 
lay out the other cards, for crib, unless 
it belongs to the adversary, and they 
consist of two fives, a deuce and a 
trois, five and dx, seven and eighty five 
and any other tenth card, or that the 
game be almost finished. A player, 
when he does not thereby materially 
injure his hand, should for his own 
crib, lay out close cards, in hope of 
ma^ng a sequence, or two of a suit, in 
expectation of a flush ; or any that of 
themselves amount to fifteen, or such 
as reckoned with others will make that 
number, except when the antagonist be 
nearly up, and it may be expedient to 
keep such cards that probably may pre- 
vent him from gaining at play. The 
direct contrary method should be par- 
sued in respect to the adversary's crib, 
which each person should endeavoar 
to baulk, by laying out those cards that 
are not likely to prove to advantage, 
unless at such a stage of the game, 
when it may be of consequence to keep 
in hand cards likely to tell in play, or 
when the non-dealer would be either 
out by his hand, or has reason for 
judging the crib of little moment. A 



BILK FIRST BBOUOHT FBOK INDIA A.D. 274. 



229 



king is the best card to baulk a crib, 
as none can form a sequence beyond it, 
except in some companies, where king, 
queen, ace, are allowed as a sequence ; 
and either a king or queen, with an ace, 
six, seven, eight, or nine, are good ones 
to put out. Low cards are generally 
the most likely to gain at play ; the 
flushes and sequences, particularly if 
the latter be also flushes, are, the most 
part^ eligible hands, as thereby the 
player will often be enabled either to 
assist his own crib, or baulk that of the 
opponent, to whom a knaye should 
never be given, if with propriety it can 
be retained. 

2109. Three or Foub-hai^d Cbib- 
BAGE. — ^Differs only from the preced- 
ing, as the parties put out but one card 
each to the crib, and when thirty- 
one, or near as can be, has been made, 
then the next eldest hand leads, and 
the playera go on again in rotation, 
with any remaining cards, tiU all are 
played out before they proceed to show. 
For three-haud cribbage triangular 
boards are used. 

A sort of three-hand cribbage is some- 
times played, wherein one person sits 
out, not each game, but each deal in 
rotation. In this the first dealer gene- 
rally wins. 

The chances in this game are often so 
great that even between skilful game- 
sters, it is possible, at five-card cribbage, 
when the adversary is fifty-six, for a 
lucky player, who had not previously 
made a single hole, to be more than up 
in two deals, his opponent getting no 
further than sixty in that time ; and in 
four-hand cribbage a case may occur, 
wherein none of the parties hold a single 
point in hand, and yet the dealer and 
his friend, with the assistance of a knave 
turned up, may make sixty-one by play 
' in one deal, while the adversaries only 
get twenty-four ; and although this may 
not happen for many years, yet similar 
games may now and then be met with. 
2110. Six-Card Cribbage, varies from 
that played with five, as the players 
(always only two) commence on an 



equality, without scoring any points 
for the last, retain four cards in hand, 
and all the cards are to be played out, 
as in three and four-hand cribbage, with 
five cards. At this game it is of ad- 
vantage to the last player to keep as 
close as possible, in hopes of coming in 
for fifteen, a sequence, or pair, besides 
the end hole, or thirty-one. The first 
dealer is reckoned to have some trifling 
advantage, and each player may, on the 
average, expect to make twenty-five 
points in every two deals. The first 
non-dealer is considered to have the 
preference, when he gains ten or more 
the first hand, the dealer not making 
more than his average number. 

Twenty-nine is the greatest possible 
number that can be gained by the show 
of any hand or crib, either in five or 
six-card cribbage; it is composed of 
three fives and a knave, with a fourth 
five, of the same suit as the knave turned 
up ; this very seldom happens ; but 
twenty-four is an imcommon number, 
and may be formed of four threes and a 
nine, or two fours, one five, and two 
sixes ; and some other combinations 
that experience will point out. 

2111. Eight-Card Cribbage, is some- 
times played, but very seldom. 

Some ingenious people, in London, 
invented a game of chance, they styled 
playing at cribbage by hackney-coaches ; 
that is, two persons placed themselves 
at a window in some great thorough- 
fare street, one would take all the 
coaches from the right, the other from 
the left; the figures on the doors of the 
carriages were reckoned as cards in show, 
and every person that happened to sit, 
stand, or hold at the back of any of them, 
was called a noddy, and scored one. 
2112. Odds op the Game. 

The average number estimated to be 
held from the cards in hand is rather 
more than four, and under five ; to be 
gained in play ; two for the dealer, and 
one for the adversary, making in all an 
avei*age of six throughout the game ; 
the probability of the crib is five ; so 
that each player ought to make sixteen 



230 



wnrn fbbst madb ih bkitaiv a.d. ^6. 



in two deaLi : by which it will appear 
the dealer has somewhat the adyan- 
tage, supposing the cards to mn equal, 
and the players well matched. By 
attending to this calculation, any per- 
son may judge whether he be at home 
or not, and thereby play his game 
accordingly : either making a grand 
push when he is behind and holds 
good cards, or endeayouring to baulk 
his adyersary when his hand proyes 
indifferent. 



2118. ALL-FOURS is usually played 
by two persons ; not unfrequently by 
four. Its name is deiiyed from the 
four chances, called high, low, JatSc, 
gcrnie, each making a point. A com- 
plete pack of cards must be proyided, 
six of which are to be dealt to each 
party, three at a time ; and the next 
card, the thirteenth, is to be turned up 
for the trump by the dealer, who, if it 
proye a knaye, is to score one point. 
The party who cuts the highest card is 
to deal first. The cards rank in the 
same manner as at whist, for whoeyer 
scores the first ten points wins. 

2114. Laws of All-fours. — 1. A 
new deal can be demandtad, if in deal- 
ing the dealer discoyers any of the 
adversary's cards ; if, to either party, 
too many cards hayebeen dealt; in the 
latter case, it is optional \\*ith the 
parties, proyided it be done before a 
card has been played, but not after, 
to draw from the opposing hand the 
extra card. 

2. If the dealer expose any of his 
own cards, the deal is to stand good. 

8. No person can beg more than 
once in each hand, except by mutual 
agreement. 

4. Each party must trump or fol- 
low suit if they can, on x)enalty of 
the adyersary scoring one point. 

6. If either player score wrong, it 
must be taken down, and the adyersary 
shall either score four points or one, 
aa may hare preyiously been agreed. 

0. When a trump be played, it is 



allowable to ask liie adTemiy if it be 
either high or low. 

7. One card may count aH^fonrs ; for 
example, the eldest hand holds the 
knaye and stands his game, the dealer 
has neither trump, ten, ace, nor court- 
card, it will follow that the knave wHl 
be both high, low. Jack, and game, as 
explained by 

2115. TxBMB Used nr All-fottbs.— 
High, The hi^est trump out, the 
holder to score one point. 

Low, The lowest trump ourt^ the 
original holder to score one point, 
eyen if it be taken by the adversary. 

Jack, The knave of trumps, the 
holder to score one, unless it be won 
by the adversary, in that case the 
winner is to score the point. 

Game, The greatest number that, in 
the trick gained, can be shown by 
either party; reckoning- 



One for a knave. 
Ten for a ten. 



Fou/r for an ace. 

Three for a king. 

Two for a queen. 

The other cards do not count, l^us 
it may happen that a deal may be 
played without having any to reckon 
for game. 

Begging is when the eldest hand, 
disliking his cards, uses his privilege, 
and says, " / heg ; '* in which case, the 
dealer must either suffer his adversary 
to score one point, saying " ioke one," 
or give each three -cards more from the 
pack, and then turn up the next card, 
the seventh, for trumps ; i^ howerer, 
the trump turned up be of the same 
suit as the first, the dealer must go on, 
giving each three cards more, and 
turning up the seventh, until a 
change of suit for trumps shall take 
place. 

2116. Maxhib. — 1. Always make your 
knave as soon as you can. 

2. Striye to secure your tens : tJus is 
to be done by playing any small cards, 
by which you may throw the lead into 
your adversary's hand. 

8. Win yo\n- adversary's best cards 
when you can, either by trumping or 
with superior cards. 



OLAflB FIBBT BBODOBS iM> BSOLAITD ▲.D. 663. 



4. If, beiag eldest hamd, you hold 
either ace, king, or queen of tramps, 
without the knave or ten, play them 
immediately, as, by this means, you 
hxve a cbance to win the kna^e or ten. 



2117. DOMINO.— This game ia i^yed 
by two or fonr persons, with twenty- 
eight pieoes of oblong ivory, plain at 
the back, but on the face divided by a 
black line in the middle, and indented 
with spots, from one to a double-six, 
whi<dL pieces are a double-blank, ace- 
blank, double-ace, deuoe-blank, deuoe- 
aoe, dkmble-deuoe, trois-blank, lTOi»«ee, 
trois-deuce, double-trois, four*blank, 
four-aoe, four-deuce, fou]>troifi, double- 
four, five-blank, five-ace, five-deuce, five- 
trois, five-four, double-five, six-bkmk, 
aix-ace, six-deuce, siz-trois, siK-four, six- 
five, and doable-six. Sometimes a double 
set is played with, of whi<^ double- 
twelve is the highest. 

At the commencement of the game, 
the dominoes are well mixed together 
with their fsMses upon the table. Each 
person draws one, and if four play, 
those who choose the two highest are 
partners, ag^ainst those who take the 
two lowest ; drawing the latter also 
serves to determine who is to lay down 
the first piece, which in reckoned a 
great advantage. Afterwards each 
player takes seven pieces at zandom. 
The eldest hand having laid down one, 
the next must pair him at eitiier end of 
the piece he may choose, according to 
the number of pips, or the blank in the 
compartment of the piece ; but when- 
ever any one cannot match the part, 
either of the domino last put down, or 
of that unpaired at the other end of the 
row, then he says go ; and the next is 
at liberty to play. Thus they play 
alternate^, either until one party has 
played all his pieces, and thereby won 
the game, or tUl the game be blid^ ; 
that is, when neither party can play, by 
matching the pieoes where unpaired at 
«H)her eoid ; then that party wins who 
has the smallest number of pips on the 
pieees zemaiaing in their poaseanion. It 



is to the advantage of every player to 
dispossess himself as early as possible 
of the heavy pieces, such as a double- 
six, five, four, ftc. 

Sometimes, when two persons i^y, 
they take each only seven pieces, and 
agree to pla^ or draw, i» e., when one 
cannot come in, or pair the pieces upon 
the board at tiie end unmatdied, he 
then is to draw from the fourteen pieces 
in stock till he find one to suit. 

This game requires strict attention, 
and nothing but practice will make a 
skilful player. 

2118. LOO. — Loo, or lue, is subdi- 
vided into limited and unlimited loo, is 
a game, the complete knowledge of 
which can easily be acquired; it is 
played two ways, both with five and 
three cards, though most commonly 
with five, dealt from a whole pack, 
either first three and then two, or by 
one at a time. Several persons may 
play together, but the greatest numbcnr 
can be admitted when witii three cards 
only. 

After five cards have been given to 
each player anotiier is turned up for 
trump ; ^e knave of clubs generally, 
or sometimes the knave of the trump 
suit, as agreed upon, is the highestoar^ 
and is styled pam ; the tice of trumps 
is next in value, and the rest in succes- 
sion, as at whist. Each player has "die 
liberty of changing for others, from the 
pack, all of any of the five cards dealt, 
or of throwing up the hand, in order to 
escape being looed. Those who play 
their cards, either with or without 
dianging, and do not gain a trick, are 
looed; as is likewise the case with all 
who have stood the game, when a tush 
or flushes occur; and each, exoeptiiig 
any player holding pam, of an inferior 
flusl^ is required to deposit a stake, to 
be given to the person who sweeps the 
boud, or divided among the wianeri at 
the ensuing deal, according to the trills 
which may then be made. For inslaBoe, 
if every oneatdealingstakeshal f a c nmn , 
i^ tricki are entiiled to sispeiiee a- 



282 



PAFXB HADB OF COTTON BAM A.D. 1000. 



piece, and whoever is looed must put 
down half-a-crown, exclusive of the 
deal ; sometimes it is settled that each 
person looed shall pay a sum equal to 
what happens to be on the table at the 
time. Five cards of a suit, or fourwith 
pam, compose a flush, which sweeps the 
boanl, and yields only to a superior 
flush, or the elder hand. When the 
ace of trumps is led, it is usual to say, 
**Pam, be civU;" the holder of which 
last-mentioned card is then expected to 
let the ace pass. 

When loo is played with three cards, 
they are dealt by one at a time, pam is 
omitted, and the cards are not ex- 
changed, nor permitted to be thrown 
up. 

2119. PUT.— The game of put is 
played with an entire pack of cards, 
generally by two, but sometimes by 
four persons. At this game the cards 
have a different value from all others. 
The best card in the pack is a troiSf or 
thi'ee ; the next a deuce, or two ; then 
come in rotation, as at other games, 
the ace, king, queen, knave, ten, &c. 
The dealer distributes three cards to 
each player, by one at a time : whoever 
cuts the lowest card has the deal, and 
five points make the game, except when 
both parties say, "/ put" — for then 
the score is at an end, and the contest 
is determined in favour of that party 
who may win two tricks out of three. 
When it happens that each player has 
won a trick, and the third i6 a tie — that 
is, covered by a card of equal value — 
the whole goes for nothing, and the 
game must begin anew. 

2119*. Two-handed Put. — The eldest 
hand should play a card ; and whether 
the adversary pass it, win it, or tie it, 
you have a right either to say, "I put," 
or place your cards on the pack. If 
you accept the first, and your opponent 
decline the challenge, you score one : if 
you prefer the latter, your adversary 
gains a point ; but if, before he play, 
your opponent says, " I put,*' and you 
do not choose to see him, he is entitled 
to add one to his score. It is some- 



times good play to say, '* I put" before 
you play a card : this depends on tlic 
nature of your hand. 

2120. FouRrHANDED PuT. — Each 
party has a partner, and when three 
cardjs are dealt to each, one of the 
players gives his partner his best card, 
and throws the other two away : the 
dealer is at liberty to do the same to 
his partner, and vice versa. The two 
persons who have received their part- 
ners' cards play the game, previously 
discarding their worst card for the one 
they have received from their partners. 
The game then proceeds as at two- 
handed put. 

2121. Laws op Put.— 1. When the 
dealer accidentally discovers any of his 
adversary's cards, the adversary may 
demand a new d^. 

2. When the dealer discovers any of 
his own cards in dealing, he must abide 
by the deal. 

3. When a faced card is discovered 
during the deal, the cards must be re- 
shuffled, and dealt again. 

4. If the dealer gives his adversaiy 
more cards than are necessary, the 
adversary may call afresh deal, or suffer 
the dealer to draw the extra cards from 
his hand. 

5. If the dealer give himself more 
cards than are his due, the adversary 
may add a point to his game, and call a 
fresh deal if he pleases, or draw the 
extra cards from the dealer's hand. 

6. No bystander must interfere, 
under penalty of pa3ring the stakes. 

7. Either party saying, "I put" — 
that is, I play — cannot retract, but must 
abide the event of the game, or pay the 
stakes. . 

2122. SPECULATION is a noisy 
round game, at which several may play, 
using a complete pack of cards, bearing 
the same import as at whist, with fish 
or coimters, on which such a value is 
fixed as the company may agree. The 
highest trump in each deal wins the 
pool ; and whenever it happens that 
not one is dealt, then the company pool 
again, and the event is decided by the 



OUNPOWDBB MADB BT A MONK AT OOLOONB AJ). 1880. 



288 



aucceeding coup. After detennlning 
the deal, Ac,, the dealer pools six fish, 
and every other player four ; then 
three cards are given to each, by one at 
a time, and another turned up for 
trump. The cards are not to be looked 
at except m this manner : The eldest 
hand shows the uppermost card, which, 
if a trump, the company may speculate 
on, or bid for — ^the highest bidder buy- 
ing and paying for it, provided the 
price offered be approved of by the seller. 
After this is settled, if the first card 
does not prove a trump, then the next 
eldest is to show the uppermost card, 
and so on — ^the company speculating as 
they please, till sdl are discovered, 
when the possessor of the highest